Hyacinthe Rigaud, Portrait of King Louis XIV of France, French, Rococo
Louis had longest Reign 72 years outlived and son grandson. Consolidated French Power. Took power away from nobility. Organizing everything under jurisdiction of church. Idea government would exert control over arts and etc. French Govt more involved with art than any industrialized country even to day. Created in 1648 Royal Academy of painting. Louis built most fabulous elaborate palace Versailles. Royal Academy held an annual event called Salon, an exhibition of painting.
Antoine Watteau, Pilgrimage to the Island of Cythera, Rococo
Sort of history derives from classical mythology, Goddesses washed up to Cythera Venus washed up, Everyone is lovers a day of love making back to reality
Francois Boucher, Venus at Vulcan's Forge
History Painter, Conventional subject of classical mythology. Venus Goddess of love and beauty. Wants to secure arms for her son and Anus. Goes to husband Vulcan and asks him to create arms for Anus. Sexual favors. Receptive body posture, under dressed. Hands up her sword.
Jean- Honore Fragonard, The Swing, Rococo
Concerned with love affairs of upper classes. One of suitors pushing her. Flirting with Baron in bushes. Baron patron. Raises up leg to reveal underneath her skirts. Kick of shoe (symbolic of sexual availability). Back and fort motion of swing. A symbol of fickleness back and forth between men. Outdoor setting, wild garden, lack of control, of human behavior. Cupid shh. to tell not to tell about Baron.
What is central to Rococo?
Art for court. Central subject matter. Theme love central iconography.
Adelaide Labille Guiard, self portrait with two pupils
What is neo-classism?
1. Great exponent (from Rococo). Jacquis-louis David movement that begins right before French Revolution , just before during and after. Style- looks back to classical art and classical art of Renaissance. All of neo-classical paintings have a political charge. A style and philopshy
Jacques-Louis David, Death of Socrates
Civic Virtue, Relate to tumultuous period, Clear composition. Descriptive methods, sharp detail, sharp outlines, shilouted and against stone. Socrates 5th Century BCE Athens, put to death for crimes of corrupting youth of Athens. Socrates followers find out to get him to escape. Does not escape says he needs to respect laws of state civic interest of individual. Good of state trumps the good of one. Raises arm in rhetoric speaking gesture. Clear presentation of narrative. Had to drink poison (hemlock) about to willing accept his own death.
Jacques- Louis David, Oath of Horatii, Rococo
Story from ancient Rome. Ancient Romans at war with Albania, Resolve conflict with triple combat. Romans chose Horatii brothers. Albans chose brothers fight brother in law. 3 sisters grieving husbands are going to fight brothers. 3 Horatian brothers transcending family love for the good of the state. Take an oath pm 3 swords. Civic virtue trumping personal best interest. Crisp forms, almost see contour lines, very detailed, highly idealized bodies coherent composition.Uses 3 arches to frame 3 settings. 3 Horatio brothers, man with 3 swords, 3 women clear establishment of composition.
Angelica Kauffmann, Cornelia presenting her children as her treasures, Rococo
Role in family, since of values values her children
Jacques- Louis David, The Death of Marat, Rococo
Marat one of the heroes of the revolution. Before painting Marat was assassinated by a women. Recent event French Revolutionary. Marat twins into a history painting that embodies civic virtue, given life for star. History painting brought into present .Present constitutes a great subject. Significant change in history painting. Neo-Classism embody reason trumps feelings.
What is Romanticism?
Movement transpires. Great exponent. Spanish painter Francis Goya. Reaction to neo-classism
Francisco Goya, The Third of May, Spanish, Romanticism
War and What war reveals about mans atrocity to man. French Emperor Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808. French Firing squad butchering after fall of city. Night, not a particularly heroic moment. Bloody pile of bodies, in front of group of peasants, cannot bear to watch violence, cannot bear to watch violence, tradedgy messy side of war. Central figure raises up his arms reminiscent of crucifixion, a marauder, do not see a single face, they are machines, humanity eliminated instrument of murder. Meant to be upsetting not uplifting . History painting that brings subject into present. Goya style different from neo-classism, lost detailed anatomical treatment, loosely painted, Crisp contour line, less detailed.
Theodore Gericault, The Raft of the Medusa, Romanticism
naturalistic as well as idealized bodies. Closer to neo-classism in style. But sense capability, recent subject in history not uplifting story. A recent event of French History. Ship start to sink, captain and crew take life boats, left 150 people on ship only 15 survivors. Cannibalism. Shows end of suffering, spot ship in distance. Does not make us feel good about human nature, Not a glorious moment, Emotional moment.
