final

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final test 4 master boi

How does the large amount of genetic variation observed in prokaryotes arise?

The mutation rate in prokaryotes is much higher than in eukaryotes.
They have extremely short generation times and large populations.
They can exchange DNA with many types of prokaryotes by way of horizontal gene transfer.
They have a relatively small genome.
The second and third answers are correct.

The second and third answers are correct.

Genes for the resistance of antibiotics are usually located _____.

on the main chromosome
in mitochondria
on plasmids
in eukaryotic cells

on plasmids

Azotobacter is a genus of bacteria that live in
soil and have the following characteristics:

They are bacilli.
They are gram-negative.
They are obligate aerobes.
They can fix nitrogen. (Unlike some other nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which associate with the roots of plants, Azotobacter species are free-living.)
Select the four statements that are true for bacteria in the genus Azotobacter.

They can convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia.
They can carry out anaerobic respiration in an environment that lacks O2.
They are shaped like rods.
They have the appearance of coils or corkscrews.
They require amino acids or other organic molecules as a source of nitrogen.
They appear purple after Gram staining.
They use O2 for cellular respiration.
They have a relatively thin layer of peptidoglycan in their cell wall.
They are poisoned by O2.

They can convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia.
they are shaped like rods.
They use O2 for cellular respiration.
They have a relatively thin layer of peptidoglycan in their cell wall.

Bacteria that live around deep-sea, hot-water vents obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic hydrogen sulfide belched out by the vents. They use this energy to build organic molecules from carbon obtained from the carbon dioxide in seawater. These bacteria are _____.

chemoautotrophs
photoheterotrophs
chemoheterotrophs

chemoautotrophs

The prokaryotic cells that built stromatolites are classified as _____.

proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria

cyanobacteria

The prokaryotic cells that were the first to add significant quantities of oxygen to Earth's atmosphere are classified as _____.

proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria

cyanobacteria

Streptococcus aureus is classified with _____.

proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria
cyanobacteria

gram-positive bacteria

Organisms that can cause nongonococcal urethritis are classified with _____.

proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria

chlamydias

he chemoheterotroph Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped bacterium classified with _____.

proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria

proteobacteria

Spiral-shaped bacteria are likely to be placed with _____.

proteobacteria
chlamydias
spirochetes
gram-positive bacteria

spirochetes

Which group was not described in Woese's tree of life analysis?

Prokarya
Eukarya
Bacteria

Prokarya

What characteristics were used to classify organisms before Woese's tree of life analysis?

Presence of a membrane-bound nucleus
Number of cells in the organism

Presence of a membrane-bound nucleus

True or false? Data showing that the
Bacteria were the first lineage to diverge from the common ancestor of all living organisms suggest that the Archaea and Eukarya are more closely related to each other than they are to the Bacteria.

True
False

True

Which of the following statements about phylogenetic trees is true?

A monophyletic group consists of a common ancestor and some of its descendants.
A paraphyletic group consists of an ancestral population and all of its descendants.
A paraphyletic group consists of a common ancestor and some of its descendants.
A paraphyletic group has not experienced lateral gene transfer.

A paraphyletic group consists of a common ancestor and some of its descendants.

Which molecule did Carl Woese study to produce his tree of life?

Messenger RNA
DNA
Ribosomal RNA
Ribosome

Ribosomal RNA

What is lateral gene transfer?

Inheritance of a gene through mitosis
Inheritance of a gene through meiosis
Physical transfer of a gene from a species in one lineage to a species in another lineage.
Inheritance of a gene from a parent

Physical transfer of a gene from a species in one lineage to a species in another lineage.

The prokaryotic organisms most likely to be found living in salt ponds are the _____.

halophiles
extremophiles
thermophiles

halophiles

An ecological relationship between organisms of different species that are in direct contact can best be described as _____.

taxis
symbiotic
parasitic

symbiotic

Which statement about endotoxins is true?

The source of endotoxins is endospores.
Endotoxins are released only when bacteria die and their cell walls break down.
Endotoxins are components of the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria.

Endotoxins are released only when bacteria die and their cell walls break down.

