Biology Exam Connect Questions

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Mitosis/Meiosis Unit- (CH9-10) Mendelian Genetics (CH 11) Molecular Biology (CH 12-14) Evolution Unit- (CH 15-18) Plant and Animal Evolution and Diversity Unit (23,28,29) Plant and Animal Physiology Unit Review (CH 32,34,35)

species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain

Order these major taxonomic categories into an increasingly inclusive hierarchy.
genus, species, class, order, family, domain, kingdom, phylum
class, order, family, genus, species, kingdom, phylum, domain
domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain

All of the above.

Which of the following features would be used to construct a phylogenic tree?
homologous structures
fossil record data
DNA-DNA hybridization
amino acid sequences
All of the above.

Plantae, Animalia, and Fungi

Of the five kingdoms in Whittaker's classification system, which do most biologists continue to recognize?
Plantae, Animalia, and Fungi
Monera, Plantae, and Animalia
Protista, Fungi, and Plantae
Fungi, Protista, and Animalia

Animal

Which kingdom or supergroup is characterized by organisms that are heterotrophic by ingestion?
Protists
Plant
Animal
Fungi

Based on molecular data, Monera has been divided into the two distinct domains, Archaea and Bacteria.

Whittaker's classification included Kingdom Monera, which included all prokaryotes. Why is this classification obsolete?
Based on fossil evidence, this group has been divided into three newly named kingdoms.
Based on molecular data, Monera has been divided into the two distinct domains, Archaea and Bacteria.
The prokaryotes, which were included in this kingdom, are now included in Protista.
This kingdom now includes more organisms, so the name has been changed.

All of the choices are correct.

The scientific name of the giant swallowtail is Heraclides cresphontes. Therefore,
it belongs to the genus Heraclides.
it belongs to the species cresphontes.
the specific epithet is cresphontes.
All of the choices are correct.

the copperheads are subspecies and the cottonmouth is a separate species.

The northern copperhead is Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix, the southern copperhead is Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen, and the cottonmouth is Agkistrodon piscivorous. Therefore,
the copperheads are subspecies and the cottonmouth is a separate species.
they are all the same species.
all are subspecies of Agkistrodon.
they are three distinct species.

All of the choices are correct.

Nonscientists often use the words ''name," ''identify," and ''classify" interchangeably. When they want to know what an organism is, they may ask "Can you name this?" or "Can you identify this?" or "Can you classify this?" Which of the following is/are correct usage(s) of the term(s)?
Only the scientist who first describes a new species actually names it.
Classifying is grouping, and to classify something requires several organisms so you can group one as closer to a second and distant from a third.
A crop scout on a farm using a key to detect pest insect species is identifying insects but not naming or necessarily classifying them.
A scientist who publishes the name and description of a new species must necessarily also know both how to identify and classify the species.
All of the choices are correct.

All of the choices are correct.

If a phylogeny is based on the natural evolution of organisms, it could
explain the variations among fossils from rock strata.
explain why there are similarities and differences among modern living groups.
reflect patterns of shared and unique sections of DNA among groups of animals.
help predict where unresearched features will be in common, such as how widely a medicine will be effective among animals.
All of the choices are correct.

common ancestry

In cladistics, _______________ is(are) the primary criterion used to classify organisms.
ecological niche
common ancestry
mating behavior
observable traits
All of the above.

They may include any of these choices.

Character traits are used to distinguish one group from another and may include
comparative anatomy and development.
the fossil record.
molecular data.
They may include any of these choices.
B and D only.

cladogram

The Greek root words for "branch" and "picture" form the biological term
cladogram.
taxonomy.
systematics.
binomial nomenclature.
phenogram.

shared ancestral character

A(n) _______ is one that is present in the common ancestor and all members of a group.
clade
analogous structure
shared derived character
divergence
shared ancestral character

shared derived character (trait).

Hair is a character shared by all mammals, but not found in their ancestral lineage. Hair is therefore considered to be a(n)
clade.
shared ancestral character (trait).
shared derived character (trait).
analogous structure.
A and E only.

homology

A study of echinoderm embryos, such as sea stars, confirms a similar developmental pattern to that of vertebrates. In both, the blastopore becomes the anus. This would be considered
convergent evolution.
synapomorphy.
behavioral data.
homology.
analogy.

chickens are more closely related to ducks than they are to humans.

The amino acid sequences in cytochrome c were determined for chickens, ducks, and humans. Scientists found a difference of 3 amino acids between chickens and ducks, but between chickens and humans there were 13 differences. One may conclude that
chickens are as closely related to humans as they are to ducks.
chickens are more closely related to ducks than they are to humans.
chickens are more closely related to humans than they are to ducks.
None of the above.

