the authority of a court to hear a case
lower courts have the authority to hear cases for the first time
The authority of a court to review decisions made by lower courts
authority for both state and federal courts to hear and decide cases
federal courts created by congress under the authority of Article III of the constitution
The lowest federal courts; federal trials can be held only here.
Courts of Appeals
federal courts that review decisions appealed from district courts
Courts created by Congress for specialized purposes whose judges do not enjoy the protections of Article III of the Constitution.
Presidential custom of submitting the names of prospective appointees for approval to senators from the states in which the appointees are to work.
Rule of four
At least four Justices of the Supreme Court must vote to consider a case before it can be heard
The returning of a case to a lower court b/c a smiliar case was recently decided
Writ of certiorari
Order by the Supreme Court directing a lower court to send up the records of a case for review
A lower court may ask the Supreme Court about a rule of law or procedures in specific cases
A detailed statement of the facts of the case supporting a particular position by presenting arguments based on relevant facts and citations from previous cases
a brief submitted by a "friend of the court"
a statement that presents the views of the majority of supreme court justices regarding a case
a signed opinion in which one or more members agree with the majority view but for different reasons
a statement written by a justice who disagrees with the majority opinion, presenting his or her opinion
prior cases whose principles are used by judges as the bases for their decisions in present cases
The right to keep some information secret from Congress and the Courts
Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect current conditions and values.
Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect what the framers intended and what its words literally say.
a judicial approach holding that the Constitution should be read literally, with the framers' intentions uppermost in mind
Courts should read the Constitution expansively and should not limit themselves to what is explicitly stated