Genetic variation in bacterial populations cannot result from

transformation.
mutation.
transduction.
conjugation.
meiosis.

meiosis.

Photoautotrophs use

light as an energy source and CO_2} as a carbon source.

Which of the following involves metabolic cooperation among prokaryotic cells?

binary fission
biofilms
photoautotrophy

biofilms

Plantlike photosynthesis that releases {\rm O_2} occurs in

chemoautotrophic bacteria.
archaea.
actinomycetes.
chlamydias.
cyanobacteria.

cyanobacteria.

Which statement is true about obligate
anaerobes?

They will use O2 if it is present, but can obtain energy by fermentation if needed.
They use O2 for cellular respiration and cannot grow without it.
They obtain energy by oxidizing ferrous ions.
They live exclusively by cellular respiration or by anaerobic respiration.
They are poisoned by O2.

They are poisoned by O2.

How are archaeans most similar to bacteria?

methanogenesis
the shape of their chromosomes and plasmids
the structure of their cell walls
nucleotide sequence of small subunit ribosomal RNA
the occurrence of introns in their chromosomes

the shape of their chromosomes and plasmids

Approximately how many prokaryotic cells live in 5 mL of fertile soil?

About 10 million prokaryotic cells
About 100 million prokaryotic cells

About 100 million prokaryotic cells

Select the valid comparison between
eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

Prokaryote cells have simpler internal structure and genomic organization than eukaryotic cells.
Eukaryotes are far more metabolically diverse than prokaryotes.

Prokaryote cells have simpler internal structure and genomic organization than eukaryotic cells.

Which of the following processes contributes to genetic recombination in prokaryotes?

Meiosis
Transduction
Mutation

Transduction

The cells of _____ and _____ have modified mitochondria.

dinoflagellates ... metazoans
chlorophytes ... ciliates
fungi ... stramenopiles
euglenozoans ... alveolates
trichomonads ... diplomonads

trichomonads ... diplomonads

The members of _____ are characterized by cells with small membrane-bounded cavities under their cell membranes.

Rhodophyta
Mycetozoa
Chlorophyta
Stramenopila
Alveolata

Alveolata

Golden algae, brown algae, red algae, chlorophytes, and charophyceans are some examples of protists that are _____.

photoheterotrophic
decomposers
chemoautotrophic
chemoheterotrophic
photosynthetic

photosynthetic

Which of these groups consist of parasitic flagellated cells, such as Trypanosoma, the organism that causes sleeping sickness?

diatoms
ciliates
metazoans
kinetoplastids
brown algae

kinetoplastids

Which three groups contain large algae known as seaweeds?

plants, fungi, and choanoflagellates
diatoms, golden algae, and brown algae
dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and green algae
brown algae, red algae, and green algae
chlorophytes, charophyceans, and red algae

brown algae, red algae, and green algae

Stramenopiles include all of the following groups EXCEPT ______.

brown algae
diatoms
water molds
golden algae
cellular slime molds

cellular slime molds

Which of these groups is characterized by glasslike walls containing silica?

plants
diplomonads
brown algae
plasmodial slime molds
diatoms

diatoms

Plasmodium, the parasitic organism that causes malaria, is a _____.

diatom
apicomplexan
plasmodial slime molds
entamoeba

apicomplexan

A paramecium is a(n) _____.

metazoan
dinoflagellate
apicomplexan
diatom
ciliate

ciliate

The largest seaweeds are _____.

red algae
dinoflagellates
green algae
diatoms
brown algae

brown algae

All of the organisms classified as _____ move and feed using cilia.

diplomonads
apicomplexans
ciliates
diatoms

ciliates

Which group is characterized by cells with fine hairlike projections on their flagella?

Stramenopila
Euglenozoa
Metazoa

Stramenopila

Which of these algal groups possess a photosynthetic pigment that allows them to live in deep water?

metazoans
diatoms
brown algae
red algae

red algae

Which of these groups includes both aquatic decomposers and the parasites responsible for the powdery mildew of grapes and late potato blight?

plasmodial slime molds
diatoms
plants
red algae
water molds

water molds

Which algal group has chloroplasts much like those of green plants in structure and pigment makeup?

diatoms
chlorophytes
red algae
brown algae

chlorophytes

Which species interaction applies to bees that harvest nectar and pollen from flowers?

