Habeas Corpus Act
An important piece of legislation passed by Parliament that stated that a person who was arrested could obtain a writ, or order, demanding to be taken before a judge within a certain period of time
convicted of treason and beheaded
As a result of the English Civil War (Puritan Revolution), Charles I was....
Africa's dependency on Western goods
One of the reasons that enabled the slave trade to continue was...
Known as the "great charter" that was signed in 1215, setting forth the rights of the barons and extending rights to the common people over the following centuries...
Contact made through voyages by Columbus that brought people, animals, plants, and ideas eastward across the Atlantic was known as...
A system in Spain brought to the Americas in which the owner of a large piece of land could tax the peasants who lived on it
English Civil War
The revolt in which Parliament and Puritans organized together to overthrow Charles I after his continuous violations of the Petition of Right....
After winning the English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell created a new government in which he and Parliamnet shared power...
Petition of Right
A document prohibiting Charles I and any future ruler from imposing taxes without the consent of Parliament
In 1789, a freed Africian slave named __________________ wrote a book the described the horrors of the Middle Passage.
By 1750, this country had the largest empire in the world establishing colonies in Canada, India, New Netherland and several islands in the Caribbean Sea
Royal representatives that controlled almost every aspect of life in the districts in the 17th century France
The empire covered the most area and by the end of the 16th century, it included Mexico, Central America, most of South America. It was controlled by...
This country had a very small claim to territory in present day New York State, as well as a few islands in the Caribbean and parts of South Africa and South America...
In addition to the Europeans using racist practices through the institution of slavery, other countries such as _____________, _______________ also exhibited racist attributes
As the governments of European countries became centralized, the developed into definite boundries, unified rule, and permanent armies loyal to the head of the state called....
Dutch East India Company
An organization that was formed in 1602 that dominated trade in the Spice Islands and made strong efforts to exclude other Europeans from the trading there...
The country took control of eastern Canada and the Mississippi Valley in what is now the United states specializing in the fur trade
The richest colonies in this empire were located in Brazil because of its great sugar, gold and diamond production
The time period when Parliament invited Charles II back to England from exile and mandated a monarchy where the king and Parliament shared power
The cruelest, most treacherous leg of the Triangle Trade for enslaved humans being shipped to America was called...
Most European kinds of the 17th century believed that they had a/an __________ - a "God-given" right, to rule
The event joint monarchs William III and Mary II officially began their rule in 1689 ending absolute monarchy in England and making limited monarchy the permanent form of government
Poor leaders of Spanish soliders that believed God wanted them to save souls and find treasures in the New World
A group of representatives made up of townspeople, knights, the clergy, and lords that was developed to place important checks on the power of absolute monarchs
... attempted to continue to Westernize Russia after traveling in disguise to Europe as a carpenter to study their advanced way of life so he/she could teach their subjects new skills
... took decisive action against Catholic-sponsored plots against him/her by defeating the Spanish Armada in 1588, preserving peace and prosperity for England
... as head of the Church of England he appointed talented individuals as ministers hoping to influence Parliament to support his policies
... set up an effective administrative system and appointed a representative to govern each district in France
.... famously stated, "I am the state [the government]", made France a center for learning and the arts, made the adminstrative system more strict and promoted overseas mercantilism
... an Italian who sailed for England exploring parts of Canada, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland in search of the Northwest Passage
... sailed for Spain on behlad of Charles V and was the first to travel completely around the world - an expedition that took three years
... was an Englishman that sailed for the Netherlands primarily exploring the east coast of the present day United States, new New York States
Prince Henry the Navigator
... was a member of the Portuguese ruling family and used his wealth to send expedition to explore the west coast of Africa and find a way to India
... while sailing for Spain believed that he had reached Asia or the "Indies", not knowing he and his fleet had acutally landed in the Americas.
to enable a ruler to maintain law and order, people grant him or her absolute power by exchanging freedom for security
John Locke believed that individuals are born with a "blank tablet" or _______________ - no basic ideas or ways of thinking
Believed that there was a planned order to the universe and thought that using reason was the only way to find truth
The economists of the Enlightment in France were known as ________________, thinkers who were influenced by the ideas of natural law and individual freedom
A belief that the nation's economy should be free from governemnt regulation and left to follow its own natural laws
feelings of cultural pride, loyalty and patriotism are called...
A British policy that allowed colonies to govern themselves with little regulation that let the colonists get used to feeling independent
French and Indian War
A war known in Europe as the Seven Years War - fought between Great Britain and the French that left the British Empire with many debts
King George III
In order to solve the British financial problems ____________ and his ministers decided to collect more taxes from the American colonies
In 1765 many Americas objected to Britain's new colonial policy the _____________, that placed taxes on newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, playing cards and other items
Steps taken to punish colonists in respose to the Boston Tea Party that closed the harbor, suspended government and moved a large number of troops into the Boston area
Second Continental Congress
In May 1775, the ___________ met to discuss the procedure that the American colonies should follow by drafting the Declaration of Independence
Peace of Paris
This treaty recognized the United States of America as a fully independent nation from Great Britain
During the 1700s French society was divided into three groups called....
