European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition.
French author. He trained in the law but gave up after one case, devoting his life to writing about philosophers and scientists, especially defending the Cartesian tradition.
Plurality of Worlds
One of Fontenelle's most successful books. It offered information regarding the heliocentric universe
The principle that an individual human's beliefs and activities should be understood by others in terms of that individual's own culture. Basically, people were upset that there were other religions.
Locke's Principal that every person was born with a blank mind.
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Locke denied Descarte's belief in innate ideas. Instead, argued Locke, every person was born with a tabula rasa, a blank mind.
Literary people, professors, journalists, statesmen, economists, political scientists, and above all, social reformers.
French political philosopher. He is best known for The Spirit of the Laws (1748), a comparative study of political systems in which he championed the separation of judicial, legislative, and executive powers as being most conducive to individual liberty.
The Spirit of the Laws
Comparative study of political systems in which Montesquieu championed the separation of judicial, legislative, and executive powers as being most conducive to individual liberty.
French writer, playwright, and poet. A leading figure of the Enlightenment, he frequently came into conflict with the establishment as a result of his radical views and satirical writings. Notable works: Lettres philosophiques (1734) and Candide (1759).
Treatise on Toleration
Voltaire argued that religious toleration had caused no problems for England and Holland.
Belief in the existence of a supreme being, specifically of a creator who does not intervene in the universe. The term is used chiefly of an intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries that accepted the existence of a creator on the basis of reason but rejected belief in a supernatural deity who interacts with humankind.
French philosopher, writer, and critic. A leading figure of the Enlightenment in France, he was principal editor of the Encyclopdia (1751-76).
18th-century group of French economists who believed that agriculture was the source of all wealth and that agricultural products should be highly priced. Advocating adherence to a supposed natural order of social institutions, they also stressed the necessity of free trade.
Wealth of Nations
Adam Smith presented a strong attack against Mercantilism in this work.
Economic system which let people do as they choose.
French philosopher and writer, born in Switzerland. He believed that civilization warps the fundamental goodness of human nature, but that the ill effects can be moderated by active participation in democratic consensual politics.
The Social Contract
A book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way in which to set up a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society
A treatise by Rousseau on the nature of education and on the nature of man.
English writer and feminist. Her A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) defied assumptions about male supremacy and championed educational equality for women.
A style of architecture and the decorative arts characterized by intricate ornamentation that was popular throughout Europe in the early 18th century. Emphasized curves and moved away from geometric patterns.
A military artillery engineer and architect who developed a refined brand of Baroque architecture, fusing Austrian, Bohemian, Italian, and French elements to design some of the most impressive buildings of the period, including the Wurzburg Residence and the Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers.
The revival of a classical style or treatment in art, literature, architecture, or music.
On Crimes and Punishments
Beccaria argued that punishments should serve only as deterrents and not as exercises of brutality.
was celebrated in the weeks leading up to the beginning of Lent, the 40 day period of fasting and purification preceding Easter. Carnival was, understandably, a time of great indulgence, the reverse of Lent, when people were expected to abstain from meat, sex, and most recreations.
Founded the Methodist movement