All of the choices are correct.

The use of a molecular clock may be used to indicate relatedness and evolutionary time
if nucleic acid changes are neutral and not tied to adaptation.
if nucleic acid changes occur at a fairly constant rate.
but still needs to be calibrated with the fossil record.
All of the choices are correct.

Analogous structures are derived from a common ancestral structure to perform the same function.

Which of the following statements about taxonomy is NOT true?
Analogous structures are derived from a common ancestral structure to perform the same function.
Homologous structures are derived from a single structure in the ancestor, although they may be adapted to different uses in the descendent species (e.g., a dog's foreleg and a human's arm).
In cladistics, a common ancestor and all its descendents that share one or more derived traits are placed in a single clade.
Biochemical data and the fossil record can be used independently to indicate the length of time since two species diverged from a common ancestor.

five new supergroups.

Scientists are involved in a debate over changes in the classification of Kingdom Protista. These changes include doing away with the kingdom classification and placing current protists into
a new domain.
two new domains.
five new supergroups.
three different phyla.
None of the above.

the wing of a bat and the wing of a butterfly

Which of the following best represents analogous structures?
the arm of a human and the wing of a bat
the arm of a human and the leg of a human
the wing of a bat and the wing of a butterfly
the wing of a butterfly and the wing of a bee

''primitive" and ''derived," since some early forms became very complex and some evolved forms are derived from them but lost characters and are simple.

Early biologists referred to animals as ''simple" and ''advanced," but now it is more accurate to use the following terms:
''evolved" and ''un-evolved," since everything ties together with evolution.
''primitive" and ''derived," since some early forms became very complex and some evolved forms are derived from them but lost characters and are simple.
''simple" and ''complex," since anatomy terms are more exact.
"generalists" and ''specialists," since this is how biologists classify characters.
''allopatric" and ''sympatric," since the species is most important.

Prokaryotes to Protists, from Protists separately to Fungi, Plants, and Animals

The evolution of organisms in the three domains and four kingdoms is most accurately described by which sequence?
Prokaryotes to Protists, separately to Animals and Plants with Fungi a loss of plant photosynthesis
Prokaryotes to Protists to Plants, from Plants separately to both Animals and Fungi
Prokaryotes to Protists, from Protists separately to Fungi, Plants, and Animals
Prokaryotes to Fungi to Protists to Plants to Animals
Protists to Prokaryotes to Fungi, from Fungi separately to Plants and Animals

None of the choices are true.

When comparing archaea with bacteria
both archaea and bacteria are easily cultured and studied in the laboratory.
the chemical nature of the cell wall of archaea and bacteria is identical and shows their early relationship.
bacteria are not very diverse and are limited in distribution, while archaea are far more diverse and found everywhere.
the archaea and bacteria are cases of reduction in traits and are both derived from early eukarya.
None of the choices are true.

thermoacidophilic archaea

A recent book by a reputable biologist suggests there is a deep, hot biosphere under the Earth's crust that may have more biomass than all life at the Earth's surface. This would primarily rely on what organisms?
viruses
thermoacidophilic archaea
primitive animals
primitive heat-loving plants
fungi living on the detritus from above

All of the choices are correct.

Taxonomy
is the branch of biology dealing with the naming, identification, and classification of organisms.
uses a binomial system developed by Linnaeus.
uses reproductive isolation as the basis of definition of a species.
All of the choices are correct.

is the specific study of identification, naming, and classification of organisms.

All of the following are true regarding systematics EXCEPT that it
is the study of the diversity of organisms at all levels of organization.
is the specific study of identification, naming, and classification of organisms.
utilizes protein, DNA, and RNA comparisons to determine relatedness of individuals.
relies on data from the fossil record, homology, and molecular data.

Protista

Single celled eukaryotic cells belong to which of the following kingdoms?
Animalia
Protista
Fungi
Plantae

All of the above are true.

Phylogenetic trees with proportional branch lengths
indicate relatedness among organisms and evolutionary time.
indicate the relative number of nucleotide pair differences between groups.
are constructed by comparing DNA sequences of homologous genes and calibrating this molecular clock with the fossil record.
All of the above are true.
A and C only.

Plantae: multicellular and photoautotrophic

Which kingdom is correctly described?
Protista: unicellular and heterotrophic only
Animalia: multicellular and heterotrophic by absorption
Fungi: multicellular and heterotrophic by ingestion
Plantae: multicellular and photoautotrophic

bats

If you were using cladistics to construct a phylogenetic tree of birds, what is the best outgroup?
bats
eagles
robins
eastern bluebirds

chemical complexes of RNA or DNA protected by protein shell

Which of these is the best description of a virus?
a noncellular living organism
a member of the kingdom Virusae
one of the smallest bacteria known
a cell at the boundary between living and nonliving things
chemical complexes of RNA or DNA protected by protein shell

poison.

