A U.S. concern for the growing power of what nation contributed to the convening of the Washington naval-armaments conference?
After WWI, American public opinion generally supported __________
All of the following statements about the German blitzkrieg of spring 1940 are true, EXCEPT:
A. it followed an extended quiet period in the war following the invasion of Poland
B. it involved German attacks on France, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, and the Netherlands
C. France surrendered to Germany in just over two months
D. Germany carefully avoided attacks on neutral nations and only targeted professed enemies
Germany carefully avoided attacks on neutral nations and only targeted professed enemies
American foreign policy in Latin America in the period between world wars included all the following EXCEPT:
A. withdrawing U.S. Marines from Nicaragua and Haiti
B. participation in Pan-American conferences
C. accepting the Clark Memorandum
D. insisting that the Monroe Doctrine provided a valid justification for intervention
insisting that the Monroe Doctrine provided a valid justification for intervention
True or False: American isolationism declined in turmoil of the Great Depression of the early 1930s.
True or False: As a nonmember, the United States refused to have anything to do with the League of Nations in the 1920s and 1930s.
America's "Good Neighbor" Policy:
A. promoted free trade among the United States, Canada, and Mexico
B. promised aggressive military actions against any "bad neighbors" in the Western Hemisphere
C. supported the idea of nonintervention in Latin America
D. eliminated all military and other examples of a U.S. official presence in Latin America
supported the idea of nonintervention in Latin America
True or False: At the 1933 Pan-American Conference, the United States supported a resolution that declared no nation had "the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another."
By limiting tonnage on capital ships (battleships and aircraft carriers) alone, the Five-Power Treaty (1922) for naval disarmament had what unintended effect?
A. The treaty rendered battleships and aircraft carriers irrelevant to modern naval warfare.
B. The treaty created a thriving black market for battleships and aircraft carriers.
C. The treaty prompted signatory nations to recategorize battleships and aircraft carriers as "elevated submarines" and "buoyant airports" to evade the restrictions.
D. The treaty sparked a naval arms race in cruisers, destroyers, submarines, and other smaller craft that had not been restricted.
he treaty sparked a naval arms race in cruisers, destroyers, submarines, and other smaller craft that had not been restricted.
By November 1941, the United States insisted it would reopen trade with Japan only after that country:
A. gave up its recently acquired territory in New Zealand
B. signed an agreement not to attack Russia
C. withdrew completely from China
D. paid Britain and Holland for the oil and other resources it had taken from their colonies
Withdrew completely from China
True or False: By the autumn of 1941, the United States and Germany had reached an understanding to minimize their escalating naval confrontations.
By the autumn of 1941:
A. Congress declared war on Germany
B. the U.S. Navy was engaging the Germany Navy in the Atlantic
C. Roosevelt ordered ships to avoid combat zones
D. Roosevelt broke diplomatic relations with Germany
the U.S. Navy was engaging the Germany Navy in the Atlantic
During 1931-1932, Japan invaded and conquered what territory in East Asia?
C. French Indochina
During the 1920s, American global interests such as international trade and investment:
A. ceased to expand in the face of resistance from American isolationism
B. remained inconsequential to the overall well-being of the United States
C. expanded and prevented the United States from entirely withdrawing from the world, despite strong isolationist sentiment
D. demonstrated that isolationism was irrelevant to U.S. politics
expanded and prevented the United States from entirely withdrawing from the world, despite strong isolationist sentiment
During the Spanish Civil War:
A. Franklin Roosevelt advocated U.S. official support of the loyalist faction
B. the United States, Britain, Germany, and Italy all supported the government
C. Hitler and Mussolini helped the armed uprising led by Francisco Franco
D. the European democracies helped the armed uprising, whereas Germany and Italy refused to intervene
Hitler and Mussolini helped the armed uprising led by Francisco Franco
During the summer of 1941, the United States attempted to restrain Japanese expansion by:
A. restricting oil exports to Japan and freezing Japanese assets in the United States
B. ordering the strategic bombing of Japanese military sites
C. sending 200,000 troops to China and stationing a large naval force in the South Pacific
D. establishing a protectorate over China
restricting oil exports to Japan and freezing Japanese assets in the United States
European debt repayment to the United States during the 1920s was made more difficult by what issue?
A. Europeans preferred not to trade with the United States.
B. High tariff rates limited access of European goods to the American market and the ability of Europeans to earn dollars for repayment.
C. Low tariff rates devalued European goods in the American market.
D. The United States lacked a developed banking system necessary to process international payments.
High tariff rates limited access of European goods to the American market and the ability of Europeans to earn dollars for repayment.
True or False: Following the aerial Battle of Britain, Germany invaded England.
Following the Pearl Harbor attack:
A. American isolationism increased
B. a congressional resolution for war passed unanimously
C. the United States avoided involvement in the European conflict
D. Germany and Italy also declared war on the United States
Germany and Italy also declared war on the United States
Franklin Roosevelt's opponent in the 1940 presidential election was:
A. Thomas Dewey
B. Wendell Willkie
C. Theodore Roosevelt
D. Herbert Hoover
Germany's invasion of what country triggered the beginning of World War II in Europe?
B. the Soviet Union
High tariff rates, like those implemented by the United States during the 1920s, have what impact on international trade?
A. They tend to facilitate trade by making imported goods more valuable through the costs added.
B. They have no impact on trade because their impact on an imported goods' price is negligible.
C. They tend to hinder international trade by making imported goods costlier and therefore less appealing to consumers.
D. They have historically been responsible for the greatest trade booms in global history.
They tend to hinder international trade by making imported goods costlier and therefore less appealing to consumers.
In 1940, the Battle of Britain:
A. saw the British defeat a massive German land invasion of the British Isles
B. was the single greatest defeat that Britain faced during World War II
C. was mostly a propaganda war between Germany and Britain that saw little actual bloodshed
D. saw the British turn back a massive German air attack and force Germany to postpone its invasion plans
saw the British turn back a massive German air attack and force Germany to postpone its invasion plans
In June 1941, Germany widened the war by:
A. declaring war on the United States
B. invading the Soviet Union
C. attacking Spain
D. invading Britain
invading the Soviet Union
In November 1941:
A. Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1941 that reaffirmed American neutrality
B. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor
C. Franklin Roosevelt died in office
D. Congress passed legislation that allowed the arming of merchant ships
Congress passed legislation that allowed the arming of merchant ships
In the aftermath of the German blitzkrieg of spring 1940, U.S. defense policy changed in all the following ways EXCEPT:
A. Congress increased the defense spending by voting for $17 billion for the defense budget
B. the United States began making increased stocks of arms, planes, and munitions available to the British
C. Roosevelt ceded most of his decision-making authority to his military leaders
D. Roosevelt established a National Defense Research Committee to coordinate military research
Roosevelt ceded most of his decision-making authority to his military leaders
In the late summer of 1940, President Roosevelt agreed to send fifty "overaged" destroyers to Britain in return for:
A. Republican promises not to ask for a peacetime draft
B. ninety-nine-year leases on a series of British naval and air bases in the Western Hemisphere
C. congressional approval of a draft registration act
D. fifty "outdated" British aircraft carriers
ninety-nine-year leases on a series of British naval and air bases in the Western Hemisphere
True or False: In the presidential election of 1940, Franklin Roosevelt became the first president to win a third term.
True or False: Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor was only one part of a larger offensive launched into Southeast Asia and the Pacific.
True or False: Most European countries defaulted on their war debts during the Great Depression.
Most European nations defaulted on their war debt to the United States during what international crisis?
A. World War I
B. World War II
C. the Red Scare
D. the Great Depression
The Great Depression
President Roosevelt was hesitant to intervene in the Spanish Civil War because:
A. Catholics favored the Spanish Republic
B. the Neutrality Act of 1938 forbade intervention
C. he wanted to keep the fight localized
D. Germany and Italy were supporting the Spanish Republic
He wanted to keep the fight localized
The 1939 Neutrality Act's cash-and-carry provision:
A. permitted the United States to sell arms to Britain and France as long as they paid up-front and allowed American ships to deliver the purchase
B. prohibited all arms exports, even to countries with cash who could carry them on their own ships
C. was removed from the final bill due to isolationist opposition to permitting any trade with warring nations
D. permitted the United States to sell arms to Britain and France if they paid up-front and carried their purchases on their own ships
permitted the United States to sell arms to Britain and France if they paid up-front and carried their purchases on their own ships
True or False: The 1940 agreement between the United States and Britain permitted the United States to give England fifty destroyers in exchange for British bases in the Caribbean.
The Atlantic Charter included all the following principles EXCEPT:
A. freedom of the seas
B. economic cooperation
C. the elimination of communism
D. self-determination for all peoples
the elimination of communism
True or False: The Atlantic Charter stated definitively that the United States would remain neutral in Britain's war against Germany.
The Atlantic Charter:
A. was a joint British-American statement of anti-Axis war aims
B. reaffirmed American neutrality in the wars in Europe and Asia
C. is another name for the American declaration of war against Germany
D. advocated expanding the war in Europe to fight communism
was a joint British-American statement of anti-Axis war aims
True or False: The cash-and-carry provision of the 1937 Neutrality Law permitted belligerent nations to purchase American goods, including arms and munitions, as long as they were transported on the belligerent nation's own ships.