Commensalism.
Competition.
Mutualism.
Consumption.

Mutualism.

Which process is not an example of consumption?

Commensalism.
Parasitism.
Predation.

Commensalism.

True or false? One example of a coevolutionary arms race is when faster deer evolve and favor wolves and cougars that have stronger eyesight and senses of smell.

True
False

True

Which form of Plasmodium is the immediate cause of anemia in humans?

Merozoites.
Diploid zygote.
Sporozoites.
Gametocytes

Merozoites.

Which of the following statements about the Plasmodium parasite is true?

The diploid zygote moves from the infected human to the mosquito as part of the mosquito's blood meal.
Merozoites live off the hemoglobin and nutrients in red blood cells and divide to produce more merozoites, destroying red blood cells in the process.
The diploid zygote undergoes meiosis and mitosis to produce haploid merozoites.

Merozoites live off the hemoglobin and nutrients in red blood cells and divide to produce more merozoites, destroying red blood cells in the process.

How do humans combat infection by the Plasmodium parasite?

Liver cells secrete the HLA-B53 protein, which binds to and inactivates Plasmodium cells in the bloodstream.
Cytotoxic T cells secrete anticoagulant to kill infected red blood cells.
Plasmodium cells bind to liver cells that have the CP26 protein on their cell surface and form a complex that is targeted by cytotoxic T cells.
Cytotoxic T cells destroy infected liver cells by recognizing a Plasmodium protein bound to an HLA protein on the surface of those cells.

Cytotoxic T cells destroy infected liver cells by recognizing a Plasmodium protein bound to an HLA protein on the surface of those cells.

A sign on the beach states, "Beach Closed. Red Tide." The organisms interfering with your use of this beach are probably _____.

amoebas
ciliates
diatoms
dinoflagellates

dinoflagellates

Many types of foraminiferans form a symbiotic relationship with _____.

algae
bacteria
seaweed

algae

What advantage do organisms that reproduce sexually have over organisms that reproduce asexually?

Their offspring may be more adaptable to changes in the environment.
Their offspring can exist in both haploid and diploid stages.
Their offspring are bigger and better able to reproduce.

Their offspring may be more adaptable to changes in the environment.

which term describes the fusion of two gametes to form a diploid zygote?

Syngamy
Mitosis
Meiosis

Syngamy

Which term describes the multicellular haploid form of a protist that shows alternation of generations?

Gametophyte
Spore
Zygote

Gametophyte

Which structure mediates the attachment of spores to a surface on which to grow?

Holdfast
Flagella
Chloroplast

Holdfast

Which of the following statements about Ulva's haploid stage is true?

The haploid Ulva cells are genetically identical to their diploid parents.
Haploid cells are produced by meiosis of diploid cells.
Haploid cells produce gametes by meiosis.

Haploid cells are produced by meiosis of diploid cells

How does the haploid form of Ulva "switch" to its diploid form?

Gametophytes produce cells that undergo mitosis to produce gametes that fuse to form a zygote.
Sporophytes undergo meiosis to produce spores that germinate into diploid adults.
Gametophytes produce cells that undergo meiosis and produce spores that germinate into diploid adults.

Gametophytes produce cells that undergo mitosis to produce gametes that fuse to form a zygote.

True or false? Organisms that exhibit alternation of generations reproduce sexually in the diploid stage.

True
False

False

Archaeplastids, which include red and green algae and land plants, are thought to have descended from a heterotrophic protist that engulfed a(n) _____.

slime mold
alpha proteobacterium
cyanobacterium

cyanobacterium

___ are eukaryotic autotrophs that float near the surface of water and are the basis of the food chain.

Zooplankton
Slime molds
Phytoplankton
Cyanobacteria

Phytoplankton

Coral bleaching, which causes high coral mortality, has been occurring widely in coral reefs. Coral bleaching actually refers to the death of symbiotic dinoflagellates living within the corals. Why does coral bleaching cause the corals to die?