Pasteur chose the Latin root word for "virus" meaning
poison.
particle.
extremely small.
contagious.
non-living.

All of the choices could be used.

Which of the following could be used to grow viruses in the laboratory?
chicken eggs
cell culture
bacteria
All of the choices could be used.

1892.

Ivanowsky first recognized that something smaller than a bacterium, called a filterable virus, was able to cause disease in the year
1650.
1700.
1892.
2001.
1965.

either DNA or RNA.

The innermost portion of a virus' structure is made up of
both DNA and RNA.
either DNA or RNA.
a membranous envelope.
a protein capsid.
spikes.

when infected people develop immunity to the present virus, strains that mutate sufficiently to be outside the range of immunity are soon spread in highly populated areas.

Influenza strains that sweep around the world often carry names such as Shanghai H1N1 or Mexico City H2N2. The viruses vary in H and N surface proteins because
the viruses reproduce and attack people in cities more often.
when infected people develop immunity to the present virus, strains that mutate sufficiently to be outside the range of immunity are soon spread in highly populated areas.
this is where the antibodies of immune people began to break down and the old virus was again virulent.
these viruses emerged as stray DNA from the genomes of people in these cities.

has not entered a lytic cycle.

If a virus is latent, it
has not entered a lytic cycle.
has not entered a lysogenic cycle.
is gaining a new envelope via "budding."
is easy to develop immunity against it.
cannot be a retrovirus.

a membranous envelope

Some, but not all, virus capsids are surrounded by _________.
a protein capsid
a membranous envelope
either DNA or RNA
both DNA and RNA
a protein spore coat

have a special protein on its surface that can interact with a protein on the surface of the host cell.

In order to infect a cell, a virus must
have a special protein on its surface that can interact with a protein on the surface of the host cell.
actively burrow through the cell wall or cell membrane of the host cell to reach the cell's nucleus.
inject its protein into the cell while the nucleic acid remains attached to the host cell surface.
produce a special extension of its cytoplasm when it comes into contact with the appropriate host cell.

lytic

The cycle of viral infection of a bacterial cell that will cause its death most rapidly is called the _______ cycle.
lysozyme
lysosome
lysol
lytic
lysogenic

lysogenic

The cycle of viral infection in which the viral DNA is integrated into the bacterial DNA is called the _______ cycle.
lysosome
lysol
lysogenic
lysozyme
lytic

It remains in the host cell genome, but is not replicated when host DNA is replicated.

Which statement is NOT true about a retrovirus?
It may cause cancer or AIDS.
It has the capacity to integrate cDNA into the host DNA of the cell it infects.
It contains reverse transcriptase.
It remains in the host cell genome, but is not replicated when host DNA is replicated.

fusion of its envelope with the host cell's plasma envelope.

An enveloped virus enters a host cell by
injecting its DNA or RNA into the host cell.
fusion of its envelope with the host cell's plasma envelope.
endocytosis.
Any of the above choices are correct.
B and C only are correct.

Attachment, Viral DNA penetration, Biosynthesis, Maturation and Release

What is the correct sequence of events in the lytic cycle of a bacteriophage infection?
Attachment, Viral DNA penetration into host cell, Integration of viral DNA into host cell DNA, Biosythesis, Maturation, Release
Attachment, Viral DNA penetration, Biosynthesis, Maturation and Release
Attachment, Fusion of envelope and host cell membrane, Biosynthesis, Maturation, and Release
Endocytosis of virion, Uncoating, Maturation, and Release

tetanus

Which of the following is not a viral disease?
West Nile Encephalitis
AIDS
tetanus
Ebola Hemorrhagic fever

their method of reproduction, whether asexual or sexual.

Viruses are categorized according to all of the following EXCEPT
their type of nucleic acid.
size and shape.
the presence of absence of an envelope.
their method of reproduction, whether asexual or sexual.

viroid.

A circular piece of RNA that interrupts the normal regulatory systems in plants, thereby causing disease is a
prion.
plant virus.
viroid.
bacterium.

All of the choices are correct.

Which of the following characterize prions?
Prions are proteinaceous infectious particles.
Prions cause TSEs, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.
Prions are misshapen proteins that may interact with a normal prion protein to change its shape.
All of the choices are correct.
A and B only.

crossing over.

All of the following are means of genetic recombination in prokaryotes EXCEPT
transduction.
crossing over.
conjugation.
transformation.

transformation.

Bacterial cells pick up free pieces of DNA that were secreted by live bacteria or released from dead bacteria in their environment. This process is called
replication.
transduction.
infection.
conjugation.
transformation.

transduction.

