Psych 260 quiz4

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In addition to partial paralysis after a stroke, Mr. V showed a loss of

understanding of the long term implications of his stroke

The text author asserts that__have key consequences for survival and reproduction

emotional behaviors

The major components of an emotional response include

behavior, autonomic activity, and hormonal secretions.

The autonomic component of an emotional response functions to

mobilize energy for vigorous movement

Most of the research on emotions has focused on

anger and fear

The emotional components that comprise fear are integrated by neurons within the

Amygdala

Neurons within the amygdala are activated by

detection of emotionally relevant stimuli

Activation of the ___ nucleus of the amygdala elicits an emotional response

central

Behavioral, autonomic and hormonal emotional responses are elicited by activation of the

central nucleus of the amygdala

Infusion of excitatory amino acid glutamate into the central nucleus of the amygdala of a rat would be expected to elicit

behavioral signs of fear

Inactivation of the central amygdaloid nucleus results in

reduced blood levels of stress hormones

Exposure to ___ will automatically produce a fear reaction in most species

loud unexpected noises

Infusion of __ into the central nucleus of the amygdala would be expected to promote fear and agitation

glutamate

An intact __ is required in order for a conditioned emotional response to alter blood pressure

lateral hypothalamus

In experiments by LeDoux and others on classically conditioned emotional responses in rats, the unconditional emotional response is elicited by

foot shock

Rats previously exposed to a tone followed by a brief intense electrical shock will show ___ when subsequently exposed to the tone(without shock).

behavioral arrest

A species-typical defensive response for a rat would include

freezing of motor movements

the expression of emotional responses is inhibited by inputs from the

ventromedial prefrontal cortex

Humans report fear upon electrical stimulation of the

amygdala

A formal definition of aggressive behaviors

includes those behaviors involved in predation

Which of the following is true of threat behaviors

threat behaviors resolve conflicts without hurting the involved organism

The drug __ would be expected to inhibit aggression

fluoxetine(Prozac)

elevated brain levels of the transmitter __ function to inhibit aggression

serotonin

Electrical stimulation of the ventral periaqueductal gray PAG matter in the car can produce

predatory behavior

Electrical stimulation of the DORSAL periaqueductal gray matter in the cat produces

defensive rage behavior

Imagine that all members of your class have been tested to determine the level of serotonin metabolite 5-HIAAA in their cerebrospinal fluid. Which of the following would you predict using this information

Male classmates with low 5-HIAA levels are unlikely to be alive ten years from now

a human male who has a long record of assult, arson, murder, would be expected to show __ levels of __ in his cerebrospinal fluid

reduced; 5-HIAA

The ___ cortical region plays a key role in the analysis of social situations.

ventromedial prefrontal

Phineas Gage, who was injured when a steel rod was accidentally driven through his skull, exhibited capricious, emotional behavior in part as a result of widespread damage to his

ventromedial prefrontal cortex

Recent research suggests that emotions may play the most important role in the formation of

moral judgements

functional imaging studies of the brain during decision-making suggest that personal moral dilemmas strongly activate the

ventromedial prefrontal cortex

a general function of the prefrontal cortex may be to

dampen or inhibit emotional reactions

____ is an example of a personal moral dilemma

throwing another person onto a grenade in order to save a larger group

The combination of inadequate activation of the _____ and enhanced activation of the___ may result in excessive anger that results in harm to other persons.

prefrontal cortex; amygdala

The prefrontal cortex is___ by ___ projection neurons

activated; serotonergic

Impulsive aggression may reflect___, which can be treated with___.

impaired serotonin prefrontal activity; fluoxetine

Aggressive behavior is most strongly related to

reproduction

Aggressiveness is reduced in adult rodents by castration wheras injections of testosterone reinstate adult male rodent aggression. These effects are an example of an ____ hormone effect.

activational

Intermale aggression will be reinstated in castrated male rats after implants of testosterone into the

medial preoptic area

A male mouse housed alone in a cage will readily attack a male mouse placed into the home cage, but will not attack a female mouse, Which of the following is a key factor as to weather the resident male mouse decides to attack or not attack the strange male mouse?

the mouse must be able to detect male pheromones

Intermale aggression is reduced in

mice whose vomeronasal nerves have been surgically damaged

A female given daily injections of ___ for two weeks is more likely than a placebo-treated female to fight with a strange female mouse

testosterone

A female rodent exposed to high levels of testosterone while in the mothers uterus is likely to

show more interfemale aggression as an adult

Prenatal exposure to androgens

increases aggressive behavior in all studied species

Studies of hormone status and antisocial behavior in the US military veterans suggest that higher levels of antisocial activity are noted in

low socioeconomic status men with high testosterone levels.