The German occupation of Czechoslovakia had what effect on Roosevelt?
A. It intensified his isolationist sentiments and desire to stay out of Europe's problems.
B. He no longer professed impartiality in the impending European struggle.
C. He worked to appease Hitler to avoid further conquests.
D. He blamed Czechoslovakia for provoking the attack.
He no longer professed impartiality in the impending European struggle.
The Great Depression and the economic struggles it caused during the early 1930s generally made Americans:
A. more supportive of foreign interventions
B. more isolationist in sentiment
C. more internationalist
D. more supportive of joining the League of Nations
more isolationist in sentiment
The Kellogg-Briand Pact:
A. reduced the Allied war debt
B. outlawed war as an instrument of national policy among the signatories
C. limited the size of America's standing army
D. was defeated in the Senate
outlawed war as an instrument of national policy among the signatories
The Neutrality Act of 1935:
A. was directed against Japanese aggression in China
B. allowed the U.S. Navy to stop and search German ships on the high seas
C. permitted the United States to sell arms and munitions to warring nations to ensure the United States did not have to get involved
D. forbade the sale of arms and munitions to warring nations
forbade the sale of arms and munitions to warring nations
The Marco Polo Bridge incident brought Japan to war against what country?
C. the United States
The Nine-Power Treaty pledged the signers to:
A. support the Boxer Rebellion
B. support the principle of the Open Door
C. commit signatory nations to keeping troops in China
D. renounce the Open Door
support the principle of the Open Door
The Nye committee:
A. investigated and criticized the role that bankers and munitions makers played in America's entry into World War I
B. recommended that Europeans appease Hitler by allowing him to annex Czechoslovakia
C. compiled an official list of America's international obligations under existing treaties
D. praised the role that bankers and munitions makers played in applying their resources to protect national security
investigated and criticized the role that bankers and munitions makers played in America's entry into World War I
The offensives Italy launched in 1940 against Greece and British forces in Egypt:
A. went poorly and required German assistance
B. prevented the Germans from suffering an embarrassing defeat at the hands of the British
C. proved to be a wildly successful demonstration of Italian power
D. forced France to enter the war
went poorly and required German assistance
The Panay incident:
A. was the event that sparked the war between Japan and China
B. was a Japanese attack on an American ship in China
C. was the event that sparked the war between Japan and the United States
D. was a Japanese attack on the British embassy in Tokyo
was a Japanese attack on an American ship in China
The passage of the lend-lease bill in 1941 signaled what about American opinion?
A. Internationalist sentiment was weakening.
B. The president lost control over Congress.
C. Isolationist strength was weakening.
D. Americans paid little attention to the European war.
Isolationist strength was weakening.
The Roosevelt administration's desire to renew diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in 1933:
A. reflected the administration's isolationist leanings
B. proved the administration preferred communism
C. reflected an effort to increase foreign markets
D. was blocked by Congress
was blocked by Congress
The Trade Agreements Act of 1934:
A. allowed the president to lower tariff rates significantly for countries that did the same for American goods
B. suspended all U.S. tariffs on imported goods
C. raised tariffs on all imports into the United States
D. removed all authority over international trade from the president and gave it to Congress
allowed the president to lower tariff rates significantly for countries that did the same for American goods
True or False: The United States offered no substantive help to China after the Japanese conquered Manchuria in 1931-1932.
True or False: The United States refused to implement any punitive measures against Japan following its establishment of a protectorate over French Indochina in 1941.
True or False: The "good neighbor" polices of the 1920s and 1930s saw the United States permanently remove all its troops from Latin America
Through the lend-lease bill, passed in March 1934, "any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States":
A. could receive American military equipment, supplies, and other necessary materials if they rented them at fair market value
B. could purchase American military equipment, supplies, and other necessary materials made available through Canada
C. must declare war on Germany in order to be eligible for American material support
D. could receive military equipment, supplies, and other necessary materials even if that country lacked the funds to pay for those items
could receive military equipment, supplies, and other necessary materials even if that country lacked the funds to pay for those items
What agreement that Hitler personally agreed to was broken with the decision to conquer Czechoslovakia in 1939?
A. the Kellogg-Briand Pact
B. the Nine-Power Treaty
C. the Trade Agreements Act
D. the Munich agreement
The Munich Agreement
What did the governments of Italy and Germany have in common by the 1930s?
A. Both had established communist forms of government.
B. Both had thriving liberal democracies.
C. Both had strong monarchies.
D. Both had established Fascist forms of government.
both had established Fascist forms of government
What significant objective motivated Japanese expansion into Southeast Asia and the Pacific during 1940-1941?
A. an intention to provoke the United States to attack Japan first
B. the priority of defeating Chinese guerrilla fighters operating in Indochina
C. a desire to reobtain the Philippines from the United States, which had seized the islands from Japan
D. the expansion's provision of access to vitally needed oil, rubber, and other strategic materials
the expansion's provision of access to vitally needed oil, rubber, and other strategic materials
Which of the following countries was NOT an Axis power by June 1941?
B. the Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Which of the following is an American organization founded in the early 1920s to promote international peace?
A. League of Nations
B. United Nations
C. American Committee for the Outlawry of War
D. Kellogg-Briand group
American Committee for the Outlawry of War
Which of the following statements about the 1940 presidential election is true?
A. Franklin Roosevelt named a Republican as his vice-presidential running mate in the name of national unity.
B. Franklin Roosevelt became the first sitting president to lose a reelection bid in the midst of a national crisis.
C. Republican Thomas Dewey defeated Franklin Roosevelt in a landslide.
D. Franklin Roosevelt became the only president to run for and win a third term.
Franklin Roosevelt became the only president to run and win a third term
Which of the following statements about the attack on Pearl Harbor is NOT true?
A. It was one part of a larger Japanese offensive launched into Southeast Asia and the Pacific.
B. A specific attack on Pearl Harbor had been long expected by American officials.
C. The attack killed more than 2,400 U.S. servicemen and sank nineteen ships.
D. The attack ignored onshore facilities and oil tanks.
A specific attack on Pearl Harbor had been long expected by American officials.
Which of the following statements about the European war between June 1940 and June 1941 is true?
A. Italy was unwilling to enter the war despite the alliance with Germany.
B. The British defeated the Axis in Egypt and Libya, but at great cost.
C. Momentum seemed to shift from the Germans to the British.
D. The Nazi juggernaut appeared unstoppable.
The Nazi juggernaut appeared unstoppable.
Which statement accurately describes the treaties that came out of the Washington naval-armaments conference of 1921-1922?
A. They effectively ensured international cooperation and preserved international peace throughout the 1920s and into the 1930s.
B. Their strict stipulations and rigorous enforcement mechanisms ended up only encouraging international disagreement and conflict.
C. They effectively outlawed war among all the signatories.
D. They were actually without obligation and without mechanisms for enforcement, and ultimately proved ineffective.
They were actually without obligation and without mechanisms for enforcement, and ultimately proved ineffective.
What is the postwar mood of detached indifference to global affairs and official neutrality towards foreign entanglements?
What are payments by the vanquished to the victors after conflict.
Leaders of nine world powers met in 1921-22 to discuss the naval race; resulting treaties limited to a specific ratio the carrier and battleship tonnage of each nation (Five-Power Naval Treaty), formally ratified the Open Door to China (Nine-Power Treaty), and agreed to respect each other's Pacific territories (Four-Power Treaty).
Washington Armaments Conference
What was the treaty resulting from the Washington Armaments Conference of 1921-22 that limited to a specific ratio the carrier and battleship tonnage of each nation.
Five-Power Naval Treatment
Representatives of sixty-two nations in 1928 signed the pact (also called the Pact of Paris) to outlaw war.
Memorandum drawn up in 1928 by Undersecretary of State J. Ruben Clark that denied that the Monroe Doctrine justified American intervention in Latin America; published in 1930 by President Hoover.
Proclaimed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in his first inaugural address in 1933, it sought improved diplomatic relations between the United States and its Latin American neighbors
Good Neighbor Policy
In reaction to Japan's 1932 occupation of Manchuria, Secretary of State Henry Stimson declared that the United States would not recognize territories acquired by force.
Dictator who seized power in Italy in 1922 and organized the fascist movement, a hybrid of nationalism and socialism; entered World War II in June 1940 as Germany's ally.
Secretary of State under President Franklin Roosevelt whose grand scheme of reciprocal trade agreements was the chief exception to the administration's isolationism.
1934 act that authorized the president to lower tariff rates as much as 50 percent for countries that made similar concessions on American products; agreements were made with fourteen countries by the end of 1935, reaching a total of twenty-nine by 1945.
Trade Agreements Act
General who initiated the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and established a fascist dictatorship with help from Hitler and Mussolini; Franco's overthrow of the Spanish democracy was completed in 1939.
Senator from North Dakota and progressive Republican who led the Senate inquiry from 1934 to 1937 that concluded that bankers and munitions makers had made scandalous profits from World War.
Derogatory term for bankers and munitions makers who made scandalous profits from World War I.
merchants of death
Series of laws passed between 1935 and 1939 to keep the United States from becoming involved in war by prohibiting American trade and travel to warring nations.