Bacteriophages carry portions of bacterial DNA from one cell to another in a process called
replication.
transformation.
infection.
conjugation.
transduction.

They do not divide by mitosis.

Which statement is true about prokaryotes?
They do not divide by mitosis.
They usually lack a cell wall.
They contain a nucleus.
They lack ribosomes.
They contain a single circular DNA molecule as the genetic material.

1-10 µm.

Prokaryotes generally range in size from
1-10 µm.
50-100nm
10-400 nm.
20-300 mm.
10-100 µm.

endospores

When conditions are unfavorable, some Gram positive bacteria form
endospores.
capsules.
pili.
galls
thylakoids.

influenza

Which of these diseases could NOT be treated with antibiotics?
chlamydia
scarlet fever
plague
influenza

All of the choices are correct similarities.

Similarities between the archaea and eukarya include
same ribosomal proteins.
similar tRNA.
similar initiation of transcription.
All of the choices are correct similarities.
A and B only.

archaea and bacteria.

Prokaryotes are now divided into the
bacteria and cyanobacteria.
autotrophs and heterotrophs.
archaea and cyanobacteria.
archaea and bacteria.
photosynthetic bacteria and chemosynthetic bacteria.

they are harmful human pathogens.

All of the following are true of methanogens EXCEPT
they produce methane from CO2 and H2.
they live in the intestinal tracts of cows, humans, and termites.
they are harmful human pathogens.
they live in swamps and marshes.
their biogas may contribute to global warming.

thermophiles - live in extremely cold temperatures.

Which of the following is a mismatch?
methanogens - prefer anaerobic environments
thermophiles - live in extremely cold temperatures.
thermoacidophiles - live in high temperatures and acidic environments
halophiles - live in high salt environments

All of the above choices are correct.

Chemoautotrophs oxidize which of the following to obtain the energy necessary to reduce carbon dioxide to an organic compound?
hydrogen gas
hydrogen sulfide
ammonia
All of the above choices are correct.
A and C only.

All of the above choices are correct.

Halophiles
require a high salt environment.
have a chloride pump that pumps chloride into the cell.
may be chemoheterotrophs or photosynthetic.
All of the above choices are correct.
A and C only are correct.

Bacillus anthracis.

This bioterrorist agent was sent through the mail and inhaled to produce illness and death in five people. It produces endospores and is called
Staphylococcus aureus.
Clostridium tetani.
Bacillus anthracis.
Vibrio cholera.

They are viruses that infect plant and fungal cells.

Which of the following characteristics about saprotrophs is NOT true?
Saprotrophs are also called decomposers.
They are viruses that infect plant and fungal cells.
They are ecologically important in recycling matter.
They are bacteria that decompose large organic molecules.

six different supergroups.

The most widely accepted formal classification of protists assigns them to
the kingdom Protista.
six different supergroups.
Domain Archaea.
A and C are correct.

All of the above apply.

Which of the characteristic(s) apply to the Supergroup Archaeplastida?
They contain plastids that originated from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria.
They include multicellular and unicellular organisms.
They include land plants and the green algae, Chlorophyta.
All of the above apply.
A and B only.

malaria - an amebozoan

Which disease is mismatched with the incorrect causative agent?
fish ick - a ciliate
malaria - an amebozoan
African sleeping sickness - a trypanosome
fish kills - dinoflagellate

Euglena

_________ is a mixotrophic protozoan that is able to combine autotrophic and heterotrophic nutritional modes.
Amoeba
Euglena
Giardia
Plasmodium

cyst - a reproductive structure

Which protistan structure is not correctly matched with its function?
trichocyst - defense and capture of prey
pyrenoid - synthesis of starch
pseudopodia - movement and feeding
cyst - a reproductive structure

multicellular

Which is NOT part of the correct description of a protozoan?
eukaryotic
usually motile
heterotrophic
multicellular

lack plant structures such as true roots, stems, and leaves.

The various forms of algae are NOT considered plants because they
are not multicellular.
lack strengthened cell walls.
never have specialized tissues.
lack plant structures such as true roots, stems, and leaves.
All of the choices are differences that separate the algae from plants.

freshwater or marine organisms that are suspended on or near the surface of water.

Plankton are
multicellular, macroscopic brown algae.
parasitic protozoans that cause human disease.
freshwater or marine organisms that are suspended on or near the surface of water.
organisms that are found living on or near the ocean floor.

sporozoan—flexing the pellicle

Which protist is NOT correctly linked to the type of movement it shows?
amoeboids—pseudopodia
sporozoan—flexing the pellicle
ciliates-—cilia
zooflagellates—flagella

may be asexual or any of these sexual cycles.