Dinoflagellates protect the corals from UV radiation.
Dinoflagellates protect the corals from pathogenic bacteria.
Dinoflagellates provide nutrients from the products of photosynthesis to the corals in exchange for a safe place to live.
Dinoflagellates attract zooplankton and other prey that the corals eat.

Dinoflagellates provide nutrients from the products of photosynthesis to the corals in exchange for a safe place to live.

Plastids that are surrounded by more than two membranes are evidence of

fusion of plastids.
evolution from mitochondria.
origin of the plastids from archaea.
secondary endosymbiosis.

secondary endosymbiosis.

Why has the kingdom Protista been abandoned? (Overview)

Some protists are multicellular.
The kingdom Protista is polyphyletic.
Some protists are more closely related to plants, animals, or fungi than they are to other protists.
Some protists are as small as prokaryotes.
The second and third answers are correct.

The second and third answers are correct.

n life cycles with an alternation of generations, multicellular haploid forms alternate with

unicellular diploid forms.
multicellular diploid forms.
multicellular polyploid forms.
multicellular haploid forms.

multicellular diploid forms.

Biologists suspect that endosymbiosis gave rise to mitochondria before plastids partly because

without mitochondrial {\rm CO_2} production, photosynthesis could not occur.
mitochondrial proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribo-somes, whereas plastids utilize their own ribosomes.
all eukaryotes have mitochondria (or their remnants), whereas many eukaryotes do not have plastids.
the products of photosynthesis could not be metabolized without mitochondrial enzymes.

without mitochondrial {\rm CO_2} production, photosynthesis could not occur.

Based on the phylogenetic tree in Figure 28.3 in your textbook, which of the following statements is correct?

The most basal (first to diverge) eukaryotic supergroup cannot be determined.
Excavata is the most basal eukaryotic supergroup.
The most recent common ancestor of red algae and land plants is older than that of nucleariids and fungi.
The most recent common ancestor of Excavata is older than that of Chromalveolata.

The most basal (first to diverge) eukaryotic supergroup cannot be determined.

Which of the following is true of secondary endosymbiosis?

It is indicated by the presence of a double membrane surrounding the endymbiont.
An organism containing one endosymbiont engulfs another organism, and that organism becomes an endosymbiont.
It is indicated by the presence of a nucleomorph.
An organism containing an endosymbiont is engulfed by another organism and becomes an endosymbiont.

An organism containing an endosymbiont is engulfed by another organism and becomes an endosymbiont.

The following statements describe something about the body structures or functions of fungi. Identify those statements that are correct.
Select all that apply.

Nutrients can flow through the entire mycelium in fungi with coenocytic hyphae, but not in fungi with septate hyphae.
Some fungi secrete digestive enzymes into the environment and then absorb the digested nutrients.
All fungi are heterotrophs; some species live as decomposers and others as symbionts.
Some fungi can grow as either filamentous or single-celled forms.
Mycelia are made up of small-diameter hyphae that form an interwoven mass, providing more surface area for nutrient absorption.
Cellulose gives rigidity and strength to the cell walls of fungi.

Some fungi secrete digestive enzymes into the environment and then absorb the digested nutrients.
All fungi are heterotrophs; some species live as decomposers and others as symbionts.
Some fungi can grow as either filamentous or single-celled forms.
Mycelia are made up of small-diameter hyphae that form an interwoven mass, providing more surface area for nutrient absorption.

As a group, fungi are _____.

photoautotrophs
decomposers
herbivores
carnivores

decomposers

Fungi release digestive enzymes into their _____.

surroundings
gastrovascular cavity
stomach

surroundings

Basidia produce spores by a process known as _____.

decomposition
mitosis
meiosis
hyphae

meiosis

The body of most fungi consists of threadlike _____, which form a network called a _____.

mycelia ... dikaryon
sporangia ... dikaryon
hyphae ... mycelium

hyphae ... mycelium

The diploid phase of the life cycle is shortest in which of the following?

fern
angiosperm
gymnosperm
fungus

fungus

What sexual processes in fungi generate genetic variation?

diploidy and the heterokaryotic condition
plasmogamy and meiosis
karyogamy and meiosis

karyogamy and meiosis

An important example of interaction between fungi and certain other organisms is mycorrhizae, in which the fungal partners _____.

cause the decay of cellulose and lignin
provide carbohydrates to the plant partner
control soil nematodes
sicken herbivores that attempt to feed on plants
help plants take up nutrients and water

help plants take up nutrients and water

Which term describes the fusion of cytoplasm from two individuals?