Term for the President's discretionary authority to require that warring nations who purchased goods other than arms or munitions had to pay in cash and then carry them away in its own ships, an ingenious scheme to preserve a profitable trade without running the risk of war.
Term for the summer of 1940, during which the Royal Air Force, with the benefit of the new technology of radar, outfought the numerically superior German Luftwaffe and forced the Germans to postpone plans to invade England.
Battle of Britain
Nonpartisan committee formed in 1940 and composed of "internationalists" who believed that national security demanded aid to Britain during World War II.
Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
Largely midwestern isolationist organization supported by many prominent citizens, 1940-41.
America First Committee
Dark-horse Republican candidate who ran against President Franklin Roosevelt in 1941, in a race that produced Roosevelt's narrowest victory.
Wendell L. Willkie
Feisty British prime minister who defied the German invasion of Britain in World War II.
Term introduced by President Franklin Roosevelt for America's role in World War II giving supplies to the British war effort.
arsenal of democracy
Act of 1941 that permitted the United States to lend or lease arms and other supplies to the Allies, signifying increasing likelihood of American involvement in World War II.
Issued August 12, 1941, following meetings in Newfoundland between President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British prime minister Winston Churchill, the charter signaled the allies' cooperation and stated their war aims.
Group of Nations that formed in 1937 with the "Anti-Comintern Pact" between Italy, Germany, and Japan, but expanded when Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria were forced into the Axis fold, allowing Hitler to control nearly all of Europe.
Term used by Japanese militarists for the territories they coveted in 1940: French Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia), the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia), British Malaya (Malaysia), and Burma (Myanmar).
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
Act of July 2, 1940, which authorized the president to restrict the export of arms and other strategic materials to Japan.
Export Control Act
Pact between Japan, Germany, and Italy, signed on September 27, 1940, by which each pledged to declare war on any nation that attacked any of them.
During World War II, the fastest rate of urban growth occurred in the ______
D. Far West
Strategic bombing of Germany in 1943 _______.
A. cut German production by at least 25 percent
B. broke German morale
C. involved British and American planes
D. failed because of lack of planes
involved British and American Planes
The March on Washington Movement promoted rights for ________.
A. soldiers and veterans
B. women employed in defense industries
C. African Americans
D. Japanese Americans in relocation camps
True or False: World War II caused the deaths of 50 million people world wide.
True or False: The War Refugee Board was amazingly successful at rescuing Jews from Europe.
True or False: Due to government controls, union membership declined during the war.
The United States basic economic problem during World War II was ______
A. finding enough workers
B. expanding industrial production to meet demand
C. paying for the cost of war
D. raising enough agricultural supplies for the military
Finding enough workers
True or False: The largest naval battle in history occurred at the Coral Sea.
True or False: African American pilots were trained in a segregated facility at Tuskegee in Alabama.
The Battle of Midway was the turning point of the war in the Pacific because that battle _________.
A. stopped the eastward advance of the Japanese
B. destroyed most of what was left of the American fleet after Pearl Harbor
C. destroyed the Japanese fleet so that they were unable to pursue naval war after this.
D. placed the United States Airforce close enough to the mainland of Japan to carry out bombing raids there.
stopped the eastward advance of the Japanese
A. was the greatest naval battle of the war
B. was a crucial point in America's rise to global power
C. was fought after the Soviets reached Berlin
D. finally opened the Eastern Front in Europe
was a crucial point in America's rise to global power
In World War II, the greatest number of casualties were suffered by ______
C. the Soviet Union
D. Great Britain
the Soviet Union
At the conference in Casablanca, Churchill and Roosevelt decided to ________
A. attack in North Africa
B. assault Sicily and Italy
C. launch the Normandy Invasion
D. use the atomic bomb against Japan
assault Sicily and Italy
True or False: Native Americans served in segregated military units.
True or False: "Zoot-suit" riots involved black servicemen in Europe
War relocation camps were built to accommodate refugees from Europe.
Among the reasons the Atomic bomb was used against Japan was the belief that it would _______
A. intimidate Hitler and Germany into surrendering
B. soften Japan for an invasion
C. save the lives of American soldiers
D. all of the above
save the lives of the American soldiers
True or False: The ending of World War II led to another period of isolationism in the United States.
During World War II, women could do all of the following EXCEPT:
A. serve in the WAC
B. serve in active combat
C. serve in the WAVES
D. work in heavy industry
serve in active combat
True or False: During the war, congressional conservatives dismantled many New Deal Programs.
Battle that occurred on May 7-8, 1942 in which American forces stopped a fleet convoying Japanese troop transports toward New Guinea.
Battle of the Coral Sea
Battle that was the turning point on the war in the Pacific between the US and Japan that demonstrated that aircraft carriers were the decisive elements of modern naval warfare.
Battle of Midway
Act in 1941 that gave the president the right to reshuffle government agencies and to allot materials and facilities as needed for defense, with penalties for those who failed to comply.
War Powers Act
Created in 1942 to coordinate industrial efforts in World War II; similar to the War Industries Board in World War I.
War Production Board
An Act created to cover the war's huge cost, this provided for only about $7 billion in increased revenue, and greatly broadened the tax structure by making everyone a taxpayer.
Revenue Act of 1942
Created in 1941 to control wartime inflation and price fixing resulting from shortages of many consumer goods, the OPA imposed wage and price freezes and administered a rationing system.
Office of Price Administration
Act of 1943 that authorized the government to seize plants useful to the war.
Smith-Connally Labor Disputes Act
State laws enacted to prevent imposition of the closed shop; any worker, whether or not a union member, could be hired.
Organized labor term which means requiring that all employees of a company be union members.
The head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters who organized a March on Washington Movement to demand an end to racial discrimination in defense industries.
A. Phillip Randolph
March that led to an executive order forbidding discrimination in defense work and training programs by requiring a nondiscrimination clause in defense contracts.
March on Washington Movement
Created in 1941 by executive order, the FEPC sought to eliminate racial discrimination in jobs; it possessed little power but represented a step toward civil rights for African Americans.
Fair Employment Practices Commission
Slogan that stood for victory at home and abroad that became immensely popular in black communities.
"Double V" campaign
(1944) U.S. Supreme Court decision that outlawed all-white Democratic party primaries in Texas.
Smith v. Allwright
Program created in 1942 that offered seasonal farm workers from Mexico yearlong contracts, wages at the prevailing rate, and transportation from the border to their job sites.
In 1943, when several thousand off-duty Mexican American sailors and soldiers, joined by hundreds of local white civilians, rampaged through downtown Los Angeles streets, assaulting Hispanics, blacks, and Filipinos.
"zoot suit" riots
Japanese Americans; literally, "second generation".
Internment camps where Japanese Americans were held against their will from 1942 to 1945.
War Relocation Camps
An announcement by Roosevelt with Churchill's endorsement that the war would end only with this.
General who led Operation "Overlord" to victory in WWII and eventually became president in 1953.
General Dwight D. Eisenhower
The cross-Channel assault on Hitler's "Atlantic Wall" that is known as the greatest military invasion in the annals of warfare, and the climactic battle of World War II .
June 6, 1944, when an Allied amphibious assault landed on the Normandy coast and established a foothold in Europe from which Hitler's defenses could not recover.
General who led troops in WWII whose proposal to move westward along the northern coast of New Guinea toward the Philippines was accepted by Combined Chiefs of Staff.
General Douglas MacArthur
This term refers to a tactic of US forces in WWII that involved sinking Japanese troopships and warships bringing reinforcements, thereby, neutralizing Japanese strongholds and moving on, leaving them to die on the vine.
Battle fought mostly in the air that secured the Marianas and led to the resignation of Japanese General Tojo.
Battle of the Philippine Sea
The largest naval engagement in military history in which Japan lost most of their remaining sea power and the ability to defend the Philippines.
Battle of Leyte Gulf
Commander of the central Pacific, who led troops to victory in the Battle of the Philippine Sea.
Admiral Chester Nimitz
Republican and New York governor who ran against Roosevelt and lost in the 1944 election.
Thomas E. Dewey
Meeting of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin at a Crimean resort to discuss the postwar world on February 4-11, 1945; Soviet leader Joseph Stalin claimed large areas in eastern Europe for Soviet domination.
May 8, 1945, the day World War II officially ended in Europe.
Created by Roosevelt in 1944, this managed to rescue about 200,000 European Jews and some 20,000 others.
War Refugee Board
The wholesale extermination of some 6 million Jews along with more than 1 million others by the Nazis.
Secret American plan during World War II to develop an atomic bomb; J. Robert Oppenheimer led the team of physicists at Los Alamos, New Mexico.
Last meeting of the major Allied powers, the conference took place outside Berlin from July 17 to August 2, 1945; United States president Harry Truman, Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, and British prime minister Clement Atlee finalized plans begun at Yalta.
American B-29 bomber that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945.
True or False: Douglas MacArthur believed fighting Red China over Korea would involve the United States "in the wrong war at the wrong place at the wrong time and with the wrong enemy."
Bipartisan cooperation characterized relations between Congress and Truman on ________.
The Communists gained control of China in ________
True or False: In retaliation for the formation of NATO, the Soviet Union blockaded Berlin.
