BCHS - Biology Review

Created by aprilrooney 

Upgrade to
remove ads

147 terms

abiotic

nonliving parts of the environment

acid rain

rain that is more acidic than normal

active transport/diffusion

process by which cells use energy to transport molecules through the cell memebrane from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration

adaptive value

any trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce under a given set of environmental conditions

agarose

gel-like substance used in bacterial cultures

AIDS

disease that results when the HIV virus attacks the human immune system

allergy

condition in which a person's immune system is overly sensitive to environmental substances that are normally harmless

amino acid

any one of several building blocks of protein

animal

complex, multi-cellular organism with specialized tissues and organs, but no cell walls

antibody

protein, produced by the immune system that either attacks invading pathogens or marks them for killing

antigen

molecule found on the outer surfaces of cells that the immune system recognizes as either part of the body or an outside invader

asexual reproduction

method of reproduction in which all the genes passed on to the offspring come from a single parent

ATP

compound that stores energy in cells

autotroph

organism that produces its own food

bacterium

single celled organism without a distinct nucleus

biodiversity

variety of species in an area

biome

large groups of ecosystems with similar climates and organisms

biosphere

all of Earth's ecosystems

biotic

living parts of the environment

carnivore

organism that survives by eating animals

carrying capacity

largest population of any single species that an area can support

catalyst

substance that can speed up the rate of chemical reaction w/out being changed or used up during the reaction

cell

basic unit of structure and function that makes up all organisms

cell membrane

thing boundary between the cell and its environment

cellular respiration

process in which nutrients are broke apart, releasing the chemical energy stores in them

chloroplast

green organelle that contains chlorophyll where photosynthesis takes place

chromosome

thick thread-like structure that contains genetic info in the form of DNA

circulation

flow of materials within a cell as well as between parts of a multi-cellular organism

classify

group things based upon their similarities

community

combination of all the different populations that live and interact in the same environment

competition

struggle between organisms for the same limited resources in a particular area

consumer

organism that obtains it's energy from producers

cytoplasm

jellylike substance that is between the cell membrane and the nucleus and that contains specialized structures

decomposer

organism that consumes dead organisms and organic waste

decomposition

process where dead organisms are broke down into their raw materials and returned to the ecosystem

deforestation

forest destruction that results from human activity

depletion

serious decline or reduction

dichotomous key

guide the compares pairs of observable traits to help the user identify an organism

digestion

process that breaks down large food molecules into simpler molecules that the organism can sue

direct harvesting

the destruction of an organism or the removal of an organism from its habitat

disease

condition that prevents the body from working as it should

DNA

material found in all cells that contains genetic info about that organism

ecological niche

specific role played by an organism or a population of organism in the ecosystem

ecology

study of how living things interact with one another and their environment

ecosystem

all the living and nonliving things that are in a specific area

egg

sex cell produced by a female

element

substance consisting of only one kind of atom

embryo

organism in the early stages of development

endocrine glands

various hormone producing glads that secret substance directly into the blood

endoplasmic reticulum

organelle that transports proteins and other materials from one part of a cell to another

energy flow

movement of energy through an ecosystem

energy pyramid

diagram showing how food energy moves through the ecosystem

environment

every living and not living thing that surrounds an organism

enzymes

proteins that speed up the rate of chemical reactions in living things

equilibrium

state of balance and stability

estrogen

hormone that controls female sexual development and the reproductive process

evolution

process by which species have changed over time

excretion

removal of all the wastes produced by the cells of the body

expressed

way that an unseen gene is seen in organism as an actual physical trait

Fallopian tubes

part of the female reproductive system where the egg cell is fertilized by the sperm cell

feedback mechanism

cycle in which the output of a system either modifies or reinforces the first action taken by the system

fertilization

process that combines a sperm and egg

fetus

unborn developing young of an animal

food chain

a community of organisms where each member is eaten in turn by another member

food web

a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains

fossil

preserved remains of ancient organisms

fungus

kingdom of organisms that are mostly multi-cellular

gamete

sex cell

gene

segment of DNA that contains the code for a specific trait

genetic recombination

formation of a new combo of genes during sexual reproduction

genetic variation

normal differences found among offspring

geologic time

Earth's history as revealed by layers of rock

global warming

increase in Earth's average surface temp caused by an increase in greenhouse gases

glucose

sugar that is a major source of energy for cells

greenhouse effect

trapping of heat by gases in the atmosphere

guard cells

specialized cells that control the opening and closing of the pores on the surface of a leaf