Eugene Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, Romanticism
Celebrating daily revolution of 1830. Uprising of Parisians. King restored in France. Parisians rise up and fore abdaction of King. Refused system of government. Includes allegorical figure of liberty leading the people. Rejects idealized figures. Revolution not heroic, see in foreground causalities, scarred. No heroes in this painting, real event from recent history. Focus on how horrible for individuals who participated.
Turner, The Slave ship
Elevate status of landscape painting. Takes a landscape painting and turns in to history painting. English history, caught in storm took cargo & through overboard cargo slaves to save him and his crew. Vast terrifying spectar of nature. The sublime enormity of nature how indifferent nature can be to impuny inhabitants. Free brushstrokes, not concerned with detailed naturalism, create emotional sensibility, Setting sun emotional realism. terror nature.
What is realism?
Was an art movement reaction to romanticism. Product of a # of events. Developments in science Darwinism. Louis Pasteur germ theory of disease. Promoting importance of scientifically verifiable facts. These kinds of facts that are real. Scientific method to gain knowledge. Sexiest of intellectual debate. Industrial revolution, invention of photography.
Gustave Courbet, The Stone Breakers, Realism
The art of painting, only in representation of objects visible and tangible to painters. No moral message no body idealized no tragedy no emotion. Both faces turned away from us. Straight forward realistic depiction, patched clothes (anti iconography) Began in France picked up in America
Thomas Eakins,(AMERICAN) The Gross Clinic, Realism
Performing surgery. Uncleaned up. Bloody hands, no surgical gloves, straight forward.
Winslow Homer, The Veteran in a new field. Realism
Un idealized, un individualized, only hint a scythe uses could be related to Grimm Reaper.
Edouard Manet, Dejeuner sur l'herbe, Luncheon on the Grass, Realism
Not allegorical, Contemporary people in modern life. Why is women nude, Makes direct eye contact with us presence of viewer, flat and unmolded women. Submitted to jury of salon and rejected. Protest exhibition arguing to alternate critical salon refuses villain of the show.
Edouard Manet, Olympia, Realism
Olympia same idea as titan Venus, but unlike his painting. Manet's person is a prostitute receiving flowers from admirer, covers genital area, assertively wears jewelry and props. Unmolded forms, rejects illustinistic of classical and conventional 3rd dimensionality.
Edouard Manet, Portrait of Berthe Morisot
As an impressionist
Edouard Manet, Portrait of Emile Zola
Japense Print and print of Manets Olypmia
Claude Monet, Impressionism Sunrise
Not historical, Everyday life, Landscape painting modern life. Bright color accidental. Impressionist painting done outside. (paint manufactured and stored in tubes, whole new awareness of naturalistic lighting. Exhibited in an independent exhibition 1st of 8 in Paris. Light reflection in water. Painting of modern life impact of industrialization. pure color, sun bright.
What is impressionism?
Claude Monet founder of impressionism. Goes in some different visual directions movement. Impressionism title coined by hostile critic. Title impressionism- meant as an insult no significance of painting. Overarching theme between two values celebrates industrialization. Focus on accidental composition. Not to emphasize monumental subject not a focal point. Avoids monumental subjects. Emphasizes light and color. Short choppy visible brushstrokes.
Claude Monet, Gare St. Lazare, Paris (2 Versions) Impressionism
Whole notion of painting series. Train station, Celebration of industrialization. Splendid undetailed impressionism. Different times of day. color choices. Different vantage points. Reminds of Japanese art prints series of Mount Fuji and Modern day to Tokyo.
Claude Monet, Haystacks (3 versions), Impressionism
Coloring, lighting, time of day different. Color in shadows blues, white and red, yellow. Publication of Color Theory
Claude Monet, Water Lilies, Impressionism
Very broadly painted. Later career. Moves out of city starts to paint natural settings. Brushstrokes broader less recognizable.
What is representation?
Image that records something from visual reality.
What is abstraction?
Is art that does not attempt to portray something from the visible world.
Auguste Renoir, Monet painting in his garden, Impressionism
More interested in figurative than landscape. Urban objects.
Le' Moulin de la Galette
Dance public urban gathering
Luncheon at Bougival ( The Luncheon of the Boating Party), Impressionism
Different colors, celebration of light color short brushstrokes