True or False: In 1947, George F. Kennan advocated a policy of containment toward the Soviet Union.
True or False: In 1946, the Republicans won control of Congress.
True or False: Jackie Robinson became the first black major league baseball player in 1947.
True or False:The Truman Doctrine extended economic aid to Greece and Turkey, in the hope that it would halt any attraction that Communism might have to their citizens.
Truman's program for the economic recovery of Europe was called ______
the Marshall Plan
True or False: In 1948, the Dixiecrats nominated Strom Thurmond for president, thereby splitting the Demomcratic party.
From April 1948 to May 1949, __________.
the Soviets blockaded Berlin
The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 dealt with __________.
curbing the power of labor unions.
True or False: General Douglas MacArthur led the U.S. military action in the Korean conflict until he was fired by President Truman.
President Truman's domestic program to initiate domestic reforms is know as __________
the Fair Deal
Joseph R. McCarthy was a _________.
Republican Senator from Wisconsin
Enacted in 1944, the GI Bill of Rights provided _______
educational, job, and housing benefits for veterans
True or False: Harry Truman was a strong convert to the need for civil rights for blacks.
True or False: The Charter of the United Nations was drawn up in San Francisco by delegates from fifty nations, even before the fighting in Europe had ended.
In their appearance before HUAC, the Hollywood Ten ________.
cited the First Amendment in refusing to answer questions
After World War II, the economy avoided severe dislocations due to demobilization because ________
pent-up demand for consumer goods spurred production.
Markedly higher birth rate in the years following World War II; led to the biggest demographic "bubble'' in American history.
Act of 1944, also known as the "GI Bill of Rights,'' which provided money for education and other benefits to military personnel returning from World War II.
Servicemen's Readjustment Act (GI Bill)
Act which set up a three-member Council of Economic Advisers to make appraisals of the economy with regard to employment levels and advise the president in an annual economic report, while a new congressional Joint Committee on the Economic Report would propose legislation.
Employment Act of 1946
Created in 1946 to supervise peacetime uses of atomic energy.
Atomic Energy Commission
Passed over President Harry Truman's veto, the 1947 law contained a number of provisions to control labor unions, including the banning of closed shops.
CIO's largely ineffective post-World War II campaign to unionize southern workers.
Act of 1947 that authorized the reorganization of government to coordinate military branches and security agencies; created the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the National Military Establishment (later renamed the Department of Defense).
National Security Act
Organization of nations to maintain world peace, established in 1945 and headquartered in New York.
Term coined by Winston Churchill to describe the cold war divide between western Europe and the Soviet Union's eastern European satellites.
General U.S. strategy in the cold war that called for containing Soviet expansion; originally devised in 1947 by U.S. diplomat George F. Kennan.
President Harry S. Truman's program of post-World War II aid to European countries-particularly Greece and Turkey-in danger of being undermined by communism.
Term for tensions, 1945-89, between the Soviet Union and the United States, the two major world powers after World War II.
Army general during World War II who orchestrated the Allied victories over Germany and Japan, and later Secretary of State who developed the Marshall Plan in 1947, a program of massive aid for the reconstruction of Europe.
U.S. program for the reconstruction of post-World War II Europe through massive aid to former enemy nations as well as allies; proposed by General George C. Marshall in 1947.
Allied air forces flew food, medicine, coal, and equipment into Berlin to counteract the Russian blockade of the city from June 1948 to May 1949.
(NATO) Defensive alliance founded in 1949 by ten western European nations, the United States, and Canada to deter Soviet expansion in Europe.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Committee established by the Franklin Roosevelt administration in 1941 that offered willing employers the chance to say they were following government policy in giving jobs to black citizens; the FEPC's authority was chiefly moral, since it had no power to enforce directives.
Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC)
Democratic faction, formed in 1947, that criticized President Truman but also took a firm anti-Communist stance.
Americans for Democratic Action
Secretary of Commerce under President Truman who was fired in 1946 over a disagreement in foreign policy; ran for president against Truman in 1948 on the Progressive party ticket.
South Carolina governor who ran for president against Truman in 1948 on the Dixiecrat ticket.
J. Strom Thurmond
Also known as the States Rights Party, a group of Deep South delegates who walked out of the 1948 Democratic National Convention in protest of the party's support for civil rights legislation.
Created when former president Theodore Roosevelt broke away from the Republican party to run for president again in 1912; the party supported progressive reforms similar to the Democrats but stopped short of seeking to eliminate trusts.
Domestic reform proposals of the second Truman administration (1949-53); included civil rights legislation and repeal of the Taft-Hartley Act, but only extensions of some New Deal programs were enacted.
A plan for technical assistance to underdeveloped parts of the world that was the fourth part of President Truman's anti-Communist foreign policy, which included the United Nations, the Marshall Plan, and NATO; it was never put into effect.
A top secret document produced by the National Security Council that called for rebuilding conventional military forces to provide options other than nuclear war.
Popular general who aggressively directed American forces during the Korean War and clashed with President Truman, who removed him from command in 1951.
Port city for Seoul, Korea, where General MacArthur landed a American force to the North Korean rear on September 15, 1950, a brilliant ploy that pushed the North Koreans back across the border.
Post-World War II Red Scare focused on the fear of Communists in U.S. government positions; peaked during the Korean War and declined soon thereafter, when the U.S. Senate censured Joseph McCarthy, who had been a major instigator of the hysteria.
Second Red Scare
Formed in 1938 to investigate subversives in the government; best-known investigations were of Hollywood notables and of former State Department official Alger Hiss, who was accused in 1948 of espionage and Communist party membership.
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
President of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace who served in several government departments; Hiss was accused by Whittaker Chambers, a former Soviet agent, of leaking secret government documents and was convicted of perjury in 1950.
A former Soviet agent who accused Alger Hiss in 1948 of giving him secret government documents; later become an editor of Time magazine.
California congressman who rose to national prominence for pursuing the case against Alger Hiss and exploiting an anti-Communist stance to win election to the Senate in 1950; later elected president in 1969.
Couple convicted of transmitting atomic secrets to the Russians and executed on June 19, 1953.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Republican senator from Wisconsin who accusing the State Department of being infested with Communists and was a major instigator of the Red Scare, McCarthy was later censured by the Senate.
1950 Act passed over President Harry S. Truman's veto which required registration of American Communist party members, denied them passports, and allowed them to be detained as suspected subversives.
McCarran Internal Security Act
True or False: The baby boom began in the late 1950s.
True or False: Consumer debt declined in the prosperous 1950s.
True or False: The ideal woman in 1956 according to Life magazine was one who balanced home and career.
True or False: After World War II, black Americans left the rural South for the urban North.
True or False: The phrase "under God" was added to the Pledge of Allegiance in the 1950s.
True or False: By 1960, nine out of ten American homes had a television.
True or False: During the postwar prosperity, the gap between the average incomes for blacks and whites decreased.
True or False: One major effect of the GI Bill of Rights was the democratization of higher education.
(1944) The "GI Bill of Rights'' provided money for education and other benefits to military personnel returning from World War II. What's another name for this act?
Servicemen's Readjustment Act
A new government agency that was part the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, popularly known as the GI Bill of Rights.
Markedly higher birth rate in the years following World War II; led to the biggest demographic "bubble" in American history.
An arc of states in the South, the Southwest, and the West, that stretched from the Carolinas down through Texas and into California that experienced population growth in urban areas.
A brassy New York developer who led the suburban revolution and with his brother made a fortune during the depression by building houses.
Low-cost, mass-produced development of suburban tract housing built by William Levitt on Long Island in 1947.
When some white residents, eager to maintain residential segregation, moved out to the suburbs when African Americans migrated to the cities of the North and Midwest after World War II.
This category of worker who earned a salary rather than an hourly-wage, outnumbered blue-collar workers for the first time in American history by the mid-50's.
A phrase that Congress made mandatory on all American currency in 1954, inspired by Eisenhower's patriotic crusade to bring Americans back to God.
"In God We Trust"
True or False: The crisis in Cuba caused the collapse of the Eisenhower-Khrushchev summit in 1960.
True or False : According to Eisenhower, "dynamic conservatism" meant "conservative when it comes to money and liberal when it comes to human beings."
True or False: By 1953, the United States involvement in Vietnam consisted of supporting two thirds of the cost of the French War effort.
True or False: The most important problem facing Eisenhower when he became president was the unresolved situation in Korea
True or False: As a result of the Little Rock crisis, the city's high schools closed.
True or False: The leader of the South Vietnamese was Ho Chi Minh.
True or False: The Civil Rights Act of 1957 did not have the support of President Eisenhower.
True or False: In Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" in public education was unconstitutional.
True or False:John Foster Dulles advocated the liberation of Eastern Europe.
True or False: The Diem government of South Vietnam, endorsed by Eisenhower, refused to hold the free elections promised for all Vietnamese in the Geneva Accords of 1954.
True or False: In the 1956 elections, Eisenhower became the first Republican to carry a Deep South state.
The Eisenhower administration's policy of brinksmanship called for reliance on _________.
True or False: Eisenhower's farewell address dealt with the dangers of a military-industrial complex.
True or False: Eisenhower failed in his objective to abolish the Social Security program.