Marquis de Lafayette
This individual fought in the American Revolution and spoke out in favor of the National Assembly
In France ____________ is a celebration commemorating an angry crowd capturing a fortress during a quest for weaponry and arms in support of the National Assembly on July 14, 1789
grain and tax records
After National Assembly protests spilled over to the France's countryside peasants sought to find and destroy...
A powerful extremist group that convinced the French people the King Louis XVI had committed treasonous acts against France and its people
In 1975, another constitution placed France under the control of a corrupt, inefficient five-member committee called....
Brought the French Revolution to an end as well as making France the most powerful nation in Europe using force by military dictatorship
From 1802-1805 the ___________ was a set of laws increasing the efficiency of the French government providing trial by jury and religious freedom
Battle of Nations
In 1813, the armies of Prussia, Austria and Russia decisively defeated Napoleon at Leipzing, Germany in the "_________________"
Steps taken by Napoleon ordering European countries to not buy or sell goods to attempt to cut off Britain from its trade resources
Reign of Terror
During this period, special courts ordered the execution of many thousands considered "enemies of the republic" - victims included aristocrats, clergy and ordinary people people suspected of treason
A highly educated lawyer that was the leader of France's Committee of Public Safety and would become the president of the Jacobin Club buring its bloody extremist acts against political opponents
A deist thinker that felt few people were capable of governing themselves and admired the monarchy of England
believed that individuals are born with no basic ideas or ways of thinking and human nature is governed by natural laws of life, liberty and property
believed that both reason and civilization destroyed the best in human beings - stating people were at their finest states as "noble savages"
English political philosopher who defended royal absolutism and believed that people must exchange their freedom for security and protection
Baron de Montesquieu
disapproved of absolute monarchy and despotism and suggested all government should provide for the separation of powers among executive, legislative, judicial parts
Led his Indian followers in an uprising against Spanish rule in 1810 but would be later captured and executed in 1811 by Spanish forces
was able to drive off the French allowing Saint Domingue to become independent from France in 1804, renaming the island Haiti
Known as "The Liberator" became president of newly independent Columbia and hoped that the nation would be the beginning of a union of all Latin American States
Agustin de Iturbide
won freedom for Mexico in 1821 with the support of Creoles and the Roman Catholic church - soon after his victory proclaimed himself emperor of Mexico
A freed slave that led an uprising against the colonists of the French colony Saint Domingue in 1791
class given important political and military jobs
colonists born in Latin America to Spanish parents - wealth landowners, mine owners, and business people
children of Spanish and Indian parents - they tended to work in towns or be overseers on estates
who made up the largest part of the population, mixed Indian and Africian heritage, worked on large estates and owned no land of their own
military leaders that would govern as dictators; most common as a result of revolutions in 19th century in Latin America
New approaches to agriculture began to be practiced by landowners in Western Europe in the early 1700s was known as...
Great Britain's country contained just the right mix of raw materials, laborers, and people with only to make the development of the ______________ possible
During the early 1700s if a farmer had 3 fields, two of them would be planted and one would be rested (kept in fallow) in order to restore ints fertility. This common practice was known as....
Before new machines were invented, people had done weaving and other forms of manufacturing in the home known as....
During the Industrial Revolution _____ parts gradually replaced wooden parts in machines and were also sued for tools, machines, bridges and other structures
__________________ made is possible for the factories to be located anywhere
Machine made parts gave rise to the __________ system, where a group of workers each only made one part of it so a factory could turn out great quantities of an item in a very short time
With the growth of industry more jobs became available for people who could read, write and do arithmetic - workers otherwise known as....
While Eli Whitney is known for inventing the cotton gin he also introduced the idea of _______________, that manufacturers should produce standardized products that were all the same size and shape
assembly line system
In the 20th century, Henry Ford introduced a system of carrying automobile parts by a moving belt to workers in a sequence of production. This was known as....
The shift from producing goods by hand in the home to manufacturing them by machine is known as the....
This was demanded of European farmers as trade expanded and the number of people increased within its cities....
hard working, hands on factory workers that were typically identified by the color of the shirts they wore to work
a new apporach to agriculture in which farmers fenced off and planted crops that could be sold for large profits
system of agriculture in which landowners allowed small farmers to plant crops in part of the owners' fields
a British shcool teacher that stated atoms are the smalled parts of elements and devised a system of Atomic weights
discovered x-rays in 1895 and enabled doctors to "find" broken bones or growths on lungs
in 1898 discovered two radioactive chemical elements - radium and polonium - elements that would be used to treat certain cancers until the 1950's
believed in the process of evolution and natural selection of plants and animals - others called this idea "the survival of the fittest"
explained why the vaccination procedure works and why direct injection of disease causing bacteria into a human will produce anti-bodies to resist against germs
Artistic paintings that were dramatic, emotional and its common themese was beauty of nature
Literature that was strongly influenced by science and focused on everyday life and its problems of human life
The group wanted people as a whole, rather than single individuals, to own factories, mines and farms giving them the ability to produce goods at prices everyone could afford
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published a pamphlet titled, ___________ that discussed radical ideas referred to as scientific socialism
People who worked in the same occupation or industry joined together in organization called ________ to improve their wages and working/living conditions
Claimed that it was unfair for workers who produce goods to get less for their labor than the capitalists get for their investments
These artists wanted to show the effect of light on objects or scenes they painted and using scences of everyday life indoors and outdoors
union members elected representatives to present their requests or demands to an employer. This process is called....
