US HISTORY FINAL - Woods, GSU

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A U.S. concern for the growing power of what nation contributed to the convening of the Washington naval-armaments conference?

Japan

After WWI, American public opinion generally supported __________

isolationism

All of the following statements about the German blitzkrieg of spring 1940 are true, EXCEPT:
A. it followed an extended quiet period in the war following the invasion of Poland
B. it involved German attacks on France, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, and the Netherlands
C. France surrendered to Germany in just over two months
D. Germany carefully avoided attacks on neutral nations and only targeted professed enemies

Germany carefully avoided attacks on neutral nations and only targeted professed enemies

American foreign policy in Latin America in the period between world wars included all the following EXCEPT:
A. withdrawing U.S. Marines from Nicaragua and Haiti
B. participation in Pan-American conferences
C. accepting the Clark Memorandum
D. insisting that the Monroe Doctrine provided a valid justification for intervention

insisting that the Monroe Doctrine provided a valid justification for intervention

True or False: American isolationism declined in turmoil of the Great Depression of the early 1930s.

False.

True or False: As a nonmember, the United States refused to have anything to do with the League of Nations in the 1920s and 1930s.

False.

America's "Good Neighbor" Policy:
A. promoted free trade among the United States, Canada, and Mexico
B. promised aggressive military actions against any "bad neighbors" in the Western Hemisphere
C. supported the idea of nonintervention in Latin America
D. eliminated all military and other examples of a U.S. official presence in Latin America

supported the idea of nonintervention in Latin America

True or False: At the 1933 Pan-American Conference, the United States supported a resolution that declared no nation had "the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another."

True

By limiting tonnage on capital ships (battleships and aircraft carriers) alone, the Five-Power Treaty (1922) for naval disarmament had what unintended effect?
A. The treaty rendered battleships and aircraft carriers irrelevant to modern naval warfare.
B. The treaty created a thriving black market for battleships and aircraft carriers.
C. The treaty prompted signatory nations to recategorize battleships and aircraft carriers as "elevated submarines" and "buoyant airports" to evade the restrictions.
D. The treaty sparked a naval arms race in cruisers, destroyers, submarines, and other smaller craft that had not been restricted.

he treaty sparked a naval arms race in cruisers, destroyers, submarines, and other smaller craft that had not been restricted.

By November 1941, the United States insisted it would reopen trade with Japan only after that country:
A. gave up its recently acquired territory in New Zealand
B. signed an agreement not to attack Russia
C. withdrew completely from China
D. paid Britain and Holland for the oil and other resources it had taken from their colonies

Withdrew completely from China

True or False: By the autumn of 1941, the United States and Germany had reached an understanding to minimize their escalating naval confrontations.

False.

By the autumn of 1941:
A. Congress declared war on Germany
B. the U.S. Navy was engaging the Germany Navy in the Atlantic
C. Roosevelt ordered ships to avoid combat zones
D. Roosevelt broke diplomatic relations with Germany

the U.S. Navy was engaging the Germany Navy in the Atlantic

During 1931-1932, Japan invaded and conquered what territory in East Asia?
A. Manchuria
B. Formosa
C. French Indochina
D. Korea

Manchuria

During the 1920s, American global interests such as international trade and investment:
A. ceased to expand in the face of resistance from American isolationism
B. remained inconsequential to the overall well-being of the United States
C. expanded and prevented the United States from entirely withdrawing from the world, despite strong isolationist sentiment
D. demonstrated that isolationism was irrelevant to U.S. politics

expanded and prevented the United States from entirely withdrawing from the world, despite strong isolationist sentiment

During the Spanish Civil War:
A. Franklin Roosevelt advocated U.S. official support of the loyalist faction
B. the United States, Britain, Germany, and Italy all supported the government
C. Hitler and Mussolini helped the armed uprising led by Francisco Franco
D. the European democracies helped the armed uprising, whereas Germany and Italy refused to intervene

Hitler and Mussolini helped the armed uprising led by Francisco Franco

During the summer of 1941, the United States attempted to restrain Japanese expansion by:
A. restricting oil exports to Japan and freezing Japanese assets in the United States
B. ordering the strategic bombing of Japanese military sites
C. sending 200,000 troops to China and stationing a large naval force in the South Pacific
D. establishing a protectorate over China

restricting oil exports to Japan and freezing Japanese assets in the United States

European debt repayment to the United States during the 1920s was made more difficult by what issue?
A. Europeans preferred not to trade with the United States.
B. High tariff rates limited access of European goods to the American market and the ability of Europeans to earn dollars for repayment.
C. Low tariff rates devalued European goods in the American market.
D. The United States lacked a developed banking system necessary to process international payments.

