In addition to partial paralysis after a stroke, Mr. V showed a loss of
understanding of the long term implications of his stroke
The text author asserts that__have key consequences for survival and reproduction
The major components of an emotional response include
behavior, autonomic activity, and hormonal secretions.
Behavioral, autonomic and hormonal emotional responses are elicited by activation of the
central nucleus of the amygdala
Infusion of excitatory amino acid glutamate into the central nucleus of the amygdala of a rat would be expected to elicit
behavioral signs of fear
Infusion of __ into the central nucleus of the amygdala would be expected to promote fear and agitation
An intact __ is required in order for a conditioned emotional response to alter blood pressure
In experiments by LeDoux and others on classically conditioned emotional responses in rats, the unconditional emotional response is elicited by
Rats previously exposed to a tone followed by a brief intense electrical shock will show ___ when subsequently exposed to the tone(without shock).
the expression of emotional responses is inhibited by inputs from the
ventromedial prefrontal cortex
Which of the following is true of threat behaviors
threat behaviors resolve conflicts without hurting the involved organism
Electrical stimulation of the ventral periaqueductal gray PAG matter in the car can produce
Electrical stimulation of the DORSAL periaqueductal gray matter in the cat produces
defensive rage behavior
Imagine that all members of your class have been tested to determine the level of serotonin metabolite 5-HIAAA in their cerebrospinal fluid. Which of the following would you predict using this information
Male classmates with low 5-HIAA levels are unlikely to be alive ten years from now
a human male who has a long record of assult, arson, murder, would be expected to show __ levels of __ in his cerebrospinal fluid
The ___ cortical region plays a key role in the analysis of social situations.
Phineas Gage, who was injured when a steel rod was accidentally driven through his skull, exhibited capricious, emotional behavior in part as a result of widespread damage to his
ventromedial prefrontal cortex
Recent research suggests that emotions may play the most important role in the formation of
functional imaging studies of the brain during decision-making suggest that personal moral dilemmas strongly activate the
ventromedial prefrontal cortex
____ is an example of a personal moral dilemma
throwing another person onto a grenade in order to save a larger group
The combination of inadequate activation of the _____ and enhanced activation of the___ may result in excessive anger that results in harm to other persons.
prefrontal cortex; amygdala
Impulsive aggression may reflect___, which can be treated with___.
impaired serotonin prefrontal activity; fluoxetine
Aggressiveness is reduced in adult rodents by castration wheras injections of testosterone reinstate adult male rodent aggression. These effects are an example of an ____ hormone effect.
Intermale aggression will be reinstated in castrated male rats after implants of testosterone into the
medial preoptic area
A male mouse housed alone in a cage will readily attack a male mouse placed into the home cage, but will not attack a female mouse, Which of the following is a key factor as to weather the resident male mouse decides to attack or not attack the strange male mouse?
the mouse must be able to detect male pheromones
A female given daily injections of ___ for two weeks is more likely than a placebo-treated female to fight with a strange female mouse
A female rodent exposed to high levels of testosterone while in the mothers uterus is likely to
show more interfemale aggression as an adult
Studies of hormone status and antisocial behavior in the US military veterans suggest that higher levels of antisocial activity are noted in
low socioeconomic status men with high testosterone levels.
An example of an environmental effect on testosterone secretion would be when
losing a tennis match results in lowered blood levels of testosterone
The proposition that facial expressions of emotion are innate is supported by the observation that
the same facial expression for an emotion is observed in all cultures
Darwin argued that the expression of emotion in humans
evolved from similar expressions in other animals
The ability to recognize emotions expressed by others is most likely to be impaired after damage to the
PET studies indicate that the comprehension of emotion from tone of voice increased the activity of the
right frontal cortex
PET studies indicate that the comprehension of emotion on the basis of word meaning increased the activity of the
left and right frontal cortex
The observation that a person with ____ cannot understand speech but can infer emotion from ___ suggests that word recognition and emotional vocal recognition are independent functions.
pure word deafness; tone of voice
Because the amygdala receives input from cortical and subcortical sources, a person made blind by cortical damage
can recognize facial emotional expression
Damage to the amygdala can impair recognition of ____ but not ___.
facial emotion expression; recognition of emotion using tone of voice.
rapid recognition of facial emotional expression is mediated by signals carried by the ____ system
With regard to facial emotional expression,
negative emotional expressions are more intensely expressed on the left side of the face
The unique aspect of patient S.P. is that after removal of her right amygdala
she was unable to recognize her own facial emotional expressions
According to the James-Lange theory of emotion, which of the following is most important for the subjective experience of an emotion
sensory feedback from muscles and internal organs
Which of the following results from studies of people with spinal cord injuries supports james-lange theory of emotion?
people who could not feel reactions from most of their bodies reported that they no longer felt intense emotions.
Studies by Ekman and colleauges suggest that
simulated facial emotional expression changes sympathetic activity
The various stages of sleep are easily distinguished by
changes in the electrical activity of the brain
The ___ is an instrument used to record electrical potentials from muscles during sleep
The ___ pattern of the EEG activity is characterized by irregular, high-frequency, low voltage waves
The observation that a persons brain shows beta wave activity is not a reliable indicator of being awake because
this brian wave pattern also appears during sleep
The translation between wakefulness and sleep is marked by the appearance of ___ waves in the sleep record
The theta brain wave pattern is characterized by changes in frequency of electrical activity of
You are watching a sleep record of a person whose record contains 85% delta wave activity. Your best guess is that this person is
in stage 4 of slow wave sleep
A key aspect of slow-wave sleep is the presence of ____ Hz oscillations comprised of a down state followed by an up state
___ will occur soon after the appearance of rapid eye movements in the sleep record.
Sleep stages 1-4 are termed ___, whereas stages 3-4 are referred to as___.
non-REM sleep; slow wave sleep
Which of the following is a reason as to why sleep stage 4 is considered to be the deepest sleep stage
only very loud stimuli will awaken a person from stage 4 sleep
Which of the following is a key characteristic of non-REM sleep
various forms of slow wave brain activity
Which of the following is true of human sleep cycles
as the night goes on the relative length of REM sleep increases in each successive cycle
Humans show which pattern of blood flow and mental activity during REM sleep
Cerebral blood flow is high in the visual association cortex and low in the frontal cortex
The predictable changes in blood flow to the male genitals that occur during ____ can be a useful clinical indicator of ____.
REM sleep; impotence
About ____ percent of the population experiences insomnia as a persistent problem while ___ percent experiences this on occasion
A buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood is a characteristic of the sleep disorder known as
A person who exhibits sudden paralysis but remains conscious may be suffering from
an episode of cataplexy
The notion that narcolepsy involves faulty brain regulation of sleep is supported by the observation that
narcoleptics generally enter REM sleep directly from the waking state
The occurrence of sleep attacks in narcolepsy can be alleviated by drugs that
act as catecholamine agonists
Symptoms of narcolepsy involving REM sleep are effectively treated by drugs that
facilitate both serotonin and catecholamine activity
An effective treatment for REM sleep behavior is the administration of
the benzodiazepine drug clonazepam
The symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder are exaggerated by administration of
A person who experiences the sleep disorder symptom known as pavor nocturnus would be said to be
experiencing a night terror
The pattern of the dolphin is unique in that
sleep and waking occur indepenedently in the two hemispheres