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psy 100

According to the ____ approach, human behavior is primarily controlled by an individual's mental processes.

cognitive

2. In an experiment, the group that is NOT subjected to a treatment condition is known as the

control

3. In an experiment the ______ is manipulated by the researcher and its effects on the _____ are measured.

independent variable / dependent variable

A researcher is conducting an experiment to test the effects of violent video game play on aggression. Which of the following could be the dependent variable in this example?

Scores on an aggressive behavior survey

Dr. Simpson finds a positive .50 correlation between ice cream cone sales and violent crimes in a community. Which of the following represents the best interpretation of this result?

A confounding variable, such as heat, may account for the association between ice cream sales and violent crime. When it is hot, ice cream sales increase. When it is hot, people are also more likely to behave aggressively.

8. Dr. Steinguard wants to demonstrate a cause and effect relationship between stress and memory. Which of the following research methods should he use?

Experimental method

case studys

involve gathering in-depth information on a single subject or participant

Wilhelm Wundt

is considered the "founding father" of modern psychology

. Professor Jordan has suggested to his students that as study time increases, grades increase. The professor is describing a ____.

positive correlation

. According to the ____ approach, human behavior is primarily controlled by external environmental forces.

behavioral

In his practice, Dr. Wagner stresses the role of unconscious processes and unresolved childhood conflicts. With which psychological approach does this align?

Psychodynamic

Psychology is

a type of science
the study of mental processes
the study of human behavior

6. A correlation coefficient indicates the

direction and magnitude of association between two variables

_____ involves using introspection to investigate the components of the mind,

Structuralism

whereas _____ seeks to understand the purpose of the mind and behavior as it relates to adaptation to the environment.

functionalism

Steven was in a serious automobile accident that caused a severe injury to his hippocampus. What type of deficiency will Steven likely experience as a result of this brain damage?

He will probably have difficulties with memory formation.

Doctors told her she sustained substantial damage to the occipital lobes. What type of deficiencies will Sonal likely experience as a result of this brain damage?

She may be blind or unable to see clearly.

If a person's cerebellum were damaged in an accident, you would expect the person to have a problem with

balance and muscle coordination

memory loss related to Alzheimer disease. Research suggests that there may be insufficient production of the neurotransmitter _______ in this individual's brain.

acetylcholine

The ____ are involved in personality, intelligence, and the control of voluntary muscles.

frontal lobes

small forebrain structure that monitors pleasurable activities (e.g. eating, drinking, and sex), emotion, stress, and reward.

hypothalamus

Another term that describes the "firing" of neurons is

action potential

Axons are

the part of the neuron that is responsible for sending or carrying information away from the cell body toward other cells

Sensory receptors

are specialized cells that detect stimulus information and transmit it to afferent nerves and the brain

Binocular

depth vision cues depend on the combination of the images in the left and right eyes.

is a brain structure that is often referred to as a "biological clock" because of the fact that it controls our circadian rhythms.

suprachiasmatic nucleu

This process of acquiring "raw data" about the stimuli in the environment is called _____.

sensation

are frightening dreams that awaken a dreamer from REM sleep

Nightmares

Night terrors

involve sudden arousal from sleep and an intense physiological fear reaction (e.g., screaming, heavy breathing, and perspiration)

According to Sigmund Freud, dreams represent

unconscious desires or conflicts

Biological processes occurring on a cycle of approximately 24 hours are termed

circadian rhythms

theories of vision can best explain the occurrence of afterimages

Opponent-process theory

are specialized receptor cells that enable us to see color

Cones

College students who consume large amounts of alcohol on weekends are abusing which type(s) of drugs?

Depressants

involves the removal of an undesired stimulus.

negative reinforcement

Reinforcement increases the frequency of a behavioral response. ______ involves the presentation of a desired stimulus

Positive reinforcement

Organisms learn the association between two stimuli through

classical conditioning

Organisms learn the association between a behavior and a consequence throug

operant conditioning

Shaping

refers to rewarding approximations of a desired behavior.

innate stimulus-response connection

Sneezing in response to sniffing pepper

Spanking is a form of

negative punishment

time out is a form of

positive punishment

Social norms can be:

formal.,informal.
implicit.

deindividuation

What might explain the unusually bad behavior of people in these crowds?

dispositional attribution

how we perdict a persons furture behavior

cognitive dissonance

conflicying statements, knowing somthing is bad, but make excuses to make it ok

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