High tariff rates limited access of European goods to the American market and the ability of Europeans to earn dollars for repayment.

True or False: Following the aerial Battle of Britain, Germany invaded England.

False.

Following the Pearl Harbor attack:
A. American isolationism increased
B. a congressional resolution for war passed unanimously
C. the United States avoided involvement in the European conflict
D. Germany and Italy also declared war on the United States

Germany and Italy also declared war on the United States

Franklin Roosevelt's opponent in the 1940 presidential election was:
A. Thomas Dewey
B. Wendell Willkie
C. Theodore Roosevelt
D. Herbert Hoover

Wendell Willkie

Germany's invasion of what country triggered the beginning of World War II in Europe?
A. Czechoslovakia
B. the Soviet Union
C. Britain
D. Poland

Poland

High tariff rates, like those implemented by the United States during the 1920s, have what impact on international trade?
A. They tend to facilitate trade by making imported goods more valuable through the costs added.
B. They have no impact on trade because their impact on an imported goods' price is negligible.
C. They tend to hinder international trade by making imported goods costlier and therefore less appealing to consumers.
D. They have historically been responsible for the greatest trade booms in global history.

They tend to hinder international trade by making imported goods costlier and therefore less appealing to consumers.

In 1940, the Battle of Britain:
A. saw the British defeat a massive German land invasion of the British Isles
B. was the single greatest defeat that Britain faced during World War II
C. was mostly a propaganda war between Germany and Britain that saw little actual bloodshed
D. saw the British turn back a massive German air attack and force Germany to postpone its invasion plans

saw the British turn back a massive German air attack and force Germany to postpone its invasion plans

In June 1941, Germany widened the war by:
A. declaring war on the United States
B. invading the Soviet Union
C. attacking Spain
D. invading Britain

invading the Soviet Union

In November 1941:
A. Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1941 that reaffirmed American neutrality
B. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor
C. Franklin Roosevelt died in office
D. Congress passed legislation that allowed the arming of merchant ships

Congress passed legislation that allowed the arming of merchant ships

In the aftermath of the German blitzkrieg of spring 1940, U.S. defense policy changed in all the following ways EXCEPT:
A. Congress increased the defense spending by voting for $17 billion for the defense budget
B. the United States began making increased stocks of arms, planes, and munitions available to the British
C. Roosevelt ceded most of his decision-making authority to his military leaders
D. Roosevelt established a National Defense Research Committee to coordinate military research

Roosevelt ceded most of his decision-making authority to his military leaders

In the late summer of 1940, President Roosevelt agreed to send fifty "overaged" destroyers to Britain in return for:
A. Republican promises not to ask for a peacetime draft
B. ninety-nine-year leases on a series of British naval and air bases in the Western Hemisphere
C. congressional approval of a draft registration act
D. fifty "outdated" British aircraft carriers

ninety-nine-year leases on a series of British naval and air bases in the Western Hemisphere

True or False: In the presidential election of 1940, Franklin Roosevelt became the first president to win a third term.

True.

True or False: Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor was only one part of a larger offensive launched into Southeast Asia and the Pacific.

True.

True or False: Most European countries defaulted on their war debts during the Great Depression.

True.