True or False: Senator Joseph McCarthy went too far when he charged that the army was too "soft" on communism.
True or False: After the Montgomery bus boycott, Martin Luther King Jr. started the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
True or False: The Suez War of 1956 and the Soviet uprising in Hungary did not occur at the same time.
True or False: The United States enacted the National Defense Education Act in response to the launching of Sputnik.
True or False: Eisenhower always fought hard for civil rights causes.
True or False: In the 1952 campaign, Eisenhower promised to go to Korea
Ohio senator and Republican candidate in the 1952 presidential election who had become the foremost spokesman for domestic conservatism and for a foreign policy that his enemies branded as isolationist.
Robert A. Taft
Term used to describe Taft's version of foreign policy that favored an active American role in opposing communism but opposed "entangling alliances" such as NATO.
Vice President under Eisenhower who opposed left-wing "subversives" and pursued Alger Hiss as a member of the House Un-American Activities Committee.
(1951) Limited presidents to two full terms of office or two terms plus two years of an assumed term; passed in reaction to President Franklin D. Roosevelt's unprecedented four elected terms.
Governor of Illinois and Democratic candidate in the 1952 election who had led the crusade against Hitler, and opened a domestic crusade to clean up "the mess in Washington."
Adlai E. Stevenson
What Eisenhower called his domestic program which meant being "conservative when it comes to money and liberal when it comes to human beings."
A federal construction project that opened the Great Lakes to oceangoing ships by means of locks and dredging.
St. Lawrence Seaway
Televised U.S. Senate hearings in 1954 on Senator Joseph McCarthy's charges of disloyalty in the Army; his tactics contributed to his censure by the Senate.
Convicted of transmitting atomic secrets to the Russians, they went to the electric chair on June 19, 1953.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Under this edict of the anti-Communist crusade, federal workers could lose their jobs because of dubious associations or personal habits that might make them careless or vulnerable to blackmail.
Former governor of California and appointed by Eisenhower as the chief justice of the Supreme Court.
Secretary of State in the Eisenhower administration who favored working toward the "liberation" of eastern Europe from Soviet domination.
John Foster Dulles
The practice of seeking advantage by creating the impression that one is willing and able to push a highly dangerous situation to the limit rather than concede.
Phrase coined by John Foster Dulles that refers to his hostility towards the Democrat's policy of containment in the Soviet Union.
The developing nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
A seasoned revolutionary and passionate Vietnamese nationalist obsessed by a single goal: independence for his country.
Ho Chi Minh
A town of northwest Vietnam near the Laos border where the French military base fell to Vietminh troops on May 7, 1954.
Dien Bien Phu
An agreement that proposed to neutralize Laos and Cambodia and to divide Vietnam at the 17th parallel.
Pact among mostly western nations signed in 1954; designed to deter Communist expansion and cited as a justification for U.S. involvement in Vietnam .
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
South China Sea islands held by Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists.
Quemoy and Matsu
First artificial satellite to orbit the earth; launched October 4, 1957, by the Soviet Union.
A perceived lack in American technical prowess caused by the Soviet launch of Sputnik and Sputnik II into space.
In response to the Soviet Union's launching of Sputnik, Congress created this federal agency in 1957 to coordinate research and administer the space program.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
(1958) Passed in reaction to America's perceived inferiority in the space race, the appropriation encouraged education in science and modern languages through student loans, university research grants, and aid to public schools.
National Defense Education Act
The president authority of the president to extend economic and military aid to Middle East nations, and to use armed forces if necessary to assist any such nation against armed aggression from any Communist country.
Principle underlying legal racial segregation, which was upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) and struck down in Brown v. Board of Education (1954).
separate but equal
(1954) U.S. Supreme Court decision that struck down racial segregation in public education and declared "separate but equal'' unconstitutional.
Brown v. Board of Education
Middle- and upper-class versions of the Ku Klux Klan that spread quickly across the region and eventually enrolled 250,000 members.
In reaction to the Brown decision of 1954, U.S. senator Harry Byrd encouraged southern states to defy federally mandated school integration.
Denounced the Court's decision in the Brown case as "a clear abuse of judicial power" and was signed by 101 southern members of Congress in 1956.
A black seamstress who was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus to a white man.
Sparked by Rosa Parks's arrest on December 1, 1955, a successful year-long boycott protesting segregation on city buses; led by the Reverend Martin Luther King.
Montgomery bus boycott
A pastor from Montgomery Alabama who brought the civil rights movement a message of nonviolent disobedience based on the Gospels, the writings of Henry David Thoreau, and the example of Mahatma Gandhi in India. "We must use the weapon of love,"
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
First federal civil rights law since Reconstruction; established the Civil Rights Commission and the Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice.
Civil Rights Act of 1957
Arkansas governor who called out the National Guard to prevent nine black students from entering Little Rock's Central High School under federal court order.
True or False: Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech on the Mall in Washington, D.C. in 1963.
True or False: In 1962 President Kennedy sent federal troops to Mississippi, but not to Cuba.
True or False:The 1968 Republican Convention in Chicago was the scene of tumultuous riots.
True or False: Racial discrimination in hotels and restaurants was outlawed by the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
True or False: The effects of the 1964 tax cut helped to finance President Johnson's war on poverty.
The Immigration Act of 1965 ____________.
ended national quotas.
True or False: President Kennedy's program to help Latin America was called the Alliance for Progress.
True or False: In 1968, the correct order of events was the Tet offensive, LBJ's withdrawal from the presidential race, the assassination of Martin Luther King, and the Democratic convention in Chicago.
True or False: The march from Selma to Montgomery was the largest civil rights demonstration in American history.
True or False: President Johnson, an old New Dealer, was truly committed to civil rights.
True or False: The Tonkin Gulf resolution sanctioned America's escalation of the Vietnam conflict.
True or False: The correct order of events in the civil rights movement is the Montgomery bus boycott, Greensboro sit-ins, freedom rides, black power
True or False: The black power movement of the 1960s stimulated greater pride in the black racial heritage.
True or False: The turning point in the 1960 election came when Nixon agreed to debate Kennedy on television.
True or False: President Johnson decided to escalate the war in Vietnam to contain communism in the Far East.
In the Cuban missile crisis, President Kennedy ordered ________
a quarantine of Cuba
True or False: Many leaders in the black power movement, most notably Malcolm X, rejected Christianity and became members of the Black Muslim movement.
True or False: In Miranda v. Arizona, the Supreme Court ruled on the rights of a person accused of a crime.
In 1968, the candidate who claimed to speak for the "silent majority" and "Middle America" was _________.
A young Democrat who defeated Richard Nixon to win the presidency in 1960 who focused his efforts on liberal reform and furthering civil rights until his tragic assassination in 1963.
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy's program, stymied by a Republican Congress and his abbreviated term; his successor Lyndon B. Johnson had greater success with many of the same concepts.
A celebrated governmental program, created in 1961 under the Kennedy administration, which supplies volunteers to provide educational and technical services abroad.
The U.S. Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren, 1953-69, decided such landmark cases as Brown v. Board of Education (school desegregation), Baker v. Carr (legislative redistricting), and Gideon v. Wainwright and Miranda v. Arizona (rights of criminal defendants).
(1963) U.S. Supreme Court decision guaranteeing legal counsel for indigent felony defendants.
Gideon v. Wainwright
(1966) U.S. Supreme Court decision required police to advise persons in custody of their rights to legal counsel and against self-incrimination.
Miranda v. Arizona
Black Reverend, leader of the SCLC, and winner of the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize for his contributions to the American civil rights movement, he espoused a philosophy of nonviolent civil disobedience.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Sparked by Rosa Parks's arrest on December 1, 1955, a successful year-long boycott protesting segregation on city buses; led by the Reverend Martin Luther King.
Montgomery bus boycott
A nonviolent form of protest begun when four black college students sat down and demanded service at a "whites-only" lunch counter in 1960, starting a movement which quickly spread throughout the country.
(SNCC) Founded in 1960 to coordinate civil rights sit-ins and other forms of grassroots protest.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
(SCLC) Civil rights organization founded in 1957 by the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., and other civil rights leaders.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(CORE) Civil rights organization started in 1944 and best known for its "freedom rides," bus journeys challenging racial segregation in the South in 1961.
Congress of Racial Equality
A group of black and white progressives who boarded public busses together to test a federal court ruling that banned segregation on buses and trains, resulting in assaults by Alabama mobs and drawing national attention to the cause.
A student denied entrance to the University of Mississippi in 1962 because he was black, Merideth's case caused Attorney General Robert Kennedy to dispatch federal marshals to enforce the law and, after a bloody protest from a white mob, Meredith was finally able to register at "Ole Miss."
James H. Meredith
Police Commissioner of Birmingham, Alabama, who responded to Martin Luther King's 1963 nonviolent demonstrations with attack dogs, tear gas, electric cattle prods, and fire hoses, while millions of outraged Americans watched the confrontations on television.
Eugene "Bull" Connor
A Southern traditionalist governor who remained steadfast in opposing integration, who in 1963 stood dramatically in the doorway of a building at the University of Alabama to block the enrollment of several black students.
George C. Wallace
Civil rights demonstration on August 28, 1963, where the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., gave his "I Have a Dream'' speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial.