Protist reproduction
is always asexual fission.
may be asexual or any of these sexual cycles.
is always sexual with the adult haploid.
is always sexual with alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
is always sexual with the adult diploid.

Volvox—filamentous

Which of the following alga is mismatched with its description?
Ulva—multicellular
Chara—multicellular
Volvox—filamentous
Chlamydomonas—unicellular

Chara

DNA sequencing suggests that among the green algae, the __________ are most closely related to land plants.
Volvox
Chara
Ulva
Chlamydomonas
Spirogyra

red algae

A certain type of this algae has cell walls impregnated with calcium carbonate and helps to build coral reefs.
multicellular green algae
brown algae
dinoflagellates
diatoms
red algae

dinoflagellates.

"Red tides" are produced by massive blooms of
multicellular green algae.
dinoflagellates.
brown algae.
red algae.
diatoms.

eliminating excess water.

The main function of the contractile vacuole is
synthesis of carbohydrate.
resistance for survival during winter and times of drought.
eliminating excess water.
to be a photoreceptor to detect light.
chlorophyll production.

foraminiferans

The deposits of chalky fossils that built the White Cliffs of Dover were formed by
foraminiferans.
ciliates.
diatoms (as diatomaceous earth).
radiolaria.
dinoflagellates.

plants

Supergroup Opisthokinta includes all of the following organisms EXCEPT
plants.
choanoflagellates.
fungi.
animals.

A and C only.

Economically important products of the Rhodophyta include
agar used to make capsules for drugs and vitamins as well as a solidifying agent for bacterial media.
a gentle polishing abrasive included in some toothpaste or silver polish.
wrappings around sushi rolls.
All of the choices.
A and C only.

The micronucleus is exchanged in conjugation; the macronucleus is for general cell housekeeping.

Paramecia contain both a macronucleus and one or more small micronuclei. What are the functions of these bodies?
The macronucleus undergoes meiosis to produce haploid micronuclei that are exchanged in conjugation; this then produces a micronucleus for general cell housekeeping.
The micronucleus is exchanged in conjugation; the macronucleus is for general cell housekeeping.
The micronucleus is always for conjugative reproduction, while the micronucleus functions for general cell coding.
The micronuclei control the cell and the macronuclei are exchanged in conjugation for reproduction.

Trichomonas

A flagellated protist that is sexually transmitted is
Paramecium.
Entamoeba.
Plasmodium.
Trichomonas.
Giardia.

slime molds

Which can have a cellular form as well as an acellular (plasmodial) form with multiple nuclei?
diatoms
zooflagellates
ciliates
slime molds
sporozoa

All of these characteristics distinguish slime molds from fungi.

Slime molds, found in the Supergroup Amoebozoa, were once classified as fungi. What characteristics of the slime molds distinguish them from fungi?
The vegetative state of the slime mold is mobile and amoeboid.
They are flagellated cells at certain stages of the life cycle.
All of these characteristics distinguish slime molds from fungi.
Slime molds lack cell walls.

prokaryotes evolved when an aerobic bacterium engulfed a cyanobacterium.

The endosymbiont hypothesis proposes all of the following EXCEPT
chloroplasts originated when a nucleated cell engulfed a cyanobacterium.
prokaryotes evolved when an aerobic bacterium engulfed a cyanobacterium.
mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living bacteria.
a nucleated cell engulfed an aerobic bacterium which evolved into mitochondria.

mosquitoes and humans.

Plasmodium has two hosts in its life cycle. They are
deer ticks and deer.
tsetse flies and humans.
nutria and birds.
mosquitoes and humans.

All of the choices are correct.

A cyst
is a dormant cell with a resistant outer covering.
helps protists over winter.
aids a parasite in the survival of the host's digestive tract.
All of the choices are correct.

Giardia lamblia—malaria

Which of the following protozoans is mismatched with the disease that it causes?
Trypanosoma brucei—sleeping sickness
Giardia lamblia—malaria
Trichomonas vaginalis—vaginitis and urethritis
Entamoeba histolytica—amoebic dysentery

a pigmented organelle that shields light.

An eyespot is
a pigmented organelle that shields light.
a protein band beneath the plasma membrane.
a swelling near the base of a long flagellum that detects light.
All of the choices are true.

Entamoeba histolytica.

A common cause of amoebic dysentery is
Trichomonas vaginalis.
Entamoeba histolytica.
Giardia intestinalis.
Plasmodium falciparum

ingesting contaminated water or food.