Plasmogamy
Karyogamy
Spore

Plasmogamy

Which structure is not involved in the reproduction of at least one major group of fungi?

Asci
Mycelium
Motile gametes

Mycelium

True or false? In most fungi, fertilization is complete after the cells fuse together.

True
False

False

Where does meiosis occur in a mushroom?

Mycelium
Hyphae
Spores
Basidia

Basidia

Which structure allows the growing mushroom to nourish itself?

Gills
Spore
Basidia
Mycelium

Mycelium

Which of the following events occurs first in the development of a spore into a mature mushroom?

Hyphae are produced by mitosis.
The mycelium forms.
Haploid nuclei fuse to form a diploid nucleus.
A heterokaryotic mycelium forms.

Hyphae are produced by mitosis.

True or false? Most of the cells in a mushroom contain haploid nuclei.

True

Fungi produce _____ spores.

dikaryotic
heterokaryotic
haploid
diploid

haploid

Karyogamy produces a _____.

diploid zygote
haploid zygote
spores
mycelium
hypha

diploid zygote

Plasmogamy is

Plasmogamy is the fusion of hyphae.

Which of these contains two haploid nuclei?

the heterokaryotic stage of the fungal life cycle
zygote
spore-producing structures
mycelium

the heterokaryotic stage of the fungal life cycle

Zygosporangia are _____.

diploid
haploid
heterokaryotic
haplodiploid

heterokaryotic

Karyogamy produces a

a diploid zygote.

Cup fungi are in the phylum _____.

Zygomycota
Chytridomycota
Ascomycota
Chordata

Ascomycota

Ascocarps bears

Ascocarps bear asci.

In sac fungi, karyogamy and meiosis occur in _____.

ascospores
antheridia
asci
ascogonia

asci

A nucleus within an ascus undergoes meiosis, producing four haploid spores, which then undergo mitosis, producing eight haploid ascospores. These haploid ascospores contain a maximum of _____ different genetic types.

one
two
three
four
five

four

A mushroom is a

A mushroom is a basidiocarp.

In club fungi, karyogamy and meiosis occur in _____.

basidiospores
basidia
ovule

basidia

Fungi form mutualistic relationships with plants and animals. Which of the following is an example of such a relationship?

Fungi help break down plant material in the guts of grazing mammals.
Fungi help break down wood in the guts of termites.
Endophytes in leaves produce toxins that deter herbivores.
Fungi can help increase drought tolerance in plants
All of the above.

All of the above.

Which of the following ecological roles is/are played by at least some fungi?
Select all that apply.

Decomposition
Autotrophy
Predation

Decomposition Predation

All fungi share which of the following characteristics?

symbiotic
act as decomposers
pathogenic
heterotrophic
flagellated

heterotrophic

Among the organisms listed here, which are thought to be the closest relatives of fungi?

animals
vascular plants
mosses
brown algae

animals

Which feature seen in chytrids supports the hypothesis that they diverged earliest in fungal evolution?

parasitic lifestyle
formation of resistant zygosporangia
flagellated spores
the absence of chitin within the cell wall

flagellated spores

The adaptive advantage associated with the filamentous nature of fungal mycelia is primarily related to

the increased probability of contact between different mating types.
the ability to form haustoria and parasitize other organisms.
an extensive surface area well suited for invasive growth and absorptive nutrition.

an extensive surface area well suited for invasive growth and absorptive nutrition.

When you look at a pine or maple tree, the plant you see is a _____.

diploid gametophyte
triploid endosperm
haploid sporophyte
haploid gametophyte
diploid sporophyte

diploid sporophyte

All seed plants _____.

exhibit a dominant gametophyte generation
are heterosporous
produce flowers

are heterosporous

The adaptation that made possible the colonization of dry land environments by seed plants is most likely the result of the evolution of _____.

pollen
cones
heterospory
sporophylls

pollen

Gymnosperms undergo

alternation of generations, alternating between the diploid sporophyte and the haploid gametophyte.