March on Washington
Hoping to inspire a revolt against Fidel Castro, the CIA sent 1,500 Cuban exiles to invade their homeland on April 17, 1961, but the mission was a spectacular failure.
Bay of Pigs
Caused when the United States discovered Soviet offensive missile sites in Cuba in October 1962; the U.S.-Soviet confrontation was the cold war's closest brush with nuclear war.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Southern Vietnam's Catholic Premier, whose use of repressive tactics against Communists and the Buddhist majority, along with his failure to deliver promised social and economic reforms lost him popular support in the early 1960s.
Ngo Dinh Diem
John F. Kennedy's assassin, who shot the President on his visit to Dallas Texas in November of 1963.
Lee Harvey Oswald
Texan Democrat who served as John F. Kennedy's vice-president and assumed the presidency after Kennedy's assassination in 1963, devoted to furthering civil rights and promising Americans a "Great Society."
Lyndon B. Johnson
Announced by President Lyndon B. Johnson in his 1964 State of the Union address; under the Economic Opportunity Bill signed later that year, Head Start, VISTA, and the Jobs Corps were created, and grants and loans were extended to students, farmers, and businesses in efforts to eliminate poverty.
War on Poverty
Term coined by President Lyndon B. Johnson in his 1965 State of the Union address, in which he proposed legislation to address problems of voting rights, poverty, diseases, education, immigration, and the environment.
A wealthy Senator from Arizona who emerged in 1960 as the leader of the Republican right and lost to Lyndon Johnson in the 1964 presidential election.
A comprehensive governmental medical care program for the elderly, initiated by President Johnson in 1965.
President Johnson's program, signed in 1965, allocating federal grants to states that would help cover medical payments for the indigent.
The first black cabinet member, he headed the new Department of Housing and Urban Development formed under the Johnson administration in 1966.
Robert C. Weaver
A bill initiated by President Kennedy and signed by Johnson in 1965, the act treated people of all nationalities and races equally, abolishing discriminatory quotas and allowing unlimited entry of American residents' immediate family members.
Immigration Act of 1964
The most far-reaching civil rights measure ever enacted by the Congress, it outlawed discrimination in public accommodations and employment.
Civil Rights Act of 1965
Created under the Civil Rights Act signed by President Johnson in 1964, the commission administered a ban on job discrimination by race, religion, national origin, or sex.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
The fifty-mile route followed by a group of civil rights protesters in 1965, over 35,000 of whom reached Montgomery, where Martin Luther King delivered a rousing address from the steps of the state capitol.
Selma to Montgomery march
Passed in the wake of Martin Luther King's Selma to Montgomery March, it authorized federal protection of the right to vote and permitted federal enforcement of minority voting rights in individual counties, mostly in the South.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Segregation amenable to changes in law
de jure segregation.
Young leader of the SNCC, who made the separatist philosophy of black power the groups official objective and ousted whites from the organization in 1966.
Post-1966 rallying cry of a more militant civil rights movement.
A provocative and armed group of urban revolutionaries founded in Oakland, California in 1966 that terrified the public but eventually fragmented in spasms of violence.
Black Panther party
One of America's most effective voices for urban black militancy, the self-proclaimed extremist organized black power alliances and published his Autobiography before his murder by a rival faction of Black Muslims in 1965.
(1964) Passed by Congress in reaction to supposedly unprovoked attacks on American warships off the coast of North Vietnam; it gave the president unlimited authority to defend U.S. forces and members of SEATO.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
The first sustained bombings of North Vietnam, an operation ordered by President Johnson which was intended to stop the flow of soldiers and supplies into the south.
An American Army General who served as commander of the American troops in Vietnam beginning in March 1965.
William C. Westmoreland
Surprise attack by the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese during the Vietnamese New Year of 1968; turned American public opinion strongly against the war in Vietnam.
Senator and brother of John F. Kennedy, an outspoken leader of the antiwar forces and presidential candidate who was assassinated during his campaign in June of 1968.
Robert F. Kennedy
A prominent liberal senator from Minnesota dedicated to the promotion of civil rights, he served as Johnson's vice-president from 1964-68 and ran an unsuccessful personal campaign for the presidency in 1968.
Hubert H. Humphrey
Nickname for the American majority that was wooed by Nixon and the Republicans' promise of a vision of stability and order in the U.S. in the presidential race of 1968.
True or False:The Nixon administration's most innovative domestic proposal was school busing.
True or False: The Port Huron Statement launched Students for a Democratic Society, which adopted the term "New Left" for its efforts at grassroots democracy.
True or False: In 1968, Nixon's "southern strategy" involved promising to go slow on enforcing Civil Rights laws.
True or False: The Carter administration supported a fundamentalist Muslim leader in Iran against the westernized shah of Persia.
True or False: Betty Friedan was a leading feminist who helped to launch the National Organization for Women in 1966.
True or False: Détente was an easing of tensions between the United States and the Communist powers, initiated by Richard Nixon.
True or False: Jimmy Carter created the Departments of Energy and Education.
True or False: Of all the minorities in the 1960s, the plight of the Native Americans was the most desperate.
True or False: Richard Nixon resigned from office in 1974 after a lengthy congressional investigation.
True or False: The greatest protests against Nixon's Vietnam policy came after the Cambodian Incursion
True or False: A major demonstration by Hispanic workers was a strike against grape farmers in California.
True or False: In Bakke v. Board of Regents of California, the Supreme Court approved the use of racial quotas in college admissions.
True or False: Carter's most significant accomplishment in foreign policy was brokering a treaty between Israel and Egypt.
True or False: During the Watergate crisis Nixon was accused of stealing funds of his reelection campaign.
The Stonewall riots sparked a movement for ________.
True or False: In Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court ruled that abortion within the first 3 months of pregnancy was illegal.
True or False:The shah's secret police masterminded the seizure of Americans in Tehran in 1979.
True or False: The War Powers Act requires a president to withdraw troops sent abroad after sixty days, unless Congress specifically authorizes a longer stay.
Radical youth protest movement of the 1960s, named by leader Tom Hayden to distinguish it from the Old (Marxist-Leninist) Left of the 1930s.
(SDS) Major organization of the New Left, founded at the University of Michigan in 1960 by Tom Hayden and A1 Haber.
Students for a Democratic Society
Tom Hayden's term for the former style of American government since lost to oppressive influences of major organizations such governments, corporations, and universities.
(FSM) Founded in 1964 at the University of California at Berkeley by student radicals protesting restrictions on their right to demonstrate.
Free Speech Movement
Nickname for members of the Youth International party, an outlandish protest group which supported nihilism, anarchy, and psychedelic drugs.
An indiscriminately violent group that emerged from the breakup of the SDS in 1968.
"Hippie" youth culture of the 1960s, which rejected the values of the dominant culture in favor of illicit drugs, communes, free sex, and rock music.
Counterculture advocates, largely educated and affluent white youths who felt alienated from American society and its various institutions.
(NOW) Founded in 1966 by writer Betty Friedan and other feminists, it pushed for abortion rights and nondiscrimination in the workplace, but within a decade it became radicalized and lost much of its constituency.
National Organization for Women
Part of the Educational Amendments Act of 1972 that required colleges to engage in "affirmative action" for women.
Amendment to guarantee equal rights for women, introduced in 1923 but not passed by Congress until 1972; it failed to be ratified by the states.
Equal Rights Amendment
(1973) U.S. Supreme Court decision requiring states to permit first-trimester abortions.
Roe v. Wade
A popular slogan and chant of young people opposed to the conflict in Vietnam.
"make love, not war"
An inclusive label for all Mexican immigrants, Spanish Americans, Californios, and Tejanos.
Union for the predominantly Mexican-American migrant laborers of the Southwest, organized by Cesar Chavez in 1962.
United Farm Workers
The son of Mexicans immigrants and founder of the UFW, Chavez's personal charisma and insistence on nonviolence in his organization of immigrant farm laborers in California gained him much popularity and support.
(AIM) A militant Indian group founded in 1963, its leaders aimed to promote "red power" through protests and armed seizure of land.
American Indian Movement
The weekend-long clash between the police and patrons at the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in New York City that was raided by the police in June of 1969.
(GLF) An organization created in the fray of the Stonewall riot that, in the spirit of the gay rights movement, gave homosexuals a new sense of solidarity.
Gay Liberation Front
The predominantly white working-class and middle-class citizens who, by the early 1970s, were determined to regain control of a society they feared had become awash in anarchy by the minority.
National security advisor to presidents Nixon and Ford, who played a major role in American affairs in Vietnam, China, the Middle East, and the Soviet Union.
The equipping and training of the South Vietnamese to assume the burden of ground combat in place of Americans.
Nixon's clarification of the draft system, established in 1969, which eliminated many inequities by clearly stating that only nineteen-year-olds with low lottery numbers would be called into the military.
Negative nickname for Nixon's secret bombing campaign and subsequent invasion of "neutral" Cambodia in 1970
Site of 1968 antiwar rioting during which four students were killed by Guardsmen, gaining national attention and sparking a larger debate over which side was in the right: the protestors or those attempting to keep the peace.
