-is the study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their environment.
-group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
-the environment in which a species normally lives in the same area at the same time.
-a group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time.
-a group of populations living and interacting with each other in an area.
-A community and its abiotic environment.
-Synthesizes its organic molecules from simple inorganic substances
-Also called producers
-Ex. Oak Tree
-Must obtain organic molecules from other organisms:
~Detritivores (dung beetles)
Consumer (deer, tiger)
-an organism that ingests other organic matter that is living or recently killed
-lives on or in non-living organic matter and secretes enzymes into it to then absorb the products of digestion
Detrivores (dung beetles)
-Ingests non-living organic matter
-show how much energy flows through each trophic level in a community
-The unit of measurement = the amount of energy shown per square meter of area occupied by the community per year.
-10%-20% of energy is transferred between trophic levels
-energy is always being supplied to an ecosystem and is lost as it moves throughout it.
-nutrients are usually not resupplied to an ecosystem. They must be recycled to remain with the ecosystem.
-Carbon, Nitrogen,phosphorous and all other essential elements must be recycled.
Units are kJm-2yr-1
-Tertiary Consumers 74
-Secondary Consumers 1,850
-Primary Consumers 17,600
Examples of Ecology Units
-Population:gray squirrels living in central park
-Community:all of the gray squirrels, oak trees, monarch butterflies, etc, living in central park.
-Ecosystem:all of the gray squirrels, oak trees, monarch butterflies, living in central park as well as the type of soil, sunlight, amount of rain.
-the net dry mas of organic living organisms
-An organisms position on a food chain.
-T4 tertiary consumer
-T3 secondary consumer
-T2 primary consumer
-the initial energy source for almost all communities