Pollen grains are

Pollen grains are male gametophytes.

In pines, the female gametophyte contains _____, each of which contains a(n) _____.

archegonia ... egg
antheridia ... sperm cell
archegonia ... sperm cell
antheridia ... egg

archegonia ... egg

In pines, an embryo is a(n) _____.

food reserve for the immature sporophyte
immature male gametophyte
seed
immature sporophyte

immature sporophyte

In pine trees, pollen grains get to the ovule via the
_____.

megaspore
integument
pollen cone
micropyle

micropyle

Pollen grains gain entry into the ovule via the

Pollen grains gain entry into the ovule via the micropyle.

Which of these statements is true about the gametophyte tissue that surrounds the pine embryo?

It functions as a haploid food reserve.
It develops from the fusion of a microspore and a megaspore.
It is the remnant of the pollen tube.
It functions as a triploid food reserve.

It functions as a haploid food reserve.

Of the four haploid cells produced by a pine cone's megasporocyte (megaspore mother cell), _____ survive(s).

two
integuments
four
three
one

one

In the pine, microsporangia form _____ microspores by _____.

haploid ... meiosis
diploid ... meiosis
triploid ... fertilization
diploid ... mitosis
haploid ... mitosis

haploid ... meiosis

Gymnosperms were most abundant during the _____.

Precambrian
Paleozoic
Mesozoic

Mesozoic

Ovules are found within structure ____

ovary

Which of these is unique to flowering plants?

a dominant sporophyte generation
pollen production
double fertilization
an embryo surrounded by nutritive tissue

double fertilization

The male gametophytes of flowering plants are also referred to as _____.

endosperm
pollen grains
male sporophytes
embryo sacs

pollen grains

In flowering plants the integuments of the ovule develop into a(n) _____.

seed coat
fruit
sporophyte
cotyledon

seed coat

A carpel is composed of _____.

petal, sepal, and stamen
zygote, anther, and endosperm
ovary, ovule, and anther
stigma, style, and ovary
ovule, megasporocyte, and anther

stigma, style, and ovary

n flowering plants one megaspore gives rise to _____ nuclei.

four haploid
eight diploid
four diploid
eight haploid

eight haploid

A stamen consists of _____.

ovary and sepal
stigma and anther
stigma and filament
stigma and style
anther and filament

anther and filament

In angiosperms, pollination is the transfer of pollen grain to the _____ of a flower on the same plant or another plant of the same species.

stigma
style
anther
ovary

stigma

Angiosperms are different from all other plants because only they have _____.

a sporophyte phase
flowers
a vascular system

flowers

The major difference between angiosperms and gymnosperms comes from the _____.

presence or absence of vascular structures
dominance or lack of dominance of the sporophyte generation
presence or absence of a protective covering over the ovule

presence or absence of a protective covering over the ovule

Unlike most angiosperms, grasses are pollinated by wind. As a consequence, some unnecessary parts of grass flowers have almost disappeared. Which of the following parts would you expect to be most reduced in a grass flower?

anthers
stamens
ovaries
petals

petals

A fruit is most commonly

a thickened style.
a mature female gametophyte.
a mature ovary.

a mature ovary.

What is endosperm?

the male portion of a flowering plant
the leaves that are a part of the embryo
via cotyledons, a source of food for the embryo

via cotyledons, a source of food for the embryo

Fruits evolved primarily as structures specialized to _____.

provide a source of food to the plant's embryo
provide food for humans
protect pollen
disperse seeds

disperse seeds

Which part of a plant attracts pollinators?

Carpel
Petals
Sepal

Petals

Which process involves the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to a stigma?

Fertilization
Pollination
Gametogenesis

Pollination

True or false? The endosperm in a seed develops into the embryo.

True
False

False

Which term describes the male gametophytes of flowering plants?

Micropyle
Megaspores
Pollen grains

Pollen grains

Which structure formed by the male gametophyte allows sperm to reach the ovary of a flowering plant?

Micropyle
Stigma
Pollen tube

Pollen tube

How is fertilization in flowering plants different from fertilization in other plant groups?

