## NB APHG Unit 2 Final Review

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MrsTsWorld  on May 7, 2012

NB APHG 2012

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# NB APHG Unit 2 Final Review

 Natalitybirth rate, the number of live births per year per thousand population.
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#### Definitions

Natality birth rate, the number of live births per year per thousand population.
Neo-Malthusian theory building upon malthus'. it takes into account population growth in LDC and outstripping of resources
Overpopulation The number of a people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Population Densities A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land.
Population Disributions how population is spread out in to an area
Population Explosion the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century
Population Projection estimates of future population size, age, and sex composition based on current data.
Population Pyramid A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex
Rate of Natural Increase the percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
S-Curve Leveling off of an exponential, J-shaped curve when a rapidly growing population exceeds the carrying capacity of its environment and ceases to grow.
Sex Ratio The number of males per 100 females in the population.
Standard of Living the quality of life based on the possession of necessities and luxuries that make life easier
Sustainability the ability to meet the current needs of humanity without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
Age Distribution A model used in population geography that describes the ages and number of males and females within a given population; also called a population pyramid.
Carrying capacity largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
Cohort A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.
Demographic Equation The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration.
Demographic Momentum (population momentum) the tendency for population growth to continue despite stringent family planning programs because of a relatively high concentration of people in the childbearing years.
Demographic Regions regions grouped together by the stage of the demographic transition model that most countries in the region are in
Demographic Transition Model a sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time
Dependency Ratio The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.
Diffusion of Fertility Control Spread of birth control options
Disease Diffusion How disease spreads in a population. Hierarchical diffusion spreads from urban to rural areas. Contagious is spread through the density of people.
Doubling Time The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
Ecumene The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Epidemiological Transition Model This is a distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition. This is important because it can explain how a countries population changes so dramatically and more.
Gendered Space areas or regions designed for men or women
Infant Mortality Rate the number of babies that die per 1,000 babies in one year
J-curve a growth curve that depicts exponential growth
Thomas Malthus an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834)
Mortality death rate in a population; the probability of dying
Underpopulation circumstances of too few people to sufficiently develop the resources of a country or region to improve the level of living of its inhabitants.
Zero Population Growth A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Activity Space the space within which daily activity occurs
Chain Migration migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
Cyclic Movement Movement-for example, nomadic migration-that has a closed route repeated annually or seasonally
Distance Decay The effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction.
Forced permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors
gravity model A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
internal migration Migration flow within a nation-state, such as ongoing westward and southward movements in the United States.
intervening oppurtunity an instance where a migrant finds a certain place more appealing than the intended destination
intercontinental Permanent movement from one country to a different country on the same continent.
interregional Permanent movement from one region of the country to another
rural-urban Rural- People moving from country to the city because they have fewer conveniences, education, money. People in rural areas are mostly farmers. Urban- People in cities are mostly factory, retail, and office workers. More conveniences, education, and money.
migratory movement movement that consists of one person migrating from one place to another
periodic movement Movement - for example, college attendance or military service - that involves temporary, recurrent relocation
personal space the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies. Its size depends on our familiarity with whoever is near us.
place utility in human movement and migration studies, a measure of an individual's perceived satisfaction for approval of a place in its social, economic, or environmental attributes.
push-pull factors Push are reasons for why settlers left homes; pull are reasons they moved to west
refugees People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
space-time prism a diagram of the volume of space and the length of time within which our activities are confined by constraints of our bodily needs (eating, resting) and the means of mobility at our command.
step-migration migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
transhumance a seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures
transmigration the relocation of people away from overpopulated core regions to less crowded areas. (Indonesia has a policy of moving people away from Java.)
voluntary of your own free will or design

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