Most European nations defaulted on their war debt to the United States during what international crisis?
A. World War I
B. World War II
C. the Red Scare
D. the Great Depression

The Great Depression

President Roosevelt was hesitant to intervene in the Spanish Civil War because:
A. Catholics favored the Spanish Republic
B. the Neutrality Act of 1938 forbade intervention
C. he wanted to keep the fight localized
D. Germany and Italy were supporting the Spanish Republic

He wanted to keep the fight localized

The 1939 Neutrality Act's cash-and-carry provision:
A. permitted the United States to sell arms to Britain and France as long as they paid up-front and allowed American ships to deliver the purchase
B. prohibited all arms exports, even to countries with cash who could carry them on their own ships
C. was removed from the final bill due to isolationist opposition to permitting any trade with warring nations
D. permitted the United States to sell arms to Britain and France if they paid up-front and carried their purchases on their own ships

permitted the United States to sell arms to Britain and France if they paid up-front and carried their purchases on their own ships

True or False: The 1940 agreement between the United States and Britain permitted the United States to give England fifty destroyers in exchange for British bases in the Caribbean.

True.

The Atlantic Charter included all the following principles EXCEPT:
A. freedom of the seas
B. economic cooperation
C. the elimination of communism
D. self-determination for all peoples

the elimination of communism

True or False: The Atlantic Charter stated definitively that the United States would remain neutral in Britain's war against Germany.

False.

The Atlantic Charter:
A. was a joint British-American statement of anti-Axis war aims
B. reaffirmed American neutrality in the wars in Europe and Asia
C. is another name for the American declaration of war against Germany
D. advocated expanding the war in Europe to fight communism

was a joint British-American statement of anti-Axis war aims

True or False: The cash-and-carry provision of the 1937 Neutrality Law permitted belligerent nations to purchase American goods, including arms and munitions, as long as they were transported on the belligerent nation's own ships.

False.

The German occupation of Czechoslovakia had what effect on Roosevelt?
A. It intensified his isolationist sentiments and desire to stay out of Europe's problems.
B. He no longer professed impartiality in the impending European struggle.
C. He worked to appease Hitler to avoid further conquests.
D. He blamed Czechoslovakia for provoking the attack.

He no longer professed impartiality in the impending European struggle.

The Great Depression and the economic struggles it caused during the early 1930s generally made Americans:
A. more supportive of foreign interventions
B. more isolationist in sentiment
C. more internationalist
D. more supportive of joining the League of Nations

more isolationist in sentiment

The Kellogg-Briand Pact:
A. reduced the Allied war debt
B. outlawed war as an instrument of national policy among the signatories
C. limited the size of America's standing army
D. was defeated in the Senate

outlawed war as an instrument of national policy among the signatories

The Neutrality Act of 1935:
A. was directed against Japanese aggression in China
B. allowed the U.S. Navy to stop and search German ships on the high seas
C. permitted the United States to sell arms and munitions to warring nations to ensure the United States did not have to get involved
D. forbade the sale of arms and munitions to warring nations

forbade the sale of arms and munitions to warring nations

The Marco Polo Bridge incident brought Japan to war against what country?
A. China
B. Britain
C. the United States
D. Korea

China

The Nine-Power Treaty pledged the signers to:
A. support the Boxer Rebellion
B. support the principle of the Open Door
C. commit signatory nations to keeping troops in China
D. renounce the Open Door

support the principle of the Open Door

The Nye committee:
A. investigated and criticized the role that bankers and munitions makers played in America's entry into World War I
B. recommended that Europeans appease Hitler by allowing him to annex Czechoslovakia
C. compiled an official list of America's international obligations under existing treaties
D. praised the role that bankers and munitions makers played in applying their resources to protect national security

investigated and criticized the role that bankers and munitions makers played in America's entry into World War I

The offensives Italy launched in 1940 against Greece and British forces in Egypt:
A. went poorly and required German assistance
B. prevented the Germans from suffering an embarrassing defeat at the hands of the British
C. proved to be a wildly successful demonstration of Italian power
D. forced France to enter the war

went poorly and required German assistance

The Panay incident:
A. was the event that sparked the war between Japan and China
B. was a Japanese attack on an American ship in China
C. was the event that sparked the war between Japan and the United States
D. was a Japanese attack on the British embassy in Tokyo

was a Japanese attack on an American ship in China

The passage of the lend-lease bill in 1941 signaled what about American opinion?
A. Internationalist sentiment was weakening.
B. The president lost control over Congress.
C. Isolationist strength was weakening.
D. Americans paid little attention to the European war.

Isolationist strength was weakening.

