The artifacts and ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that are part of any society.
The view that genes and other aspects of human biology influence human behavior and values.
The view, popular in the early 20th century, that certain categories of people were biologically inferior and hence should be sterilized.
The symbols, language, norms, and values that constitute a major part of a society's culture.
An element of culture consisting of society's material objects, or artifacts.
Things that stand for something else and that often evoke various reactions and emotions.
Movements of the hands, arms, head, and other parts of the body that are meant to convey ideas or emotions nonverbally.
The view that language influences the thoughts and perceptions of people in a society.
Socially acceptable ways of behaving.
Norms that are very important and usually written down; also called laws and mores.
Relatively unimportant norms, often written, that still affect people's behavior.
Established procedures and ceremonies that often mark transitions in the life course.
Criteria of what is desirable or undesirable and right or wrong.
The material objects that constitute a society's material culture.
Variation in the elements of culture from one society to the next.
A smaller culture within a larger culture with distinctive ways of thinking, feeling, and acting.
A subculture whose norms and values directly oppose those of the larger culture.
the belief that no culture's norms, values, or practices are superior or inferior to those of any other culture.
The tendency to judge another culture by the standards of our own, and the belief that our own culture is superior to another culture.
the process whereby individuals learn the culture of their society.
Self-image, self-identity, or self-concept.
George Herbert Mead's term for what children do when they play that helps them acquire an understanding of their self.
A dramatic change in a person's belief, values, and behavior, often occurring in total institutions.
Institutions that have total control over the residents' lives.
Rankings of people based on wealth and other resources a society values.
The degree to which people succeed in life in such areas as education, income, and health.
Movement up or down through a society's stratification system.
The ownership of people.
A system of stratification characterized by control of land that was common during feudalism.
A stratification system based on rigid placement at birth into unequal groups based on one's parents status, with no chance of moving out of these groups.
A system of stratification containing unequal groups but with relatively high degree of social mobility.
Income, stocks, real estate, and other dimensions of one's total material possessions.
The ability to influence others to do one's bidding even if they don't want to.
The status and esteem people hold in the eyes of others.
Societies with no social stratification.
A set of beliefs that supports the status quo.
An awareness of one's social class membership, the structural reasons for it, and the needs arising from such membership.
A failure to possess class consciousness.
Socioeconomic status (SES)
A measure based on occupation, education, and income favored by functionalist sociologists as an indicator of social class position.
Vertical mobility from one generation to the next within the same family.
Vertical mobility within a person's own lifetime.
The extent of the economic difference between rich and the poor in a society.
The government;s measure of official poverty, based on the cost of a minimal diet for a family multiplied by three.
As defined by the Census Bureau, being poor for at least 2 consecutive months in some time period.
A category of people who share certain inherited physical characteristics, such as skin color, facial features, and stature.
A concept that has no objective reality but rather is what people decide it is.
The shared social, cultural, and historical experiences, stemming from common national or regional backgrounds, that make subgroups of a population different from one another.
A subgroup of a population with a set of shared social, cultural, and historical experiences; with relatively distinctive beliefs, values, and behaviors; and with some sends of identity of belonging to the subgroup.
The sense of self-worth that many people drive from their ethnic backgrounds.
A set of attitudes, beliefs, and judgments about whole categories of people, and about individual members of those categories, because of their perceived race and/or ethnicity.
The belief that certain racial or ethnic groups are inferior to one's own.
Simplified, mistaken generalizations about people because of their race and/or ethnicity.
A personality emphasizing such things as obedience to authority, a rigid adherence to rules, and low acceptance of people not like oneself and said to help account for racial and ethnic prejudice.
Frustration or Scapegoat theory
As an explanation of racial and ethnic prejudice, the view that individuals blame the problems they experience on racial and ethnic minorities and thus scapegoat them instead of recognizing the real sources of their own misfortunes.
The arbitrary denial of rights, privileges, and opportunities to members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups.
Discrimination that individuals practice in their daily lives.
Discrimination that pervades the practices of whole institutions, such as housing, medical care, law enforcement, employment, and education, even if such discrimination is not intended.
The advantages that U.S. whites enjoy in their daily lives simple because they are white, whether or not they are aware of these advantages.
The preferential treatment of minorities and women in employment and education.
The anatomical and other biological differences between females and males that are determined at the moment of conception and develop in the womb and throughout childhood and adolescence.
Primary Sex Characteristics
Anatomical and other biological differences between females and males that begin developing in the womb.
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Biological differences between females and males that emerge during puberty,
The social and cultural differences a society assigns to people based on their biological sex.
A society's expectations of people's behavior and attitudes base on whether they are females or males.
Individuals' beliefs about themselves as either females or males.
Cultural expectations of girls and women, including gentleness and attractiveness.
Cultural expectations of boys and men, including toughness and bravery.
Preference for sexual relationships with individuals if the opposite sex, the same sex, or both sexes.
Containing aspects of both femaleness and maleness, or of both femininity and masculinity.
The belief that women and men should be equal.
The belief that women are inferior to men.
In the workplace, the concentration of women in relatively few low-paying clerical and service jobs.
The idea that women's and men's jobs may be of roughly equal value and thus deserve the same pay, even though women's jobs typically pay less than men's jobs.
The invisible barrier facing women as they try to advance in the workplace.
The smooth path afforded en in promotion in the workplace, especially in occupations primarily filled by women
Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or physical conduct of a sexual nature used as a condition of employment or promotion or that interferes with an individual's job performance and creates an intimidating or hostile environment.
The advantages a male enjoys in a patriarchal society just because he is a male.
