Mass Communication Final

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In the classic definition, public relations involves:

creating understanding for or good will toward, a company, a person or a product.

The Publicity Bureau

The first publicity firm in the United States

Which company/institution was the first to create an in-house public relations firm to do fundraising?

The Washington, D.C., YMCA

cybersmear

An organized attack against a corporation presented on the Internet

the federal government

The nation's largest single employer of public information people

What is NOT recommended by public relations experts if a company has a public relations crisis?

Not telling the whole truth to the media

What IS recommended by public relations experts if a company has a public relations crisis? (4)

1. Apologize to the public
2. Put the chairman or CEO on television to say the mistake won't happen again.
3. Admit the mistake
4. Place newspaper ads thanking customers for their support

Many firms attempt to use PR to get positive publicity for their products because:

it is cheaper to get a publicity release published than to purchase an ad

Two examples of poorly handled public relations crises are:

Toyota and BP Petroleum

product public relations

Using public relations to create a favorable story about a new toy

The Internet offers many benefits for public relations companies because:

1.News releases can be made available online.
2.Company profiles can be made available online.
3.PR help creates a company's public face on the Internet.
4.It can deliver information quickly.

Crisis Communication

A timely public relations response to a critical situation that could cause damage to a company's reputation

Publicity:

Uncontrolled free use of media by a public relations firm to create events and present information to capture press and public attention.

Persuasion:

The act of using argument or reasoning to induce someone to do something

Public Relations:

Creating understanding for, or goodwill toward, a company, a person, or a product

During World War I, the government set up the Committee on Public Information headed by this former newspaper reporter to promote the nation's participation in the conflict:

George Creel

One of the first political leaders to realize the importance of public relations was:

Augustus Caesar

The Publicity Bureau in Boston opened in 1900 to head off growing public criticism of:

Railroad Companies

In what year did the public relations industry establish its first code of ethics?

1954

Franklin Roosevelt used a public relations expert:

To promote the new deal

People in this public relations specialty provide information primarily to business reporters:

Financial Public Relations

differences between advertising and publicity: (4)

Uncontrolled vs. Controlled message
Free vs. Paid placement
Credible vs. Biased message
Strategic vs. Tactical campaigns

Which woman was an equal partner with Edward Bernays in the Bernays public relations firm? and was one of the first women in PR?

Doris Fleischman

Most public relations firms have about how many employees?

4 or fewer

Creating art, photography and layout for brochures, booklets, reports, etc. falls under what category of PR services?

Production Tasks

Does PR have an image problem?

Yes, Public doesn't trust (misunderstands) PR and Opinion polls support this. PR practitioners fight this image,
PRSA and others promote ethics and professionalism

Negative definition of public relations, exaggerating the client's good points, hiding the bad points and sometimes outright lying:

Spinning

PR is referred to as Journalism Plus because:

Skill sets are similar: News judgment, Deadline Writing and Editing, Accuracy, Report truth (PR with a viewpoint), Media Relations, Speaking, Research, Programming, counseling and training, Management

Where PR people work:

Government, Education, Nonprofits, Industry, Business
Athletics and Entertainment, International

3 Types of PR:

Financial, Product, Crisis BUT firms also specialize by type of client

Dukas Public Relations- Strategic communications, Media relations
Clients include:
Credit Union National Association

Financial PR

Carmichael Lynch Spong:
Hasbro toys
Jack Link's Beef Jerky

Product PR

Levick Strategic Communications :
United Fresh Produce Association
E.coli outbreak kills 2, sickens dozens in eight states
Goal: Protect reputation of produce industry
Award-winning campaign

Crisis PR

Fineman PR:
Foster Farms
Award winning campaign
Challenges:
Labor unrest
Bird flu
Animal rights activists

Food PR

In terms of representing clients PR can be compared with what other profession?

Law

BzzAgent

Word of Mouth Marketing: Uses passionate consumer volunteers by sending them stuff to promote in their friend circles and on social media

The belief that the U.S. press should be free from government control originated with the:

First Amendment

Which of the following was not an attempt by government to control free speech?

the recording industry's content labels

Joseph McCarthy DID NOT

create the voluntary Code of Wartime Practices for American Broadcasters

Prior restraint means censoring information before it is:

published or broadcasted ex. The Progressive case, the Pentagon Papers (1st), Near v. Minnesota

The broadcast media are regulated by:

the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

After the Roth and Miller cases, determining obscenity is the responsibility of:

The Local Courts

To prove libel, someone must show that: (4)

1.the statement injured the person's reputation or income or caused mental anguish.
2.the journalist or the print or broadcast organization is at fault.
3.the statement was communicated to a third party.
4.people who read or saw the statement would be able to identify the person, even if that person was not actually named.

The Child Online Protection Act:

was never implemented because the U.S. Supreme Court in 2002 said that Congress had no authority to limit Internet access.

In the New York Times v. Sullivan decision, the Supreme Court held that:

a public official must prove that the story was published with a reckless disregard for the truth.

The media can invade privacy by: (4)

1. intruding on a person's physical or mental solitude.
2. disclosing embarrassing personal facts.
3. using someone's name or likeness for commercial benefit.
4. placing someone in a false light.