The Roosevelt administration's desire to renew diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in 1933:
A. reflected the administration's isolationist leanings
B. proved the administration preferred communism
C. reflected an effort to increase foreign markets
D. was blocked by Congress

was blocked by Congress

The Trade Agreements Act of 1934:
A. allowed the president to lower tariff rates significantly for countries that did the same for American goods
B. suspended all U.S. tariffs on imported goods
C. raised tariffs on all imports into the United States
D. removed all authority over international trade from the president and gave it to Congress

allowed the president to lower tariff rates significantly for countries that did the same for American goods

True or False: The United States offered no substantive help to China after the Japanese conquered Manchuria in 1931-1932.

True.

True or False: The United States refused to implement any punitive measures against Japan following its establishment of a protectorate over French Indochina in 1941.

False.

True or False: The "good neighbor" polices of the 1920s and 1930s saw the United States permanently remove all its troops from Latin America

False.

Through the lend-lease bill, passed in March 1934, "any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States":
A. could receive American military equipment, supplies, and other necessary materials if they rented them at fair market value
B. could purchase American military equipment, supplies, and other necessary materials made available through Canada
C. must declare war on Germany in order to be eligible for American material support
D. could receive military equipment, supplies, and other necessary materials even if that country lacked the funds to pay for those items

could receive military equipment, supplies, and other necessary materials even if that country lacked the funds to pay for those items

What agreement that Hitler personally agreed to was broken with the decision to conquer Czechoslovakia in 1939?
A. the Kellogg-Briand Pact
B. the Nine-Power Treaty
C. the Trade Agreements Act
D. the Munich agreement

The Munich Agreement

What did the governments of Italy and Germany have in common by the 1930s?
A. Both had established communist forms of government.
B. Both had thriving liberal democracies.
C. Both had strong monarchies.
D. Both had established Fascist forms of government.

both had established Fascist forms of government

What significant objective motivated Japanese expansion into Southeast Asia and the Pacific during 1940-1941?
A. an intention to provoke the United States to attack Japan first
B. the priority of defeating Chinese guerrilla fighters operating in Indochina
C. a desire to reobtain the Philippines from the United States, which had seized the islands from Japan
D. the expansion's provision of access to vitally needed oil, rubber, and other strategic materials

the expansion's provision of access to vitally needed oil, rubber, and other strategic materials

Which of the following countries was NOT an Axis power by June 1941?
A. Italy
B. the Soviet Union
C. Hungary
D. Bulgaria

The Soviet Union

Which of the following is an American organization founded in the early 1920s to promote international peace?
A. League of Nations
B. United Nations
C. American Committee for the Outlawry of War
D. Kellogg-Briand group

American Committee for the Outlawry of War

Which of the following statements about the 1940 presidential election is true?
A. Franklin Roosevelt named a Republican as his vice-presidential running mate in the name of national unity.
B. Franklin Roosevelt became the first sitting president to lose a reelection bid in the midst of a national crisis.
C. Republican Thomas Dewey defeated Franklin Roosevelt in a landslide.
D. Franklin Roosevelt became the only president to run for and win a third term.

Franklin Roosevelt became the only president to run and win a third term

Which of the following statements about the attack on Pearl Harbor is NOT true?
A. It was one part of a larger Japanese offensive launched into Southeast Asia and the Pacific.
B. A specific attack on Pearl Harbor had been long expected by American officials.
C. The attack killed more than 2,400 U.S. servicemen and sank nineteen ships.
D. The attack ignored onshore facilities and oil tanks.

A specific attack on Pearl Harbor had been long expected by American officials.

Which of the following statements about the European war between June 1940 and June 1941 is true?
A. Italy was unwilling to enter the war despite the alliance with Germany.
B. The British defeated the Axis in Egypt and Libya, but at great cost.
C. Momentum seemed to shift from the Germans to the British.
D. The Nazi juggernaut appeared unstoppable.

The Nazi juggernaut appeared unstoppable.

Which statement accurately describes the treaties that came out of the Washington naval-armaments conference of 1921-1922?
A. They effectively ensured international cooperation and preserved international peace throughout the 1920s and into the 1930s.
B. Their strict stipulations and rigorous enforcement mechanisms ended up only encouraging international disagreement and conflict.
C. They effectively outlawed war among all the signatories.
D. They were actually without obligation and without mechanisms for enforcement, and ultimately proved ineffective.