The distribution and exercise of power within a society.
The political institution through which power is distributed and exercised.
The ability to have one's will carried out despite the resistance of others.
Power whose use is considered just and appropriate by those over whom the power is exercised.
Power that is rooted in traditional, or longstanding, beliefs and practices of a society.
Authority that derives from law and is based on a belief in the legitimacy of a society's laws and rules and in the right of leaders acting under these rules to make decisions and set policy.
Authority that stems from an individual's extraordinary personal qualities and from that individual's hold over followers because of these qualities.
Routinization of Charisma
The transformation of charismatic authority into either traditional authority or rational-legal authority.
The political unit within which power and authority reside.
(a) The group of persons who direct the political affairs of a state; and (b) the type of rule by which a state is run.
The type of rule by which a state is run.
A political system in which citizens govern themselves either directly or indirectly.
A political system in which power resides in a single family that rules from one generation to the next generation.
Political systems in which an individual or a group of individuals holds power, restricts or prohibits popular participation in governance, and represses dissent.
Political systems that are more repressive than authoritarianism because they try to regulate and control all aspects of citizens' lives and fortunes.
The view that political power in the United States and other democracies is dispersed among several veto groups that compete in the political process for resources and influence.
Theories that say that power in a democracy is concentrated in the hands of a relatively few individuals, families, and/or organizations.
C. Wright Mills's term for the leaders from government, big business, and the military who he thought constitute a ruling class that controls society and works for its own interests, not for the interests of the citizenry.
Views on social, political, and economic issues.
An organization that supports particular political positions and tries to elect candidates to office to represent those positions.
A lack of faith that voting makes any difference and that government can be helpful.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
An organization formed by special-interest groups to raise and spend money on behalf of political campaigns and various political issues.
War between nations
War within nations
The use of unexpected violence to intimidate or coerce people in the pursuit of political or social objectives.
Terrorism committed by private citizens against other private citizens.
Terrorism committed by private citizens against their own government or against businesses and institutions seen as representing the "establishment."
Terrorism committed by the citizens of one nation against targets in another nation.
Violence by a government that is meant to frighten its own citizens and thereby stifle their dissent.
The social institution that organizes production, distribution, and consumption or a society's goods and services.
The part of the economy that takes and uses raw materials directly from the natural environment.
The part of the economy that transforms raw materials into finished products.
The part of the economy that provides services rather that products.
Division of Labor
The specialization of work, such that individuals perform only specific aspects of a task or project.
An economic system in which the means of production are privately owned.
An economic system in which the means of production are collectively owned, usually by the government.
An economic system in which the government owns several important industries, but much property remains in private hands, and political freedom is widespread.
An organization that has a legal existence apart from that of its members.
A corporation with headquarters in one nation but with factories and other operations in many other nations.
The moving of manufacturing companies from U.S. cities to sites in the developing world in Asia and elsewhere.
The hiring by U.S. companies overseas workers for customer care, billing services, and other jobs that americans used to do.
Civilian Labor Force
All nonistitutionalized civilians 16 years old or older who work for pay or are looking for work.
Theft of object or money by employees from their workplace.
the stealing of goods by employees from their workplaces.
The stealing of money in its various dimensions (cash, electronic transactions, etc.) by employees from their workplaces.
The close relationships among military leaders, governments officials, and defense contractors.
An overemphasis on military policy and spending.
A group of two or more people who are related by blood, marriage, adoption, or mutual commitment and who care for one another.
A family composed of two parents and their children living in the same household.
A family in which parents, children, and other relatives live in the same household.
Marriage within a social category or group, including race, ethnicity, social class, and religion.
Marriage between social categories or groups.
Inheritance through the male line.
Inheritance through the female line.
A family where the husband and father holds the main authority in the household.
A family where the wife and mother holds main authority in the household.
A family where both spouses share authority equally.
The set of beliefs and practices regarding sacred things that help a society understand the meaning and purpose of life.
Aspects of life that are supernatural and awe-inspiring.
Aspects of life that are practical and down-to-earth.
Believing in one god.
Believing in more than one god.
A large, bureaucratically organized religious organization that's closely integrated into the larger society.
A large, bureaucratically organized religious organization that is a formal part of the state and has most or all of a state's citizens as its members.
A large, bureaucratically organized religious organization that is closely integrated into the larger society but is not a formal part of the state.
A relatively small religious organization that is not closely integrated into the larger society and that often conflicts with at least some of its norms and values.
A small religious organization that is at odds with the norms and values of the larger society.
Actual membership in a church or synagogue, or just a stated identification with a particular religion whether or not someone actually belongs to a local house of worship.
A synonym for religious affiliation.
The significance of religion in a person's life.
the weakening importance of religion in a society.
the devotion of a nation's citizens to their society and government.
In the U.S. context, the belief that the Bible is the actual word of God.
The transformation of culture (especially norms and values), behavior, social institutions, and social structure over time.
the process and impact of becoming more modern.
Émile Durkheim's conception of the type of social bonds and community feeling in small, traditional societies resulting from their homogeneity.
Émile Durkheim's conception of the type of social bonds and community feeling in large, modern societies resulting from their division of labor and interdependence of roles.
Talcott Parsons's functionalist view that society's balance is disturbed by sudden social change.
The delay between an initial social change and a resulting social change.
The study of the interaction between human behavior and the natural and physical environment.
the disproportionate exposure of low-income people and people of color to various environmental problems.
The disproportionate exposure of people of color to various environmental problems
Scholarship on environmental inequality and racism, and public policy efforts and activism aimed at reducing these forms of inequality and racism.