Kent State University
Informal name for the Defense Department's secret history of the Vietnam conflict; leaked to the press by former official Daniel Ellsberg and published in the New York Times in 1971.
The Pentagon Papers
Popular term for President Nixon's December 18, 1972, saturation bombings of Hanoi and Haiphong, the two largest cities in North Vietnam.
(1969) Case fifteen years after the Brown decision in which the U.S. Supreme Court ordered an immediate end to segregation in public schools.
Alexander v. Holmes Country Board of Education
(1971) Case that held by unanimous ruling by the Burger Court that school systems must bus students out of their neighborhoods if necessary to achieve integration.
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
(1978) Case in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled against the California university system's use of racial quotas in admissions
Bakke v. Board of Regents of California.
One of Nixon's names for his domestic program, which he promised would start resources and power flowing back from government to the people, but never became popular with the American public.
(1971) Lowered the voting age from twenty-one to eighteen.
Term for the puzzling American economic situation in the early 1970s, in which the market was seemingly undergoing a recession and inflation at the same time.
(EPA) Created in 1970 during the first administration of President Richard M. Nixon to oversee federal pollution control efforts.
Environmental Protection Agency
The promise of a more orderly and restrained competition between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
Henry Kissinger's tireless efforts at peacemaking, which involved numerous flights among the capitals of the Middle East and won him acclaim from all sides.
Democratic governor from Alabama who posed the most significant to Nixon's reelection in 1972, he was forced to withdraw from the campaign in May after he was shot and paralyzed in an assassination attempt.
George C. Wallace
South Dakotan governor and Democratic party nominee in the 1972 election, a steadfast liberal who alienated party regulars with his antiwar ideals and lost the election to Nixon by a huge margin.
George S. McGovern
Watergate Judge whose relentless prodding elicited the full details of the scandal from one of the accused.
John J. Sirica
North Carolinian Senator and head of the Senate investigation committee during the Watergate trials.
Samuel J. Ervin
The time during the Watergate trial when President Nixon ordered Harvard law professor Archibald Cox fired, and Attorney-General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney-General William Ruckelshaus resigned rather than execute his order.
Saturday Night Massacre
Vice-president at the time of Nixon's resignation and former House minority leader from Michigan, Ford served as unelected president from 1974-76.
Passed in 1973 by a Democratic Congress, requiring the President to gain Congressional approval before making certain decisions regarding American military affairs.
War Powers Act
President from 1976-80, a Southern Democrat who upheld human rights and liberal reform but lost popularity for his inability to solve America's energy and economic crises
Peace agreement between Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian president Anwar Sadat, brokered by President Jimmy Carter in 1978.
Camp David Accords
The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks between Nixon and Soviet Premier Brezhnev in 1972, which limited both the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and the construction of antiballistic missile systems (ABMSs).
A Muslim religious leader who upheld Islamic values and shunned the West, Khomeini gained power after the fall of the shah in 1979 and soon engaged the U.S. and the UN in a bloody and costly hostage crisis.
True or False: The Reagan Administration supported the Contras in Nicaragua.
True or False: Boris Yeltsin led the coup against Gorbachev in 1991.
True or False: Ronald Reagan led the crusade to find a cure for AIDS.
The Bush Administration sent troups into:
True or False: Reagan argued that cutting taxes and federal spending would increase government revenues.
Causes of homelessness in the 1980s were:
A) deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill
B) lack of new public housing
D) all of the above
All of the Above
The Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981
A) cut personal income taxes by 25%
B) reduced the national debt by one third.
C) raised capital gains taxes on the most wealthy citizens.
cut personal income taxes by 25%
True or False: The Iran-Contra Affair involved using Sandinistas to fight Saddam Hussein.
True or False: Between 1980 and 1989, the federal debt grew and was much higher than when Reagan became President.
Crucial Ingredients of Reaganomics did NOT involve:
A) cutting taxes
B) increasing defense spending
C) balancing the budget
D) reducing regulation of business.
Balancing the budget
In 1987, Reagan signed a treaty with Gorbachev
A) restricting biological and chemical warfare
B) eliminating intermediate-range nuclear weapons C) ending the controversy over Afghanistan
D) settling the dispute between Israel and Lebanon.
Eliminating intermediate-range nuclear weapons
The Iran-Contra Affair involved
A) selling arms for hostages in Iran
B) Lieutenant-Colonel Oliver North
C) secretly supporting rebels in Nicaragua.
D) all of the above.
all of the above
True or False: In the 1988 election, George H. W. Bush defeated Jimmy Carter.
In fighting Iraq in Desert Storm, the Bush administration
A) had the support of the United Nations in Resolution 678.
B) used 400,0000 American troups.
C) was assisted by forces from more than 20 nations.
D) all of the above
all of the above
True or False: Operation Desert Storm involved sending US troops into Romania to support democratic, anti-Communist forces.
True or False: Reagan's attack on Grenada was called "Star Wars".
Reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Empire included all of the following, EXCEPT:
A) Gorbachev's repudiation of the Brezhnev Doctrine
B) demonstrations in Tiananmen Square.
C) peaceful revolutions in Poland and Hungary.
D) the destruction of the Berlin Wall
demonstrations in Tiananmen Square
Ronald Reagan's successes as a President included the
A) abolition of the Department of Education.
B) reduction of a federal budget as a percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
C) federal legislation to restore school prayer.
D) none of the above
None of the above
A Hollywood actor who became governor of California and later served two presidential terms (from 1980-84), known for his personal charisma and his conservative economic and social views.
Televangelist Jerry Falwell's political lobbying organization, the name of which became synonymous with the religious right-conservative evangelical Protestants who helped ensure President Ronald Reagan's 1980 victory.
A right-wing Republican activist from Illinois who orchestrated a backlash against the feminist movement during the 1970s, helping to defeat the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) and convince many northern Democrats-mostly working-class Catholics- to support Reagan.
The popular name for President Ronald Reagan's philosophy of "supply side'' economics, which combined tax cuts, less government spending, and a balanced budget with an unregulated marketplace.
The nickname for the southern conservative Democrats whose sympathy helped President Reagan's 1981 economic measures pass through Congress with overwhelming majorities.
A measure signed by Reagan in 1981 which cut personal income taxes by 25 percent, lowered the maximum rate from 70 to 50 percent for 1982, cut the capital gains tax by a third, and offered the wealthy a broad array of other tax concessions.
Economic Recovery Tax Act
The problematic situations that arose when Reagan, like Harding and Coolidge in the 1920s, named people to government positions who were unsympathetic to the regulatory functions for which they were responsible.
conflict of interest
A nickname given to Reagan's term by critics, referring to the way his charismatic style effectively shielded him from blame over the growing scandals and conflicts of interest among his aides and cronies-like Teflon, nothing negative stuck to the president's reputation.
A labor union, also known as PATCO, many members of which were fired by President Reagan in 1981 for their participation in an illegal strike.
Professional Air Traffic Controllers
The first woman justice appointed to the Supreme Court, a Reagan nomination that critics labeled a token gesture rather than a reflection of any genuine commitment to gender equality.
Sandra Day O'Connor
The Defense Department's plan during the Reagan administration to build a system to destroy incoming missiles in space, also dubbed the "Star Wars" initiative.
Strategic Defense Initiative
The president of El Salvador, whose American-backed government helped bring a modicum of stability to his country in the mid-1980s.
Jose Napoleon Duarte
Guerrilla bands of disgruntled Nicaraguans who, trained by the CIA under the Reagan administration, staged attacks on Sandinista bases and officials from sanctuaries in Honduras.
A tiny Caribbean island seized by a radical military council in 1983, which Reagan ordered the U.S. military to reclaim-a quick action that made him appear decisive and gained much popular support from both Americans and Grenadans.
The 1984 Democratic Party presidential nominee, tagged the candidate of the "special interests" and plagued by campaign setbacks, who lost the election to Reagan by a large margin.
An act signed by Reagan in 1986 that served to lower federal income tax rates to 1920s levels and eliminate many loopholes.
Tax Reform Act
Scandal of the second Reagan administration involving sale of arms to Iran in partial exchange for release of hostages in Lebanon and use of the arms money to aid the Contras in Nicaragua, which had been expressly forbidden by Congress.
A Marine lieutenant-colonel and National Security Council aide who played a central role in the Iran-Contra scandal, organizing illegal operations from the basement of the White House, North was fired when the press broke the story to the public.
Transformation of blighted areas and neighborhoods into places for the middle and upper classes through development and rebuilding that often displaced poorer residents.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, a deadly malady with high treatment costs that began to gain notice in the 1980s, but was initially disregarded by political conservatives who viewed it as a "gay" disease.
Vice-President during both of Reagan's terms and the Republican candidate in the 1988 presidential race, Bush defeated Michael Dukakis to serve one term as President.
George H. W. Bush
The site of a 1989 public demonstration in Beijing (Peking) where government forces mounted a deadly assault on demonstrators, marking the end of the Chinese democracy movement.
"Restructuring," one of two central principles in Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's response to the failure of his country's previously rigid economic system in the late 1980s.
"Openness," one of Gorbachev's two guiding policies during his general loosening of Soviet central economic planning and censorship in the late 1980s.