They were actually without obligation and without mechanisms for enforcement, and ultimately proved ineffective.

What is the postwar mood of detached indifference to global affairs and official neutrality towards foreign entanglements?

isolation

What are payments by the vanquished to the victors after conflict.

reparations

Leaders of nine world powers met in 1921-22 to discuss the naval race; resulting treaties limited to a specific ratio the carrier and battleship tonnage of each nation (Five-Power Naval Treaty), formally ratified the Open Door to China (Nine-Power Treaty), and agreed to respect each other's Pacific territories (Four-Power Treaty).

Washington Armaments Conference

What was the treaty resulting from the Washington Armaments Conference of 1921-22 that limited to a specific ratio the carrier and battleship tonnage of each nation.

Five-Power Naval Treatment

Representatives of sixty-two nations in 1928 signed the pact (also called the Pact of Paris) to outlaw war.

Kellogg-Briand Pact

Memorandum drawn up in 1928 by Undersecretary of State J. Ruben Clark that denied that the Monroe Doctrine justified American intervention in Latin America; published in 1930 by President Hoover.

Clark Memorandum

Proclaimed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in his first inaugural address in 1933, it sought improved diplomatic relations between the United States and its Latin American neighbors

Good Neighbor Policy

In reaction to Japan's 1932 occupation of Manchuria, Secretary of State Henry Stimson declared that the United States would not recognize territories acquired by force.

Stimson Doctrine

Dictator who seized power in Italy in 1922 and organized the fascist movement, a hybrid of nationalism and socialism; entered World War II in June 1940 as Germany's ally.

Benito Mussolini

Secretary of State under President Franklin Roosevelt whose grand scheme of reciprocal trade agreements was the chief exception to the administration's isolationism.

Cordell Hull

1934 act that authorized the president to lower tariff rates as much as 50 percent for countries that made similar concessions on American products; agreements were made with fourteen countries by the end of 1935, reaching a total of twenty-nine by 1945.

Trade Agreements Act

General who initiated the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and established a fascist dictatorship with help from Hitler and Mussolini; Franco's overthrow of the Spanish democracy was completed in 1939.

Francisco Franco

Senator from North Dakota and progressive Republican who led the Senate inquiry from 1934 to 1937 that concluded that bankers and munitions makers had made scandalous profits from World War.

Gerald Nye

Derogatory term for bankers and munitions makers who made scandalous profits from World War I.

merchants of death

Series of laws passed between 1935 and 1939 to keep the United States from becoming involved in war by prohibiting American trade and travel to warring nations.

Neutrality Acts

Term for the President's discretionary authority to require that warring nations who purchased goods other than arms or munitions had to pay in cash and then carry them away in its own ships, an ingenious scheme to preserve a profitable trade without running the risk of war.

cash-and-carry

Term for the summer of 1940, during which the Royal Air Force, with the benefit of the new technology of radar, outfought the numerically superior German Luftwaffe and forced the Germans to postpone plans to invade England.

Battle of Britain

Nonpartisan committee formed in 1940 and composed of "internationalists" who believed that national security demanded aid to Britain during World War II.

Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies

Largely midwestern isolationist organization supported by many prominent citizens, 1940-41.

America First Committee

Dark-horse Republican candidate who ran against President Franklin Roosevelt in 1941, in a race that produced Roosevelt's narrowest victory.

Wendell L. Willkie

Feisty British prime minister who defied the German invasion of Britain in World War II.

Winston Churchill

Term introduced by President Franklin Roosevelt for America's role in World War II giving supplies to the British war effort.

arsenal of democracy

Act of 1941 that permitted the United States to lend or lease arms and other supplies to the Allies, signifying increasing likelihood of American involvement in World War II.

Lend-Lease

Issued August 12, 1941, following meetings in Newfoundland between President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British prime minister Winston Churchill, the charter signaled the allies' cooperation and stated their war aims.

Atlantic Charter

Group of Nations that formed in 1937 with the "Anti-Comintern Pact" between Italy, Germany, and Japan, but expanded when Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria were forced into the Axis fold, allowing Hitler to control nearly all of Europe.

