Nutrition Exam II Questions

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What substance helps suspend fat in a variety digestive mixture, making fat more available to digestive enzymes?

bile

Where are most digestive enzymes produced?

liver and pancreas

What produces bile?

liver

Muscular contractions that move food through the digestive tract?

peristalsis

The study of how food impacts health through its interaction with our genes and its subsequent effect on gene expression is called?

nutrigenomics

What % of a meal has een absorbed by the time it leaves the small intestine?

95%

Most digestion that occurs in the large intestine is caused by?

Bacteria

Excessive acid production in the stomach on upper small intestine could result in?

ulcers

Absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by the following mechanisms except?

Sustained absorption

Most of the digestive proceses occur in the?

Small intestine

All of the following are characteristics of heart burn except?

subsides when a person lies down after a meal

Constipation can best be prevented by?

eating dietary fiber

The basic building block of a protein is called?

Amino acid

Chemical element found in all amino acids but not in fats or carbs?

Nitrogen

An essential amino acid?

Cannot be syntehsized in the body in sufficient quantity to meet body needs

Essential food that provides all amino acids?

Chicken

Proteins are digested in which area of the body?

Stomach and small intestine

What enzyme digest protein in the stomach?

Pepsin

Instructions for making proteins located in?

DNA or RNA

Person who eats only plant foods is referred to as a?

vegan

Edema occurs with severe lack of dietary protein b/c?

blood protein levels fall and fluid shifts to tissues

A typical American diet should supply approximately what % of protein as essential amino acids?

10%

Comparing plant sources to animal sources?

plant sources contain more dietary fiber

Marasmus is associated with deficiency of?

Kcals

Kwashiorkor is associated with deficiency of?

protein

Which type of diabetes is the most common?

Type II

Glucose is also known as?

Dextrose

What enzyme is responsible for carb digestion in the small intestine?

Pancreatic Amylase

Lactose intolerance is caused by?

Lactase deficiency

The main function of glucose is?

To supply energy

Which of the following hormones corrects a hyperglycemic state?

Insulin

When the pancreas detects excess glucose, it releases the?

hormone insulin

Which of the following hormones is released to orrect a hypoglycemic state?

Glucagon

The glycemic load takes into account the glycemic index of the food and the amount of?

Carbohydrate consumed

The major storage sites for glycogen are?

Muscles and liver

Dietary fibers are primarily?

Polysaccharides

A reasonable and recommended goal for daily dietary fiber intake is how many grams?

25 to 38 grams

Medical conditions related to metabolic syndrome are?

Type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke

Essential fats include?

Omega 3 and Omega 6

High blood concentration of ___ decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease?

HDL

In which form are most dietary lipids found

Triglycerides

A saturated fatty acid contains?

No double bonds

Hydrogenation produces what kinds of fat?

Trans fatty acids

Which would be a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids?

Safflower oil

Olive oil contains abundant amounts of which type of fatty acid?

Monosaturated

After chyliomicrons leave the intestinal cells, they are transported via what system?

Lymphatic

Which lipoprotein is responsible for picking up cholesterol from dying cells and other sources so it can be transported back to the liver for excretion?

High density lipoprotein

To be transported throughout the body, fats are packaged in structures called?

Lipoproteins

Which of the following contains a rich supply of omega 3 fatty acids.

Salmon

The body energy that can be stored in almost unlimited amounts is?

Triglycerides

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