One sperm nucleus fuses with the egg to form a diploid zygote, whereas the other sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei to form a cell that develops into endosperm.
One sperm nucleus fuses with the egg to form a diploid zygote.
One sperm nucleus fuses with the egg to form a diploid zygote, whereas the other sperm nucleus fuses with a polar nucleus to form a diploid cell that forms a nutrient-rich tissue.

One sperm nucleus fuses with the egg to form a diploid zygote, whereas the other sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei to form a cell that develops into endosperm.

Which of the following statements about seed formation in a flowering plant is true?

The basal cell formed from mitosis of the zygote divides to form a globular mass that is the route for nutrient transfer to the developing embryo.
The terminal cell formed from mitosis of the zygote divides to form a row of single cells that eventually forms the embryo.
Hypocotyls are the seed leaves of the embryonic plant.
The swellings that develop into cotyledons are located at the end of the embryo on top of the row of single cells.

The swellings that develop into cotyledons are located at the end of the embryo on top of the row of single cells.

Which part of a flower develops into the seed?

Ovule
Pericarp
Carpel

Ovule

Which term describes the portion of a peach that can be eaten by humans?

Seed coat
Zygote
Pericarp

Pericarp

True or false? The endosperm tissue that nourishes the developing plant has the same nutritional characteristics regardless of the plant species.

True
False

False

In angiosperms, each pollen grain produces two sperm. What do these sperm do?

One fertilizes an egg, and the other is kept in reserve.
One fertilizes an egg, and the other combines with two polar nuclei, which develop into stored food cells (endosperm).
Both sperm fertilize a single egg cell.

One fertilizes an egg, and the other combines with two polar nuclei, which develop into stored food cells (endosperm).

Self-incompatibility _____.

helps maintain genetic variability in a population
is based on the same mechanism of transplant rejection seen in animals
is the rejection of a graft by a plant

helps maintain genetic variability in a population

Which of the following is an example of sexual reproduction?

cuttings
apomixis
stump sprouts
fragmentation
fusion of sperm and egg nuclei in an ovule

fusion of sperm and egg nuclei in an ovule

Which of the following is an advantage of asexual reproduction in plants?

enhanced seed dispersal
no need for a pollinator
more robust offspring
genetic variation
enhanced survival of genetically favorable offspring

enhanced survival of genetically favorable offspring

Double fertilization means that

the egg of the embryo sac is diploid.
every sperm has two nuclei.
one sperm is needed to fertilize the egg, and a second sperm is needed to fertilize the polar nuclei.
every egg must receive two sperm to produce an embryo.

one sperm is needed to fertilize the egg, and a second sperm is needed to fertilize the polar nuclei.

A small flower with green petals is most likely

wind-pollinated.
bird-pollinated.
moth-pollinated.

wind-pollinated.

The pollen produced by wind-pollinated plants is often smaller than the pollen produced by animal-pollinated plants. A reason for this might be that

animal pollinators are more facile at picking up large pollen grains.
wind-pollinated plants release pollen in the spring, before the plant has stored enough energy to make large pollen grains.
wind-pollinated plants, in general, are smaller than animal pollinated plants.
small pollen grains can be carried farther by the wind.

small pollen grains can be carried farther by the wind.

The black dots that cover strawberries are actually individual fruits. The fleshy and tasty portion of a strawberry derives from the receptacle of a flower with many separate carpels. Therefore, a strawberry is

both a multiple fruit and an aggregate fruit.
both a simple fruit and an aggregate fruit.
both an aggregrate fruit and an accessory fruit.

both an aggregrate fruit and an accessory fruit.

How do cells in a meristem differ from cells in other types of plant tissue?

They are differentiating.
They are growing.
They photosynthesize at a faster rate.
They continue to divide.

They continue to divide.

The primary growth of a plant adds _____ and secondary growth adds _____.

branching ... girth
girth ... height
height ... girth

height ... girth

Guard cells

regulate the opening and closing of stomata.

In leaves, chloroplasts are found in _____.

cuticle
guard cells
phloem
xylem
palisade mesophyll

palisade mesophyll

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