Axis Powers

Term used by Japanese militarists for the territories they coveted in 1940: French Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia), the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), British Malaya (Malaysia), and Burma (Myanmar).

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

Act of July 2, 1940, which authorized the president to restrict the export of arms and other strategic materials to Japan.

Export Control Act

Pact between Japan, Germany, and Italy, signed on September 27, 1940, by which each pledged to declare war on any nation that attacked any of them.

Tripartite Pact

During World War II, the fastest rate of urban growth occurred in the ______
A. Northeast
B. Midwest
C. South
D. Far West

Far West

Strategic bombing of Germany in 1943 _______.
A. cut German production by at least 25 percent
B. broke German morale
C. involved British and American planes
D. failed because of lack of planes

involved British and American Planes

The March on Washington Movement promoted rights for ________.
A. soldiers and veterans
B. women employed in defense industries
C. African Americans
D. Japanese Americans in relocation camps

African Americans

True or False: World War II caused the deaths of 50 million people world wide.

True.

True or False: The War Refugee Board was amazingly successful at rescuing Jews from Europe.

False.

True or False: Due to government controls, union membership declined during the war.

False.

The United States basic economic problem during World War II was ______
A. finding enough workers
B. expanding industrial production to meet demand
C. paying for the cost of war
D. raising enough agricultural supplies for the military

Finding enough workers

True or False: The largest naval battle in history occurred at the Coral Sea.

False.

True or False: African American pilots were trained in a segregated facility at Tuskegee in Alabama.

True.

The Battle of Midway was the turning point of the war in the Pacific because that battle _________.
A. stopped the eastward advance of the Japanese
B. destroyed most of what was left of the American fleet after Pearl Harbor
C. destroyed the Japanese fleet so that they were unable to pursue naval war after this.
D. placed the United States Airforce close enough to the mainland of Japan to carry out bombing raids there.

stopped the eastward advance of the Japanese

D-Day ____________
A. was the greatest naval battle of the war
B. was a crucial point in America's rise to global power
C. was fought after the Soviets reached Berlin
D. finally opened the Eastern Front in Europe

was a crucial point in America's rise to global power

In World War II, the greatest number of casualties were suffered by ______
A. Germany
B. Japan
C. the Soviet Union
D. Great Britain

the Soviet Union

At the conference in Casablanca, Churchill and Roosevelt decided to ________
A. attack in North Africa
B. assault Sicily and Italy
C. launch the Normandy Invasion
D. use the atomic bomb against Japan

assault Sicily and Italy

True or False: Native Americans served in segregated military units.

False.

True or False: "Zoot-suit" riots involved black servicemen in Europe

False.

War relocation camps were built to accommodate refugees from Europe.

False

Among the reasons the Atomic bomb was used against Japan was the belief that it would _______
A. intimidate Hitler and Germany into surrendering
B. soften Japan for an invasion
C. save the lives of American soldiers
D. all of the above

save the lives of the American soldiers

True or False: The ending of World War II led to another period of isolationism in the United States.

False.

During World War II, women could do all of the following EXCEPT:
A. serve in the WAC
B. serve in active combat
C. serve in the WAVES
D. work in heavy industry

serve in active combat

True or False: During the war, congressional conservatives dismantled many New Deal Programs.

True.

Battle that occurred on May 7-8, 1942 in which American forces stopped a fleet convoying Japanese troop transports toward New Guinea.

Battle of the Coral Sea

Battle that was the turning point on the war in the Pacific between the US and Japan that demonstrated that aircraft carriers were the decisive elements of modern naval warfare.

Battle of Midway

Act in 1941 that gave the president the right to reshuffle government agencies and to allot materials and facilities as needed for defense, with penalties for those who failed to comply.

War Powers Act

Created in 1942 to coordinate industrial efforts in World War II; similar to the War Industries Board in World War I.

War Production Board

An Act created to cover the war's huge cost, this provided for only about $7 billion in increased revenue, and greatly broadened the tax structure by making everyone a taxpayer.

Revenue Act of 1942

Created in 1941 to control wartime inflation and price fixing resulting from shortages of many consumer goods, the OPA imposed wage and price freezes and administered a rationing system.

