Chapter 9: The Confederation and Constitution!

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Society of Cincinnati

An exclusive hereditary order created by the Continental Army officers which was ridiculed by most Americans.

Virginia Statue for Religious Freedom

Decree that separated church and state. Fiercest desire in Virginia, Pushed for by Thomas Jefferson and his co-reformers and Baptsts which finally came abou tin 1786.

Civic Virtue

Central to republican ideology, the notion tha democracy depended on the unselfish commitment of each citizen to he public good.

Republican Motherhood

Idea that elevated womene t a newly prestigious role as he special keepers of the nations conscience. Women already demonstrated habits of virtuous citizenry in which society entrusted the moral educaton of the young, the very model of proper republican behavior. Educatial opportunities for woen expanded. Republican women now bore crucal responsibilty for the survival of the nation.

Articles of Confederation

Apoined by the Congress as a constitution for the nes ntion. Adopted in 1777 but not ratified by all 13 colonies until 1781. Some called it the "Articles of Confusion". It proved for a looe confederation or a "firm league of friendship". America was joint in action in dealing with common problems such as foreign affairs. Though weak, they proved to be a landmark in government, a stepping stone toward the prsent Constitution. They clearly outlined the generalpower that were to be excercised by the central government, such as mking treaties and establishing a postal service. As the first constituion of the Republic, they kep alive the ideal of union and held the states together.

Land Ordinance of 1785

First of red-letter laws hat provided that the acreage of the Old Norhwest should be sold and that the proceeds shold be used to help pay off the national debt. o be divided into 6 miles square split into 36 sections one square mile each. The orderly settlement of the NW territor,where the land was methodically surveyed and titles duly recorded contrasted sharply with the chaos south of the Ohio River, where uncertain ownership was the norm and fradwas ramant.

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Related to the governing of the Old NW. Dealt with the problm how a naion should take colonies. First, there would be 2 evolutionary territirial stages, during which the area would be subordiante to the federal government. Then a territory could boast 60,000 inhabitants. This ordinance also forbade slavery in the Old NW.

Shays Rebellion

An alarming uprising that flared up in western Massachusetts in 1786. Impoverished back country farmers, many of them Revolutionary War veterans, were losing their farms through mortage foreclosures and tax deliquencies. Led by Captain Daniel Shays, these desperate debtores demanded cheap paper money, lighter taxes and a suspension of property takeovers. Massachusetts authorities responded with drastic action, raised a small army that killed 3 of the Shaysites and the movement collasped.

Alexander Hamilton

Charismatic 31 year old New Yorker who was a leader of the federalists who was also the first treasurer.

James Madison

Profound student of government made contributions so notable that he was dubbed the "father of the Constituition".

Virginia Plan

First known as "the large state plan" which was propsed by Virginia. Publishes as the framework of the Constitution. Its essence was that representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress should be based on populaion-an arrangement taht would naturally give the larger states and advantage. Small states feared under this, the stronger states would band together and lord it over the rest.

Great (Connecticut) Compromise

The larger staes were conceded representation by population in the House of Representatives. The smaller states were then recieved equal represntation in the senate. Each state would have 2 senators.

Electoral College

Group of people representing each state that indirectly elected the president. Based on total senators and representatives in Congress. Small states would get larger voice second round is no canidate got a majority of elcoral votes and the election was then thrown to the House where each state got one vote.

Three-fifths Compromise

Decided whether the voteless slave of the southern states should count as a person in apportioning the direct taxes and in according representation on the House of Representaties. The south said yes, north said no. A compromise was made between totall representation and none at all. It was decided taht a slave might count as 3/5 of a person.

Anti-Federalists

Opposed the stronger federal government. Its leaders were Samueal Adams, Patrick Henry, and Richard Henry Lee. Their followers included state's rights devotees, back country dwellers and one horse farmers-some of the poorest classes. They were joined paper moneyites and debtors. They feared that a potent central government would force them to pay off their debts at full value. They saw in the Constitution a plot by the upper crust to steal power back from the common folk. Cried for a bill of rights because "the freedoms of the individual were jeapardized".

Federalists

They had power and influence on their side. Had support of George Washington and Benjamin Franklin. Wealthier, more educated and better organized, also controlled the press.

Federalist Papers

s, a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name "publius") published in NY newspapers and used to convice readers to adopt the new constitution

New Jersey Plan

New Jersey countered with "the small state plan" in which equal representation in a unicameral Congress by states, regardless of size and population, as under the existing Articles of Confederation. The weaker states feared under the Virginia scheme, the stronger states would band together adn lord it over the rest. Soon after "the Great Compromise" was made.

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