Amoebic dysentery is transmitted by (through)
having sex with an infected partner.
the bite of a mosquito.
the bite of a tsetse fly.
ingesting contaminated water or food.

mosquito; humans

In Plasmodium, sexual reproduction occurs in the _________, while asexual reproduction occurs in ________.
humans; mosquitoes
deer tick; deer
mosquito; humans
tsetse fly; humans

sporangiospores

Which of the following spores is the result of asexual reproduction?
basidiospores
zygospores
ascospores
sporangiospores

conidia

Which of the following structures are NOT involved in sexual reproduction?
mushrooms
conidia
gametangia
ascocarps

Strep throat (pharyngitis).

Fungal diseases include all of the following EXCEPT
athlete's foot.
Strep throat (pharyngitis).
histoplasmosis.
thrush.

The energy reserve of fungi is starch while the energy reserve of animals is glycogen.

In differentiating fungi from plants and animals, which of the following statements is NOT true?
Plants have cell walls of cellulose; fungi have cell walls of chitin.
The energy reserve of fungi is starch while the energy reserve of animals is glycogen.
Fungal spores develop into haploid hyphae without embryo development; plants have embryo development.
Animals are heterotrophic by ingestion while fungi are heterotrophic by absorption.

determined by whether the hyphae have cross walls or lack cross walls.

The difference between septate hyphae and nonseptate hyphae is
a distinction between saprotrophic fungi and parasitic or disease-causing fungi.
a classification trait that separates basidiomycotes from ascomycotes.
determined by whether the hyphae have cross walls or lack cross walls.
a difference in haploid and diploid cells.
a distinction between plasmodial masses with many nuclei and nonliving zygospores.

contain paired haploid nuclei that fail to fuse for an extended period of time.

Dikaryotic cells of fungi
are just another form of haploid cells.
are nonseptate plasmodial masses with many nuclei and no cell partitioning.
are potential symbionts that can join with algae to form lichens.
contain paired haploid nuclei that fail to fuse for an extended period of time.
is just another name for diploid cells.

two nuclei.

The term "dikaryotic" is based on the Greek root words meaning
two-walled.
begin to germinate.
anti-bacterial.
two nuclei.
half nuclei or haploid.

hypha

One of the long, branching filaments that collectively make up the mycelium of a fungus is called a(n)
ascospore.
hypha.
basidiospore.
mycelium.
conidium.

basidiospore

A mushroom would produce a sexual spore known as a(n)
hypha.
conidium.
basidiospore.
ascospore.
mycelium.

All of these are differences between fungi and plants.

At one time, biologists thought that fungi were merely forms of plants that had lost their chlorophyll and had returned to saprotrophy. Why is this no longer considered a solid theory?
Fungal cell walls contain chitin rather than cellulose.
Fungi attack and engulf food for internal digestion.
Fungi have flagella at some stage, providing mobility that plants never have.
Plants are multicellular and fungi are unicellular or multinucleated noncellular plasmodia.
All of these are differences between fungi and plants.

a possible controlled parasitism wherein the fungi withdraw food from the algae and the algae do not benefit from the association.

The relationship between the fungi and algae in lichens is best described as
a possible controlled parasitism wherein the fungi withdraw food from the algae and the algae do not benefit from the association.
a simple cooperative mutualism between normally free-living strains.
a complete mixing of the genomes of the two groups at the cellular level.
an endosymbiotic transfer of the chloroplasts of algae to the hyphae cells.
a possible controlled parasitism wherein the algae are moistened and protected by the fungi, but the fungi do not benefit from the association.

The bread was sterilized when it was baked and thereafter mold spores from the air settle only on the outside of the cooled bread.

In time, bread becomes stale and grows mold on the exposed surfaces. Why does mold not begin growing inside the bread loaf?
Only molds at the surface of the bread can get oxygen to respire.
Mold actually begins from anywhere inside but produces colored spores only at the surface.
The bread was sterilized when it was baked and thereafter mold spores from the air settle only on the outside of the cooled bread.
Mold can grow only on dry surfaces.
There is an antibiotic antagonism between the bread mold and the internal yeasts that made the bread rise.

ergot

The parasitic sac fungus that grows on rye and other grains and contains the hallucinogenic chemical lysergic acid is
Saccharomyces.
ergot.
Rhizopus.
Penicillin.
Aspergillus.

ascospore

A sexual spore produced by a sac fungus is called a(n)
hypha.
ascospore.
mycelium.
conidiospore.
basidiospore.

conidiospore

An asexual spore produced by a sac fungus or club fungus is called a(n)
conidiospore.
mycelium.
basidiospore.
hypha.
ascospore.

lichens

The presence of ____________ indicates that the air is healthy for humans to breathe.
yeast
ergot
lichens
smuts
mycorrhizae

basidiospores

When the cap of an average gilled mushroom is cut off and placed on paper, a spoke-like print eventually appears on the paper under the cap. This powdery material would be
conidiospores.
sporangia.
basidiospores.
mycelia.
hyphae.

rusts and smuts

The fungi that parasitize cereal crops such as corn, wheat, oats, and rye are the
stinkhorns.
lichens.
truffles.
rusts and smuts.
yeasts.