Office of Price Administration

Act of 1943 that authorized the government to seize plants useful to the war.

Smith-Connally Labor Disputes Act

State laws enacted to prevent imposition of the closed shop; any worker, whether or not a union member, could be hired.

right-to-work

Organized labor term which means requiring that all employees of a company be union members.

closed shop

The head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters who organized a March on Washington Movement to demand an end to racial discrimination in defense industries.

A. Phillip Randolph

March that led to an executive order forbidding discrimination in defense work and training programs by requiring a nondiscrimination clause in defense contracts.

March on Washington Movement

Created in 1941 by executive order, the FEPC sought to eliminate racial discrimination in jobs; it possessed little power but represented a step toward civil rights for African Americans.

Fair Employment Practices Commission

Slogan that stood for victory at home and abroad that became immensely popular in black communities.

"Double V" campaign

(1944) U.S. Supreme Court decision that outlawed all-white Democratic party primaries in Texas.

Smith v. Allwright

Program created in 1942 that offered seasonal farm workers from Mexico yearlong contracts, wages at the prevailing rate, and transportation from the border to their job sites.

bracero program

In 1943, when several thousand off-duty Mexican American sailors and soldiers, joined by hundreds of local white civilians, rampaged through downtown Los Angeles streets, assaulting Hispanics, blacks, and Filipinos.

"zoot suit" riots

Japanese Americans; literally, "second generation".

Nisei

Internment camps where Japanese Americans were held against their will from 1942 to 1945.

War Relocation Camps

An announcement by Roosevelt with Churchill's endorsement that the war would end only with this.

unconditional surrender

General who led Operation "Overlord" to victory in WWII and eventually became president in 1953.

General Dwight D. Eisenhower

The cross-Channel assault on Hitler's "Atlantic Wall" that is known as the greatest military invasion in the annals of warfare, and the climactic battle of World War II .

Operation "Overlord"

June 6, 1944, when an Allied amphibious assault landed on the Normandy coast and established a foothold in Europe from which Hitler's defenses could not recover.

D-Day

General who led troops in WWII whose proposal to move westward along the northern coast of New Guinea toward the Philippines was accepted by Combined Chiefs of Staff.

General Douglas MacArthur

This term refers to a tactic of US forces in WWII that involved sinking Japanese troopships and warships bringing reinforcements, thereby, neutralizing Japanese strongholds and moving on, leaving them to die on the vine.

"leapfrogging"

Battle fought mostly in the air that secured the Marianas and led to the resignation of Japanese General Tojo.

Battle of the Philippine Sea

The largest naval engagement in military history in which Japan lost most of their remaining sea power and the ability to defend the Philippines.

Battle of Leyte Gulf

Commander of the central Pacific, who led troops to victory in the Battle of the Philippine Sea.

Admiral Chester Nimitz

Republican and New York governor who ran against Roosevelt and lost in the 1944 election.

Thomas E. Dewey

Meeting of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin at a Crimean resort to discuss the postwar world on February 4-11, 1945; Soviet leader Joseph Stalin claimed large areas in eastern Europe for Soviet domination.

Yalta Conference

May 8, 1945, the day World War II officially ended in Europe.

V-E Day

Created by Roosevelt in 1944, this managed to rescue about 200,000 European Jews and some 20,000 others.

War Refugee Board

The wholesale extermination of some 6 million Jews along with more than 1 million others by the Nazis.

the Holocaust

Secret American plan during World War II to develop an atomic bomb; J. Robert Oppenheimer led the team of physicists at Los Alamos, New Mexico.

Manhattan Project

Last meeting of the major Allied powers, the conference took place outside Berlin from July 17 to August 2, 1945; United States president Harry Truman, Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, and British prime minister Clement Atlee finalized plans begun at Yalta.

Potsdam Conference

American B-29 bomber that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945.

Enola Gay

True or False: Douglas MacArthur believed fighting Red China over Korea would involve the United States "in the wrong war at the wrong place at the wrong time and with the wrong enemy."

False

Bipartisan cooperation characterized relations between Congress and Truman on ________.

national security

The Communists gained control of China in ________

1949

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