According to Marx, workers and capitalists were enemies locked in an endless conflict. The working class was known as....
Reform Bill of 1832
The ______________ gave suffrage, or the right to vote to all males who owned a certain amount of property
During the 19th Century, more Europeans than ever before in history began to emigrate from their native countries to the United States. This was known as...
According to Marx, workers and capitalist were enemies locked in an endless conflict. The business owners were known as....
Herbert Spencer patterned his beliefs from Darwin's theories of evolution claiming society progressed as humans developed from primitive to more complex beings ("Survival of the fittest"). This was known as...
literature focused on life in the past, folklore or the beauty of nature
The purchasing of workers, raw materials and machines to produce goods for a profit is known as....
The Great Famine
The period between 1845-1851 when approximately one million Irish flocked to the United States in order to escape death and disease caused by malnutrition
The expansion of Westernations into the less industrialized regions of the work is called....
A movement designed to solve the problems of industrialism by promoting radical ideas of workers rising up to smash the current system so they could own all the sources of wealth
To step a strike, an employer might attempt to ____________ their outspoken employees so that these selected workers could not get jobs in their usual line of work in the future
One of the most important results of the Industrial Revolution is the _____________ that exists today.
This secret society group lef an unsuccessful revolt after the deal of Alexander I to promote aims of democracy and governmental change
Dardanelles and Bosporus
The Crimean War between Russia and Turkey was over the control of water routes connecting the Black Sea with Mediterranean called...
Aristocrats and other people who benefited from the old forms of government and society wanted to stop or slow the rate of changes were known as....
French Revolution and Napoleonic Era
Thr Congress of Vienna ended the era of the....
In 1830, Charles X and his ministers issued the _________ dismissing the legally elected lawmaking body and removing the voting rights of the French people
Representatives from Great Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria made most of the decisions at the Congress of Vienna. This group of four nations was known as:
___________ were usually professional and business people of the middle class that tended to support efforts to make governments more democratic
Congess of Vienna
After the fall of Napoleon a group of aristocratic leaders from various European countries met together to make decisions about how to govern Europe here
Alexander II established these elected bodies that made decisions on how to manage a district's education, health and welfare
Elected representatives of the German states met here in hopes of unifying the many German states into one nation
Concert of Europe
The general agreement amond the leading powers about the aims of the Congress of Vienna has been labeled ______________.
Violent attacks on Jews that were sanctioned by the Russian government
This group of people argued that democratic reforms did not improve society enough and socialism was the answer to problems in society and government
The Reform Bill of 1832
Compromises between British liberals and conservatives that made gradual reform possible without bloodshed
____________ is the policy of extending a nation's political and economic dominance or control over another territory or country
A large army organized by the British East India Company to defend the business interests within India's borders
After the East India Company lost its power in India, the British government ruled India directly as a colony by appointing a ____________ to head the Indian government
In 1869, the British were very interested in the _______, a waterway linking the Mediterranean and Red seas shortening the sailing voyages between Britain and India
Dutch farmers that resented British rule beacuse they were pushed out of the rich South Africian colonies were known as....
a leading developer of the gold and diamond industries that dreamt of a "Cape to Cairo"; railroad link to all of Britain's territories from south to north Africa
an organizational meeting held in 1884-1885 for European countries, Turkey and the United States to set rules for dividing Africa into colonies
sphere of influence
A/an ____________ is marked as an area in which a country has sole investment and trading rights
The Berlin Conference rules stated that imperial control rules over a weaker country could allow a weaker country to keep its ruler but the imperial power would set the policies for that ruler to follow
the Chinese adopted an attitude of ______________ over westerns in which they believed Europeans were barbarians could not teach them anything worth knowing
Additional rights of trade agreements that allowed British citizens accused of crimes in Hong Kong to be tired in their own courts. These rights were known as...
Open Door Policy
the United States proposal that all nations interested in commerce with China be given equal trading rights was called....
The waterway allowing access to both the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean that was created by the United States as a meausre to aid national defense
A United States policy the encouraged its country's businesses to invest in the development of Latin American countries and to build factories in them
The agreement among Germany, Italy and Austria to seperate France from the other major European powers and prevent the French from starting a war
The British attempt to create an unfavorable balance of trade with the Chinese by addicting them to a habit-forming drug and making a profit
Conflict in which Chinese rebels wanted to overthrow the Manchu Dynasty because it had allowed China to become weak
a large number of Chinese nationalists that formed a large group to drive all "foreign devils" out of China by attacking European embassies in Beijing in 1900
was a war fought between China and Japan over the territory of Korea (quickly won by Japan)
a dispute that arose in the 1800s between Russia and Japan over interests in Korea and Manchuria (ending in Japanese victory)