period between fall of Roman Empire and Renaissance, lasting from AD 500 to 1450
king of Franks who conquered much of Europe and spread Christianity
political and social system of the Middle Ages in Europe in which lords gave land to vassals in exchange for service and loyalty
people who lived and worked on the manor of a lord or vassal; "bound to the soil"
noble's house and the villages on his land where peasants lived
code of conduct of knights, focusing on bravery, honor and respect toward women and the weak, protect Church
associations of people sharing a trade or craft, intended to control quality and quantity of their production and to protect their interests; made sure members had work
people with priestly authority in a religion
Italian philosopher who said classical philosophy and Christian theology could exist in harmony
group of people who live according to a set of religious rules
series of military expeditions from Christian Europe to Palestine between 1000's and 1200's
series of campaigns ending in 1492 by which Christian armies drove Muslim rulers out of Spain
Roman Catholic court established to find and punish those who had strayed from the Roman Catholic faith
disease that struct western Eurasia in mid-1300's in outbreak knows as the Black Death
Hundred Years' War
series of wars between England and France from 1337-1453
weapon that could shoot arrows with enough power to penetrate knight's armor
kings or queens who had unlimited power and controlled all aspects of society
What was Emperor Henry IV that caused Pope Gregory to forgive him?
Who made Christina Pilgrimages to Holy sites of Jerusalem impossible?
How did First Crusade start?
Jerusalem was captured by Christian armies
What happened in fourth crusade?
Attacks on Christian cities by Christian armies weakened Byzantine Empire
Who was made weaker when medieval Europe ended and Early modern europe began?
Nobles and knights
Who did some people accuse of causing plague by poisoning wells?
orders of chivalry
military religious organization formed to fight Muslim armies in Holy land
How did Charlemagne contribute to spread of Christianity?
new laws and strengthened church
what destabilized Europe and started Feudalism?
Charlemagne died, then was disorder and violence
Who challenged power of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV by saying only clergy could appoint people to Church?
Pope Gregory VII
powerful nobles who owned land