Which two organ systems coordinate and direct the activities of other organ systems?
Nervous and Endocrine systems
What system provides swift, brief responses to stimuli and encompasses all the neural tissue in the body?
What system adjusts metabolic operations and directs long term changes?
What are the anatomical subdivisions of the nervous system?
CNS (brain and spinal cord) and PNS (the neural tissue outside the CNS)
What does an afferent division do?
Transmits sensory information from somatic and visceral receptors to the CNS.
What does an efferent division do?
Carries motor commands to muscles and glands.
(Efferent/Afferent) division contains the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
Define the somatic nervous system
SNS includes voluntary control over skeletal muscle contractions.
Define the autonomic nervous system.
ANS includes the automatic, involuntary regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular activity. Parasympathetic and sympathetic are part of ANS.
Receptors may be classified as ____ and ____.
Somatic and Visceral
What are the two types of cells in neural tissue?
Neurons and Neuroglia (aka glial cells)
What cells are responsible for information transferring and processing?
What are the supporting cells in the nervous system?
Neuroglia (Glial cells)
What are the basic parts of a neuron and what are their functions?
Cell body (soma)- the most important metabolic area and the site of the nucleus.
Axon- conducts nerve impulses
Dendrites- Receive signals
Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and ependymal cells are all examples of ______ in the (CNS/PNS).
Neuroglia in the CNS.
What is the function of neurofibrils?
Neurofibrils transport materials in the neuron.
_______s are the largest, most numerous glial cells that maintain the neuron, provide the neuron with nutrition, and protect the neuron.
Myolin sheaths are produced by what type of neuroglia?
______ cells are the smallest neuroglial cells. They are phagocytic cells that engulf cellular debris, waste products, and pathogens.
What cells are atypical epithelial cells that line chambers and passageways filled with cerebrospinal fluid in the brain and spinal cord?
Neuron cell bodies in the PNS are clustered into _____ and their axons form _______ nerves.
ganglia, peripheral nerves
The two PNS glial cells types are
Satellite cells and Schwann cells
______ cells enclose neuron cell bodies in ganglia.
______ cells cover all peripheral axons.
Neurons are classified by _______ and _______.
Structure and function
Side branches from an axon
A series of fine, terminal extensions branching from an axon tip and ending at synaptic terminals.
A site of intercellular communication between a neuron and another cell.
Located where one neuron synapses on another neuron.
Synaptic communication usually involves the release of specific chemicals, called ______.
Structurally, neurons can be classified as _____, ______, ______, and ______. Describe each.
Anaxonic- no distinguishable axon.
Bipolar- one dendrite and one axon.
Pseudounipolar- dendrite and axon are continuous at one side of the cell body.
Multipolar- Several dendrites and one axon
What are the three functional categories of neurons?
Sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons (association neurons).
Which neurons form the efferent pathways that stimulate the activity of a peripheral tissue, organ, or organ system?
Which neurons form the afferent division of the PNS and deliver information from sensory receptors to the CNS?
Which neurons may be located between sensory and motor neurons and analyze sensory inputs and coordinate motor outputs?
T/F Neurons have a very limited ability to regenerate after injury.
______ best describes the ability of a cell membrane to conduct electrical impulses.
_____ ______ are changes in the transmembrane potential caused by changes in the flow of sodium and potassium ions.
An action potential travelling along and axon is called a _____
Synapse occur on ____, ____, or along ____ and permit communication between neurons and other cells as ______ junctions.
dendrites, the cell body, axons. Neuroeffector
A synapse may be _____ or _____ (more common).