During World War II:

President Roosevelt created the Office of Censorship and worked out the voluntary Code of Wartime Practices with the press.

What is not a defense against libel?

the First Amendment

The case of Carson v. Here's Johnny Portable Toilets established which legal principle?

the right of publicity

The Sheppard v. Maxwell case:

established the legal precedent for limiting press access to courtrooms.

The Telecommunications Act of 1996 established:

1. provisions to allow telephone companies to deliver video services.
2. universal service.
3. unregulated cable rates.
4. relaxed ownership and licensing rules.

The Communications Decency Act:

attempted to define and control user access to specific programs and content.attempted to define and control user access to specific programs and content.

The law designed to prevent illegal copying of material on the Internet is:

the Digital Millennium Copyright Act

To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee has never been targeted by censors.

FALSE

Changes in 2003 in FCC regulations concerning ownership of broadcast stations:

allowed companies to expand the number of radio and TV stations they could own.

Which legislation led to a conflict between the FBI and libraries over government access to library records?

The Patriot Act

Shield Laws:

Laws that protect journalists from revealing their sources and the information that is communicated between journalists and their sources in a journalistic relationship.

Roth Test:

A standard court test for obscenity, named for one of the defendants in an obscenity case.

COPA:

Child Online Protection Act. A law aimed at preventing minors from getting access to sexually explicit online material.

DMCA:

Digital Millennium Copyright Act.

HUAC:

House Un-American Activities Committee

Hudson Test:

A legal test that establishes a standard for commercial speech protection

LAPS Test:

A yardstick for local obscenity judgments, which evaluates an artistic work's literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.

WIPO:

World Intellectual Property Organization.

SLAPP:

Strategic lawsuit against public participation.

Qualified Privilege

The freedom of the press to report what is discussed during legislative and court proceedings.

This law set up a fine of to $2,000 and a sentence of up to two years in jail for anyone found guilty of speaking, writing, or publishing false, scandalous and malicious writings against the U.S. government.

The Alien and Sedition Laws of 1798

A public official who wants to prove libel must show that a damaging statement was not only untrue, but made with:

Actual Malice

What is the main regulatory agency for advertising and public relations issues?

Federal Trade Commission

Press critics say:

Press is not elected
Press has become too negative
Press is too sensational
Press is biased
Fairness Doctrine should be resurrected

Libel:

Slander is Verbal Defamation: Damaging someone's reputation.In their work, trade or occupation.Accusing them of a crime.Accusing them of having a loathsome disease.Accusing them of being immoral.Penalty
Civil lawsuits resulting in damages assessed. Loss of credibility. Lawyers' fees. Very rare in the United States—jail time.

Fair Commen

Opinion/Commentary/Editorials are protected if they are pure opinion.

In a libel case, if it is true then...

IT IS NOT LIBEL

the struggle to balance press freedom is between:

The interest of individuals vs. government

Argument for press freedom:

The press is the "Fourth Estate" (institution whose influence is not consistently or officially recognized)
The press as "tribune of the people" (upholds and defends peoples rights) An extra constitutional branch of government, Exposes public mismanagement, Informs the electorate

In professional organizations and businesses the Codes of Ethics Provide:

Guidelines

The Ethical Issue of Truthfulness how to "Seek the truth and report it" :

Talk to a variety of sources.
Avoid anonymous sources
Don't make up sources.
Don't plagiarize.
Don't alter photographs.
Distinguish between news and opinion.
Distinguish news from advertising.
Don't report government disinformation.

The Ethical Issue of Privacy, how to "Minimize harm":

Balancing truth with protecting safety of sources
Balancing truth with rights to privacy
Avoid pandering
Reporting on Illness
Public figures and AIDS
Kansas City Star and AIDS in the priesthood.
Reporting on Rape
Rape victims are rarely identified
Balancing benefit of printing the name vs. not printing it
Covering tragedy
Graphic photos
Interviewing victims

The Ethical Issue of Fairness, how to "Act Independently":

Avoid
Insider relationships
Conflict of interest
Checkbook journalism

The Ethical Issue of Responsibility, how to "Be accountable" :

Admit and correct mistakes
Explain reporting procedure
Be a good steward
Expose unethical practices

If the ethics codes don't provide the full answer, some use this method for working through a thorny ethical problem:

Potter Box- Define Problem: What facts do you need? What is the ethical question?Identify Values:What overarching societal values apply? Appeal to Principle:
What have great philosophers said? Choose Loyalties: Who do you serve?

Aristotle's Golden Mean:

All things in moderation, the desirable middle between two extremes, one of excess and the other of deficiency. 7. The journalistic concept of fairness.

Kant's Categorical Imperative:

"What if everyone acted this way?"
Making decisions based on principles that you want to be universally applied is an example of:

Mill's Principle of Utility

The greatest happiness for the greatest number

Rawls' Veil of Ignorance

Basic respect for everyone

Judeo-Christian View

Love your neighbor as yourself

Ethics:

The rules or standards that govern someone's conduct.

Disinformation:

The intentional planting of false information by government sources.

NAB:

National Association of Broadcasters, the lobbying organization that represents broadcasters' interests.