Populist president of the Russian republic, who emerged as the most popular political figure in the country after the failed reactionary coup of 1991 in which military and political rebels attempted to overthrow Gorbachev and seize control of the Soviet Union.
Leader of the Panamanian Defense Forces, Noriega supplied information to the CIA during the Bush administration, but was indicted in 1988 for drug and other charges and eventually captured and convicted after a military standoff with U.S. troops in Panama.
Dictator of Iraq, whose invasion of Kuwait in 1990 initiated the military battle Operation Desert Storm, which left over 100,000 Iraqis dead but their leader still in power.
Multinational military operation aimed at protecting Kuwait and Saudi Arabia from Iraqi invasion in 1990 (Became Operation Desert Storm when the first cruise missiles began to hit Iraq in January 1991).
Multinational allied force that defeated Iraq in the Gulf War of January 1991.
Operation Desert Storm
The Democratic candidate in the 1988 presidential race, Dukakis initially held a wide lead over George Bush, but a less-focused campaign and mudslinging from his critics lost Dukakis the majority of both the popular and electoral college votes.
The case of Hopwood vs. Texas involved
A) abortion rights
B) the controversial presidential election of 2000
C) affirmative action
D) the rights of illegal immigrants
The leader of the major Islamic terrorist network is
A) Al Queda
B) Saddam Hussein
C) Hamid Karzai
D) Osama Bin Laden
Osama Bin Laden
True or False: The Christian Coalition chose to work politically through the Democratic Party.
True or False: George W. Bush received more popular votes than Al Gore in the 2000 election.
The 2008 election was historic for all of these reasons, EXCEPT:
A) Sarah Palin was the first woman to run for President
B) Obama was the first African American to be nominated for president by either major party
C) McCain was the oldest candidate to ever run for president
D) the Internet was used to get grassroots support
Sarah Palin was NOT the first woman to run for President, she ran for V.P.
True or False: George W. H. Bush broke his "no new taxes" promise.
In the 2000 election, George W. Bush had strong support in:
A) urban areas
B) the West
C) the Northeast
D) the South
True or False: By 2005, Hispanics comprised the largest minority group in the nation.
No Child Left Behind was George W. Bush's policy regarding:
A) victims of Hurricane Katrina
B) education reform
C) survivors of the September 11 attacks
D) civilians after Operation Iraqi Freedom
True or False: During 1991, one fifth of the labor force was out of work at some point.
In 1998, President Clinton was impeached for:
A) having sexual relations with a White House intern
B) lying to Congress
C) obstructing justice
D) covering up his activities in Whitewater
True or False: The military part of Operation Iraqi Freedom went surprisingly smoothly and quickly.
True or False: In 2007, George W. Bush was blamed for the inept federal response to human suffering in the wake of Hurricane Katrina.
By 2000, immigration in the United States was
A) mostly from Europe
B) at an all-time low
C) mostly from Asia, Africa, and Latin America
D) typical of the post World War II era
Mostly from Asia, Africa, and Latin America
True or False: The computer age began in 1975.
One of the Clinton Administrations major legislative accomplishments was:
A) health care reform
B) a middle-class tax cut
C) welfare reform
D) ending affirmative action
By the end of 2005, U.S. involvement in Iraq suffered from:
A) the admission of weapons of mass destruction had not been found
B) continued violence and suicide bombings in Iraq
C) revelations of torture and abuse of Iraqi prisoners by America
D) all of the above
all of the above
More than 90 percent of U.S. population growth in the last quarter century occurred in:
A) rural areas
B) the Northeast and Midwest
C) the Sunbelt.
D) the Mississippi River Valley
True or False: Nancy Peloski became the first female Speaker of the House of Representatives in 2007.
True or False: Within a few weeks of the attack on the World Trade Center, the United States led a major bombing attack on Afghanistan.
States of the South and West which during the last quarter of the twentieth century continued to lure residents from the Midwest and Northeast.
Economy at the end of the twentieth century that continued to shift from manufacturing to professional service industries, particularly those specializing in telecommunications and information processing.
A controversial initiative that denied California's estimated 4 million illegal immigrants access to public schools, nonemergency health care, and other social services.
A man who, as a Harvard sophomore, improved the software of the Altair 8800 and eventually helped to transform the personal computer from a hobby machine to a mass consumer product.
A group that encouraged religious conservatives to vote, run for public office, and support only those candidates who shared the organization's views.
A conservative federal judge who was accused of sexually harassing Anita Hill.
President who faced allegations of both sexual and financial scandal that grew into a relentless inquiry such as no previous president had ever before encountered.
Vice President from Tennessee under Bill Clinton who ran for presidency in 2003 and lost to George W. Bush.
Off-and-on independent presidential candidate and billionaire who found a big audience for his simplified explanations of public problems and his offers to just "get under the hood and fix them."
H. Ross Perot
Allowed certain workers to take twelve weeks of unpaid leave each year for family health problems, including birth or adoption of a child.
Family and Medical Leave Act
The North American Free Trade Agreement with Canada and Mexico allowed goods to travel across their borders free of tariffs; critics argued that American workers would lose their jobs to cheaper Mexican labor.
Religious cult that lived communally near Waco, Texas, and was involved in a fiery 1993 confrontation with federal authorities in which dozens of cult members died.
Where a confrontation between federal authorities and a militia group resulted in catastrophic consequences.
A ten-point contract that outlined an anti-big-government program with less regulation, less conservation, term limits for members of Congress, a line-item veto for the president, welfare reform, and a balanced-budget amendment.
Contract with America
Republican Speaker of the House who launched a series of attacks on the ethics of the Democratic leadership in the House, and who helped mobilize religious and social conservatives associated with the Christian Coalition.
Welfare reform measure that mandated state administration of federal aid to the poor.
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act
Former Republican Senate majority leader who ran against Bill Clinton.
Ambassador to the United Nations who became the first woman to head the State Department.
Federal Reserve Board chairman whose firm and astute leadership helped American business and industry witness record profits as the twentieth century came to a close.
A case in which the Court assessed a program that gave some advantages to businesses owned by "disadvantaged" minorities.
Adarand Constructors v. Pena
A case in which the Fifth Circuit Court ruled that considering race to achieve a diverse student body at the University of Texas was "not a compelling interest under the Fourteenth Amendment."
Hopwood v. Texas
An initiative that ruled out race, sex, ethnicity, or national origin as criteria for preferring any group.
A resort project on the White River in northern Arkansas that the Clintons invested in that turned out to be a fraud and a failure.
Whitewater Development Corporation
A Republican who was appointed to serve as independent counsel in the Whitewater case.
The constitutional requirement for removal of a president.
high crimes and misdemeanors
The driving of people from their homes and towns, burning villages, murdering males, raping females, and displacing hundreds of thousands people.
The first president since John Quincy Adams to follow his father in the White House.
George W. Bush
A television commentator and former White House aide who challenged Bush in the Republican primary.
Independent candidate and liberal activist who ran in the 2003 election.
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined the winner of the disputed 2000 presidential election.
Bush v. Gore
Vice President under George W. Bush who had served as secretary of defense under the senior George Bush.
A well-financed worldwide network of Islamic extremists.
A wealthy Saudi renegade who sought to mobilize Muslim militants, energized by local causes, into a global army aimed at the West.
Osama bin Laden
An ultraconservative Islamic faction that emerged in the mid-1990s following the forced withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan.
A ferocious military campaign launched by the United States and its allies to find and punish terrorists or "those harboring terrorists."
Operation Enduring Freedom
A new federal agency created to address the threat of domestic terrorism and to help restore public confidence after 9/11.
Office of Homeland Security
New legislation that gave government agencies the right to eavesdrop on confidential conversations between prison inmates and their lawyers.
Name 5 mistakes Hitler made with dates:
1st mistake was taking France.
2nd mistake was at the Battle of Britain.
3rd mistake was invading Russia - Hitler took troops from Europe to go invade Russia and he highly underestimated the Soviet Army. He lost some 70% of the troops he sent.
4th mistake was declaring war on the US.
5th mistake was when he turned down Stalin's offer of being ally with one another, June 1943. This seals Stalin's alliance with the Allies and he later meets with them at the Tehran Conference to discuss their second offensive against the Nazis
What were the decisions made at Yalta?
At Yalta, Roosevelt and Churchill discussed with Stalin the conditions under which the Soviet Union would enter the war against Japan and all three agreed that, in exchange for potentially crucial Soviet participation in the Pacific theater, the Soviets would be granted a sphere of influence in Manchuria following Japan's surrender. This included the southern portion of Sakhalin, a lease at Port Arthur (now Lüshunkou), a share in the operation of the Manchurian railroads, and the Kurile Islands.
Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin agreed not only to include France in the postwar governing of Germany, but also that Germany should assume some, but not all, responsibility for reparations following the war.
The Americans and the British generally agreed that future governments of the Eastern European nations bordering the Soviet Union should be "friendly" to the Soviet regime while the Soviets pledged to allow free elections in all territories liberated from Nazi Germany.
Negotiators also released a declaration on Poland, providing for the inclusion of Communists in the postwar national government.
All parties agreed to an American plan concerning voting procedures in the Security Council, which had been expanded to five permanent members following the inclusion of France. Each of these permanent members was to hold a veto on decisions before the Security Council.