Anatomy Chapter 5: Skeletal System

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Axial Skeleton

The part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs

Appendicular Skeleton

The part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs

Support

Bones make up the internal framework of the body that supports soft tissues

Protection

Bones protect the soft body organs

Movement

Skeletal muscles, attached to bones by tendons, use the bones as levers to move the body's various parts

Storage

Fat is stored int eh internal cavity of the bones. The bones also act as a storage center for minerals.

Blood and Cell Formation

blood cell formation occurs in the marrow cavities of the certain bones

Long Bones

Bones that are longer than they are wide

Short Bones

Bones that are generally cube shaped and contain mostly spongy bone.

Flat Bones

Bones that are usually thin, flattened and curved

Diaphysis

The shaft of a long bone

Epiphyses

Ends of long bone (contains red marrow).

Yellow Marrow

Marrow composed of stored fats found in many bones

Red Marrow

Functions to form red blood cells, some white blood cells, and platelets; found in cavities of most bones in infants and in the flat bones in adults

Osteocytes

Mature bone cells

Ossification

The developmental process of bone formation

Osteoblasts

Bone-forming cells

Osteoclasts

Bone-destroying cells

Skull

Cranium

Facial Bones

Bones that make up the structure of the face

Hyoid Bone

A U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue muscles

Vertebral Column

Made up of bones called vertebrae or vertebra through which the spinal cord runs

Fontanels

Gaps between a baby's skull that slowly close up during the first 18 months of life

Sacrum

Bone formed from five vertebrae fused together near the base of the spinal column

Sternum

The flat bone that articulates with the clavicles and the first seven pairs of ribs

True Ribs

Top 7 pairs of ribs that attach directly to the sternum by costal cartilage

False Ribs or Floating Ribs

Last 5 pairs of ribs; attach indirectly to sternum

Metacarpals

Hand Bones

Tarsal Bones

Foot Bones

Femur

Thigh bone, largest bone in the body

Humerus

Upper arm bone

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