What is the RTNDA code of ethics?

RTNDA code of ethics is: public trust, truth, fairness, integrity, independence and accountability.

The journalistic concept of fairness is reflected in the philosophical principles of:

Aristotle's golden mean, a philosophy of moderation and compromise.

What code would the wife of a prominent politician, on leave from her journalism job with a network, violate if she uses her influence to block a book author's network interview because she fears the interview could lead to embarrassing disclosures about her?

This journalist would be in violation of the Act Independently code. Journalists should be free of obligation to any interest other than the public's right to know.

Codes of ethics for broadcast and print journalists are:

Codes of ethics for both print and broadcast journalists are voluntary and are meant as guidelines.

Covering live events such as the "Balloon Boy" hoax caused ethical problems because:

reporters must verify information quickly and are vulnerable to mistakes.

How does the U.S. press handle its response to criticism?

The three responses of the U.S. press to criticism have been to create news councils, to employ readers' representatives, and to publish correction boxes.

The National Press Council was created in 1973 and disbanded how many years later?

11

Which columnist received $250,000 from a public relations firm to promote President George W. Bush's No Child Left Behind initiative to African Americans?

Armstrong Williams

In September 2010, which newspaper announced that it had accepted underwriting from three major businesses so its publisher and a staff photographer could travel to Afghanistan to report on a National Guard unit serving there?

The New Hampshire Union Leader

NPR

National Public Radio

Japanese Nationalist Comic Books Themes

Racism of the West caused World War II
China and North and South Korea are inferior nations.
Japanese wartime atrocities are mostly false.
Japan is the ultimate noble nation.

U.S. Nationalist Comic Books Themes

American soldiers are heroes.
American values of freedom are sacred.
The enemies of America are evil.
America is an exceptional country.

Content of Comic Books reflect World War II experiences of the Japanese and US Nationalists:

Japanese nationalist comic books
Defensive of Japanese actions in war
Criticizes other countries
U.S. nationalist comic books
Positive emphasis on American values
Less focus on other countries

NewAfrican says Western press is biased and that results in a:

Distorted View of Africa because of Fourth Estate of the realm, "Follows the flag", Ideological, Historical baggage

Theories of the Press: Soviet Theory

Government owned and operated mass media

Theories of the Press: Authoritarian Theory

Government control and approval of media content

Theories of the Press: Libertarian Theory

Media freedom and protection
assumes people with opposing views will be heard.

Theories of the Press: Social Responsibility Theory

Government oversight of media

Theories of the Press: Developmental Theory

Mix of theories in developing nations

Critics of Four Theories say:

Cold War mentality
Written from one viewpoint
Media systems cannot be neatly categorized
Capitalist press cannot be a watchdog of capitalism
Ignores concentration of ownership

Last Rights: Revisiting Four Theories of the Press
Edited by John Nerone, 1995.

What are Kawaraban?

Forerunners of Japanese newspapers.

Which was not one of the original four theories of the press?

Developmental

ethnocentric:

Promoting the superiority of one ethnic group over another.

IHT

International Herald Tribune, the world's largest English-language newspaper.

ABC & BBC

Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
British Broadcasting Corporation, the government-funded British broadcast network.

NWICO

New World Information and Communications Order. The concept that mass media should include all areas of the world, not just the West.

Which country requires its citizens to pay a yearly TV licensing fee?

The UK government collects more than $2 billion a year from the fee, which supports the BBC.

Which country had the second most public wireless hot spots in 2010?

US-1
CHINA-2

Where do journalists enjoy the widest press freedoms in all of Western Europe?

Scandinavia

In developing countries that have matured since the 1920s, what is the dominant communication medium?

Radio

What is often one of the first targets in revolutionary movements?

Broadcasting Studios

Western European newspapers tend to be:

more partisan than U.S. newspapers

The word ethics derives from the Greek word ethos, which means:

Traditions that govern a culture

Which ethical question is raised by a reporter who misrepresents the facts or creates false stories and attributes them to others?

Fairness

When reporters go on free trips and/or are given free passes to entertainment events, it could result in:

Conflict of Interest

In most cases, a reporter who makes an ethical mistake:

Will not face a lawsuit

A Readers Representative:

Acts as a go-between from the public to the newsroom

ITV

a public service broadcaster, is the largest commercial network in the United Kingdom, with four separate channels

In______ for the first time, the number of cell phones in the world exceeded the number of landline phones.

2002

One of the most dangerous countries for journalists:

Russia

Journalists in Latin America face danger because:

The media represent a challenge to political power

During the anti-government demonstrations in Egypt's Tahrir Square in 2011:

The government shut down Internet access nationwide

Private ownership of media is not allowed in:

JAPAN

In Africa:

Early print media were created to serve the colonists, not the local population

In the Arab States:

Television stations typically broadcast from early morning until midnight

The peoples republic of China:

Has seen the number of newspapers double and become more sensational

The USA PATRIOT Act contains a provision, Section 215, which allows the FBI to obtain business records. Which of the following statements is true about the PATRIOT Act?

Until 2010 it had only been used once by the FBI to attempt to obtain library records.

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