Rusts and smuts—truffles

Which is NOT a correct association of a fungus and product?
Saccharomyces cerevisiae—beer and wine
Penicillium—antibiotics
Aspergillus—citric and gallic acid
Rusts and smuts—truffles
Aspergillus—soy sauce

lichens

Crustose, fruticose, and foliose are varieties of
lichens.
mycorrhizae.
rusts and smuts.
mushrooms.
yeasts.

None are mismatched. They are all correctly matched.

Which of the fungal groups is mismatched with the asexual spore produced?
Ascomycota—conidiospores
Basidiomycota—conidiospores
Zygomycophyta—sporangiospores
Chytrids—zoospores
None are mismatched. They are all correctly matched.

sac fungi

Species of ________ are known to consume jet fuel and wall paint.
sac fungi
Chytrids
AM fungi
club fungi

All of the choices are correct.

Yeasts
are members of the ascomycota.
reproduce asexually by budding.
are responsible for beer, wine, and bread production.
All of the choices are correct.
A and C only are correct.

A and C are true.

Which of the following statements about mycorrhizae is/are true?
Fungi may enter the cortex of plant roots but do not enter the cytoplasm of plant cells.
Plants are harmed, while fungi benefit.
The presence of the fungi give plants a greater absorptive surface for the intake of minerals.
All of the above are true.
A and C are true.

truffles.

Mycorrhizal sac fungi that live in association with oak and beech tree roots are
truffles.
yeast.
chytrids.
ergot.

Chytridiomycota

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which reproduces asexually through the production of zoospores, recently destroyed populations of harlequin frogs in Central and South America. It is a member of which phylum of fungi?
Basidiomycota
Chytridiomycota
Glomeromycota
Zygomycota

fungal and human cells are so similar that it is difficult to make fungal medications that do not harm human cells.

Fungal infections are difficult to treat because
fungal and human cells are so similar that it is difficult to make fungal medications that do not harm human cells.
they "hide out" inside of cells, and have long latent periods where medications can not get to the organism.
they mutate very rapidly and therefore become resistant to most medications.
All of the above.

Stachybotrys

__________, a black mold that grows well on building materials, causes "sick building syndrome" in those who have been chronically exposed to its toxins.
Candida
Histoplasma
Stachybotrys
Aspergillus

digitoxin

Poisonous or physiologically active chemicals include all of the following EXCEPT
psilocybin, a structural analog of LSD and mescaline.
muscarine and muscaridine.
digitoxin.
ergot alkaloids.

Histoplasma

The dimorphic fungus, _________, grows in mold form at 25° and in yeast form at 37°. It is associated with bird droppings and in most cases leads to a mild fungal flu.
Aspergillus
Candida
Histoplasma
Trichophyton

habitat

The particular place where an organism lives is its
community.
ecosystem.
niche.
habitat.
life zone.

density-dependent environmental resistance increases.

As the carrying capacity of an environment is approached by a population,
deaths begin to exceed births.
the rate of reproduction increases.
density-dependent environmental resistance increases.
population growth begins to be exponential.
births begin to exceed deaths.

Denitrification removes nitrogen from the atmosphere and converts it to a form that plants can use.

Which of the following statements about the nitrogen cycle is NOT true?
Both ammonium and nitrate ions are highly water-soluble
Nitrogen fixation can occur in aquatic systems or in soil bacteria.
Denitrification removes nitrogen from the atmosphere and converts it to a form that plants can use.
Nitrification occurs as ammonium is converted to nitrate.
Nitrification occurs as nitrogen gas is converted to nitrate.

All of the choices are correct.

Density-independent factors which play a role in regulating population size in nature include
weather.
natural disasters.
geographical barriers.
All of the choices are correct.
A and B only are correct.

Some water evaporates from land and from plants.

Which of the following statement(s) about the hydrologic cycle is (are) true?
Because this is a true cycle, it is impossible to run out of fresh water for human use.
All water molecules that evaporate from the ocean precipitate on land and move by gravity through groundwater to the ocean again.
Some water evaporates from land and from plants.
Once water sinks into the ground, it is safe from human exploitation or pollution until it has rejoined the ocean.
All of the choices are true.

r-strategists

If the members of a population are small in size, mature early, and have high parity and fecundity, they are ______.
r-strategists
K-strategists
neither K-strategists nor r-strategists, but have characteristics of both.

possible since carbon cycles through the biosphere.