An example of an environmental effect on testosterone secretion would be when

losing a tennis match results in lowered blood levels of testosterone

The proposition that facial expressions of emotion are innate is supported by the observation that

the same facial expression for an emotion is observed in all cultures

Darwin argued that the expression of emotion in humans

evolved from similar expressions in other animals

A key function of the right hemisphere is

the recognition of emotions

The ability to recognize emotions expressed by others is most likely to be impaired after damage to the

right hemisphere

PET studies indicate that the comprehension of emotion from tone of voice increased the activity of the

right frontal cortex

PET studies indicate that the comprehension of emotion on the basis of word meaning increased the activity of the

left and right frontal cortex

The observation that a person with ____ cannot understand speech but can infer emotion from ___ suggests that word recognition and emotional vocal recognition are independent functions.

pure word deafness; tone of voice

Because the amygdala receives input from cortical and subcortical sources, a person made blind by cortical damage

can recognize facial emotional expression

Damage to the amygdala can impair recognition of ____ but not ___.

facial emotion expression; recognition of emotion using tone of voice.

rapid recognition of facial emotional expression is mediated by signals carried by the ____ system

magnocellular

The emotion of disgust involves activation of neurons within the

insular cortex

People with volitional facial paresis are unable to

voluntarily move facial muscles

With regard to facial emotional expression,

negative emotional expressions are more intensely expressed on the left side of the face

The unique aspect of patient S.P. is that after removal of her right amygdala

she was unable to recognize her own facial emotional expressions

According to the James-Lange theory of emotion, which of the following is most important for the subjective experience of an emotion

sensory feedback from muscles and internal organs

Which of the following results from studies of people with spinal cord injuries supports james-lange theory of emotion?

people who could not feel reactions from most of their bodies reported that they no longer felt intense emotions.

Studies by Ekman and colleauges suggest that

simulated facial emotional expression changes sympathetic activity

Narcolepsy is predominantly a problem involving

an attack of sleep during the day

Which of the following is true of sleep

Humans spend about a third of their life asleep

The various stages of sleep are easily distinguished by

changes in the electrical activity of the brain

The ___ is an instrument used to record electrical potentials from muscles during sleep

electromymogram

The ___ pattern of the EEG activity is characterized by irregular, high-frequency, low voltage waves

beta

The observation that a persons brain shows beta wave activity is not a reliable indicator of being awake because

this brian wave pattern also appears during sleep

The translation between wakefulness and sleep is marked by the appearance of ___ waves in the sleep record

theta

The theta brain wave pattern is characterized by changes in frequency of electrical activity of

3.5-7.5HZ

You are watching a sleep record of a person whose record contains 85% delta wave activity. Your best guess is that this person is

in stage 4 of slow wave sleep

A key aspect of slow-wave sleep is the presence of ____ Hz oscillations comprised of a down state followed by an up state

1.0

___ will occur soon after the appearance of rapid eye movements in the sleep record.

paradoxical sleep

During the ___ state of the slow-wave sleep record, the neurons of the cortex are ___.

down;silent

Another name for sleep stages 3 and 4 is ____ sleep

slow wave

Sleep stages 1-4 are termed ___, whereas stages 3-4 are referred to as___.

non-REM sleep; slow wave sleep

Which of the following is a key characteristic of REM sleep

rapid eye movements

Which of the following is a reason as to why sleep stage 4 is considered to be the deepest sleep stage

only very loud stimuli will awaken a person from stage 4 sleep

Which of the following is a key characteristic of non-REM sleep

various forms of slow wave brain activity

A single cycle of nonREM and REM sleep lasts

about 90 minutes

Which of the following is true of human sleep cycles

as the night goes on the relative length of REM sleep increases in each successive cycle

Humans show which pattern of blood flow and mental activity during REM sleep

Cerebral blood flow is high in the visual association cortex and low in the frontal cortex

The predictable changes in blood flow to the male genitals that occur during ____ can be a useful clinical indicator of ____.

REM sleep; impotence

Which of the following terms belong together

slow wave sleep;moderate muscle tonus

Which of the following represents a mental state that accompanies slow-wave sleep?

nightmares

During REM sleep, there is a high level of activity within the

visual association cortex

About ____ percent of the population experiences insomnia as a persistent problem while ___ percent experiences this on occasion

9; 25

Insomnia is defined

in relation to a persons particular sleep needs

A person who does not feel rested after sleeping a 15 hr night

probably does not need more sleep

Which of the following is true of sleeping medications

sleeping pills can lead to daytime hangovers

chronic sleep deprivation can lead to

obesity and diabetes

A buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood is a characteristic of the sleep disorder known as

sleep apnea

A key symptom of human narcolepsy relates to

sleeping during the day; excessive daytime sleepiness

A person who exhibits sudden paralysis but remains conscious may be suffering from

an episode of cataplexy

A common cause that elicits an episode of cataplexy is

strong emotions or physical exertion

____ refers to the vivid dreams that may occur during sleep paralysis

hypnagogic hallucination

The notion that narcolepsy involves faulty brain regulation of sleep is supported by the observation that

narcoleptics generally enter REM sleep directly from the waking state

In the narcolepsy example given in the text, the dog developed cataplexy while

sniffing food

Human narcolepsy

involves an absence of orexin from CSF in most narcoleptics

A genetic mutation of the hypocretin gene in mice results in

symptoms of narcolepsy

The occurrence of sleep attacks in narcolepsy can be alleviated by drugs that

act as catecholamine agonists

Symptoms of narcolepsy involving REM sleep are effectively treated by drugs that

facilitate both serotonin and catecholamine activity

A key symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder is

a lack of paralysis during REM sleep

The disorder known as _____ shares common attributes with those of narcolepsy

depression

The symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder are opposite to those noted in

cataplexy

An effective treatment for REM sleep behavior is the administration of

the benzodiazepine drug clonazepam

Somnambulism is synonymous with

sleepwalking

The symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder are exaggerated by administration of

antidepressant drugs

A person who experiences the sleep disorder symptom known as pavor nocturnus would be said to be

experiencing a night terror

Weight gain is a common outcome for a person suffering from

sleep-related eating disorder

The pattern of the dolphin is unique in that

sleep and waking occur indepenedently in the two hemispheres

Sleep deprivation in humans results in

perceptual distortions

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