habitat

place where an animal or plant lives

herbivore

organism that eats only plants

heredity

passing of traits from parent to offspring

heterotroph

organism that can't make its own food
consumer

homeostasis

ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment even when the external environment changes

hormone

chemical produced in the the endocrine glands

host

an animal or plant that nourishes and supports a parasite

immune system

body's primary defense against disease causing pathogens

insulin

hormone that prompts glucose to move from the blood into body cells resulting in a lower glucose level in the blood

limiting factor

any factor in the environment that limits the size of a population

lipid

one of a group of organic compounds that includes oils, fats, and waxes

meiosis

process that results in the production of sex cells

meniscus

curved surface at the top of a column of liquid

metabolism

all the chemical reactions that occur w/in the cells of an organism

mitochondria

pod-shaped organelles that contain enzymes used to extra energy from nutrients

mitosis

process that divides the cell's nucleus into 2 each with a complete set of genetic material from the parent cell

molecule

particle in which 2 or more atoms combine to from a single unit
smallest unit of a compound

muscular system

body system comprised of tissue that contracts with it is stimulated
combination of muscles that enables the body to move

mutation

any alteration in the sequence of DAN

natural selection

process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest

niche

specific role played by an organism in its ecosystem

nitrogen cycle

movement of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil and organisms and then back to the atmosphere

nonrenewable resource

any resource such as fossil fuels and minerals that can't be replaces

nucleus

large structure w/in a cell that controls the cell's metabolism and stores genetic info including DNA

nucleic acid

large, complex organic molecules that contain the instructions cells need to carry out their life processes

nutrient

substance that provides the body with the materials and energy need to carry out the basic life of cells

organ

body structure made of different kinds of tissues combined to perform a specific function

organ system

several organs that work together to perform a major function in the body

organelle

structure w/in the cell that carries out specific function

organic

molecules that contain both hydrogen and carbon

ovary

organ of a female reproductive system that produces and egg cell

overproduction

potential for a species to increase its numbers beyond the area' carrying capacity

oviduct

part of the female reproductive system where the egg cell is fertilized by the sperm

pancreas

endocrine organ that secretes insulin

parasite

organism that survives by living and feeding on other organisms

pathogen

organism that invades the body causing disease

pH

measure of whether a substance is acidic, neutral or basic

photosynthesis

process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches

placenta

the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus

plant

complex multicellular organism that obtains energy through photosynthesis and consists of cell walls and specialized tissues and organs

population

individuals of a single species that live in a specific area

predator

animal that hunts and kills other animals for food

prey

animal that is hunted and killed by predators

primary succession

first group of communities that moves into a previously lifeless habitat

producer

organism that makes its own food from light energy and inorganic material

progesterone

hormone associated with sexual development and the reproductive system

recombination

additional mixing of genetic material from a sperm and egg which results in an unique combo of genes

renewable resources

resources that can be replaced

respiration

process which the chemical bond energy stored in nutrients is release for use in cells

reproduction

process which organisms produce new organisms of the same type

ribosomes

one of the tiny structures in the cell that is site of protein production

scavenger

carnivore that feeds on the bodies of dead organism

selective breeding

process of choosing a few organisms with desirable traits to serve as the parents of the next generation

sex cells

egg or sperm

sexual reproduction

method that involves 2 parents to produce offspring that are genetically different from either parent

simple sugar

result of digested starches

skeletal system

body system that contains the bones, provides shape and support and protects internal organs

species

group of organism taht share certain characteristics and can mate with one another producing fertile offspring

sperm

male sex cell

stomata

tiny pore found on the underside of most leaves

testes

male reproductive organ that produces sperm and testosterone

testosterone

hormone associated with males sexual development and reproduction

tissue

group of specialized cells that perform a specific function

trait

characteristic that is passed from parent to offspring through the genes

transpiration

process where plants absorb water through their roots and eliminate it through tiny pore on the undersides of their leaves

uterus

organ in females where the embryo develops int a fetus

vacuole

storage sac w/in the cytoplasm of a cell that may contain either wastes or useful materials such as water or food

vertebrate

animal w/ a backbone

virus

nonliving particle of protein and genetic material that reproduces by invading the cell of a living organism

water cycle

process by which water continuously moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back

zygote

cell that results from the joining of the egg and sperm

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

NEW! Voice Recording

Click the mic to start.

Create Set