The president's use of his prestige and visibility to guide or enthuse the American public
A group of presidential advisors not mentioned in the Constitution, although every president has had one. Today the cabinet is composed of 14 secretaries and the attorney general.
The role of the president as head of the executive branch of the government.
Executive Office of the President
The cluster of presidential staff agencies that help the president carry out his responsibilities. Currently the office includes the Office of Management and Budget, the Council of Economic Advisers, and several other units.
Term used to describe a president as an "emperor" who acts without consulting Congress or acts in secrecy to evade or deceive congress
The power possessed by 42 state governors to veto only certain parts of a bill while allowing the rest of it to pass into law.
National Security Council
A committee in the executive branch of government that advises the president on foreign and military and national security
A veto taking place when Congress adjourns within 10 days of submitting a bill to the president, who simply lets it die by neither signing nor vetoing it.
Amendments to bills, often in the form of appropriations, that sometimes have nothing to do with the intent of the bill itself and many times are considered to be pork barrel legislation
An unwritten tradition whereby nominations for state-level federal judicial posts are not confirmed if they are opposed by a senator of the president's party from the state in which the nominee will serve. The tradition also applies to courts of appeal when there is opposition from the nominee's state senator.
An intentional news leak for the purpose of assessing the political reaction
White House Staff
Personnel who run the White House and advise the President. Includes the Chief of Staff and Press Secretary
Baker v Carr
The case that established the principle of one man, one vote. This decision created guidelines for drawing up congressional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state
a procedure for terminating debate, especially filibusters, in the Senate
Congressional committees formed when the Senate and the House pass a particular bill in different forms. Party leadership appoints members from each house to iron out the differences and bring back a single bill.
Power used by Congress to gather information useful for the formation of legislation, review the operations and budgets of executive departments and independent regulatory agencies, conduct investigations through committee hearings, and bring to the public's attention the need for public policy
A type of policy that provides benefits to all Americans.
A type of policy that takes benefits (usually through taxes) from one group of Americans and gives them to another (usually through spending).
The drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
The inability of the government to act because rival parties control different parts of the government
Describes a Congress that succeeds in establishing itself as dominant in legislative and foreign policy
Those already holding office. In congressional elections, incumbents usually win.
An agreement by two or more lawmakers to support each other's bills
Pork Barrel Legislation
Legislation giving benefits to constituents through sometimes unnecessary of unwise projects within a state or district, to enhance a memeber's chance of reelection
President Pro Tempore
Officer of the Senate selected by the majority party to act as chair in the absence of the vice president
The process of reallocating seats in the House of Representatives every 10 years on the basis of the results of the census.
Reapportionment Act of 1929
Created permanent size of the house at 435 one rep for ever 650,000 people
Policy that results in government control over individuals and businesses. Examples of regulatory policy include protection of the environment and consumer protection.
Congressional committees appointed for a limited time and purpose.
Speaker of the House
The presiding officer of the House of Representatives, chosen by and from the majority party in the House
Permanently established legislative committees that consider and are responsible for legislation within a certain subject area
The chief officers of the majority and minority parties in each house
Party leaders who work with the majority leader or minority leader to count votes beforehand and lean on waverers whose votes are crucial to a bill favored by the party.