Is it possible that the carbon atoms in your body may have once made up the living tissues of another person or animal in earlier times? This is
possible since carbon cycles through the biosphere.
possible only if you are a cannibal.
highly unlikely since carbon is always tied up in molecules in organisms or minerals.
impossible since carbon can't enter a living system more than once.

mates

Which of the following resources is NOT subject to interspecific competition?
space
food
mates
water
sunlight

have only a single reproductive event in their lifetime.

Semelparity is a pattern of reproduction in which the members of a population
have only a single reproductive event in their lifetime.
have many reproductive events in their lifetime.
have no reproductive events in their lifetime.
None of the choices are correct.

actions of an animal that immediately benefit others rather than itself.

Altruism is
displaced aggressive behavior.
a means of ranking animals in a dominance hierarchy.
actions of an animal that immediately benefit others rather than itself.
belligerent behavior that helps an animal compete in its society.

demographic transition.

The sequence of decreased death rate followed by a decrease in birthrate is called
environmental resistance.
a limiting factor.
replacement reproduction.
demographic transition.
doubling time coefficient.

are good dispersers and colonizers of new habitats.

Opportunistic species
are slow to mature.
are adapted to stable environments.
have long life spans.
are good dispersers and colonizers of new habitats.
are composed of large individual organisms.

a pheromone pathway laid down by previous ants.

Ants following a trail to the sugar bowl in your kitchen are doing so because of
a pheromone pathway laid down by previous ants.
operant conditioning.
chance alone.
an innate knowledge of where the sugar can be found.
a dance done by an ant in the anthill.

coevolution

The frequent change in HIV surface proteins is a type of
parasitism.
commensalisms.
coevolution.
mutualism.

primary consumers eat photosynthetic organisms.

In a grazing food chain,
primary consumers eat detritus.
primary consumers eat photosynthetic organisms.
secondary consumers eat detritus.
secondary consumers eat photosynthetic organisms.
all the consumers are primary consumers.

All behaviors can be explained as fixed action patterns.

Which of the following statements about behavior is NOT true?
Innate behavior is usually inherited.
Innate behavior is triggered by a stimulus.
Fixed action patterns are sometimes subject to modification by learning.
Animals with simple nervous systems tend to respond to a stimulus with an innate behavior.
All behaviors can be explained as fixed action patterns.

tactile communication

Primate grooming and honeybee waggle-dancing share which of these forms of communication?
tactile communication
chemical communication
visual communication
auditory communication

spread of illness and parasites.

Advantages to living in a social group for an animal includes all of the following EXCEPT
group food gathering.
spread of illness and parasites.
help in predator avoidance.
help raising young.

type III

Consider the life of the praying mantis. The large predatory female lays several hundred eggs in a foam mass in the fall. The young are most vulnerable when they emerge in the spring, but the few that survive spread out over the countryside and, if they find a mate, lay eggs the following fall. Which type of survivorship curve does this represent?
type III
type II
maximal exponential growth and minimal use of carrying capacity
type I
exponential growth followed by a decline from resource depletion

hunger

The stimulus for foraging is
the defense of a home range.
sexual desires.
hunger.
protecting young offspring from predators.

autotrophs

Energy flow in an ecosystem begins with
herbivores.
detritivores.
carnivores.
omnivores.
autotrophs.

realized niche.

The actual conditions under which an organism exists in nature constitute its
fundamental niche.
realized niche.
habitat.
resource partition.

population densities

Bangladesh has 2596 persons per square mile, while the United States has 780 persons per square mile and Canada has 9 persons per square mile. These statistics compare the _____ of these countries.
carrying capacities
limiting factors
population distributions
rate of natural increase
population densities

the biological clock in insects and mammals.

The "period" gene controls
maternal behavior in mice.
the biological clock in insects and mammals.
the egg-laying process in marine snails.
the ability to navigate in migrating birds.

Semelparity evolves in a stable environment.

Which of the following statements about semelparity is NOT correct?
Semelparity evolves in a stable environment.
Semelparous organisms invest most of their energy into reproduction.
Semelparous organisms produce a resting stage, such as eggs or seeds, that can survive unfavorable conditions.
Semelparous organisms have a single reproductive event in their lifetime.

Ozone destruction is catalyzed by chlorofluorocarbons like Freon.

Which of the following statements about ozone is true?
The ozone shield is breaking down because we are not producing enough ozone at the ground level.
Ozone destruction is catalyzed by chlorofluorocarbons like Freon.
The protective effect of ozone can be replaced by increasing the other greenhouse gases.
Ozone is the same as molecular oxygen, O2.
Ozone increases photosynthesis in plants.

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