Physical Science Chapter 9

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A compound is a

pure substance, composed of combinations of atoms an held together by chemical bonds

the smallest unit of an element that can exist alone or in combination with other elements is

atom

the smallest particle of a compound or gaseous element that can exist and still retain the characteristics properties of that substance is a

molecule

what determines the chemical properties of an atom?

neutrons and protons

atoms attempt to acquire an outer orbital with eight electrons

Helsenberg certainty theory

the family or group number of the representative elements represents the

atomic number

what is the chemical symbol for a magnesium ion?

Mg-

Atoms that achieve an octet by sharing electrons form

metallic bonds

the electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions is called a

metallic bond

the energy released during the formation of an ionic bond is

heat of formation

the comparative ability of atoms of an element to attract bonding electrons is called

electronegativity

what kind of bond had unequal sharing of bonding electrons?

polar covalent

the correct name for the compound CS2 is

carbon disulfide

what is the formula for the compound zinc chloride?

ZnCl2

pure substances that cannot be broken down into anything simpler are

elements

chemical energy is defined as

change of internal potential energy during a chemical reaction

a metallic bond is defined by

it is formed in solid materials, metal atoms share a sea of electrons, it accounts for metallic properties such as conductivity and luster

an ion can be described as an element or compound

gains or loses electrons

you know that a chemical reaction is taking place if

chemical bonds are formed and broken

what is the relationship between the energy released in burning materials produced by photosynthesis and the solar system that was absorbed in making the materials?

the same as the solar energy absorbed

the electrons that participate in chemical bonding are the

valence electrons

atoms of the representative elements have a tendency to seek stability through

filling or emptying their outer orbitals

an ion is formed when an atom of a representative element

loses or gains electrons to satisfy the octet rule

an atom of an element in family VIA will have what charge when it is ionized?

-2

which type of chemical bond is formed by a transfer of electrons

metallic

which type of chemical bond is formed between two atoms by the sharing of two electrons, with one electron from each atom?

covalent

what types of compounds are salts, such as sodium chloride?

ionic compounds

what is the chemical formula if there are two bromide ions for each barium ion in a compound?

BaBr2

Which combination of elements forms crystalline solids that will dissolve in water, producing a solution of ions that can conduct an electric current?

metal and nonmetal

in a single covalent bond between two atoms, a

pair of electrons, one from each atom is shared

sulfur and oxygen are both in the VIA family of the periodic table and a second is in the VIA family. What type of compound will these two elements form?

X2S

One element is in the IA family of the periodic table, and a second is in the VIIA family. What type of compound will the two elements form?

ionic

a covalent bond in which there is an unequal sharing of bonding electrons is a

polar covalent bond

an inorganic compound made of only two different elements has a systematic name that always eneds with the suffix

-ide

di-hydrogen monoxide is the systematic name for a compound that has the common name of

water

propane gas burns in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy. The reactants in this reaction are propane and

released

Propane gas burns in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy. For this reaction, energy is

released

Which is not true of an ionic bond? it involves

sharing of electrons

What is the correct formula for magnesium chloride?

MgCl2

what is the formula for the sulfate ion?

(SO4)2-

The correct name for the compound NaNO3 is

sodium nitrate

a nonmetal atom combines with a second nonmetal atom. The first nonmetal atom

shares electrons with the second nonmetal atom

polar covalent bonds result when the electronegativity difference between the two atoms is

between 0.5 and 1.7

what is the formula for the compound aluminum bromide?

AlBr3

The combination of nonmetals with nonmetals forms

covalent compounds

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