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Food Foragers

Hunt, fish, and gather wild plants

Food Producers

Create and manage their own food supplies

Carrying Capacity

Number of people that a given piece of land can support at a given time

Egalitarian

Nobody is better than anyone else, everyone is mostly socially equal

Pastoralists

Breed and manage domesticated herd

Horticulturalists

Cultivation with simple hand toolds

Intensive Agriculturalists

Cultivation using complex technologies

Social Stratification

Differentiation among people

Politics

The means through which society creates and maintains social order

Power

The ability of individuals to impose their will upon others

Authority

Socially approved use of power

Band

A small, loosely organized, kin ordered group that inhabits a specific territory
Ex: hunter gatherers

Tribe

A range of kin ordered groups that are politically integrated by some unifying factor and whose members share a common ancestry, identity, culture or language

Chiefdom

Regional polity in which two or more groups are organized under a single chief who is at the center of a ranked hierarchy of people

State

A centralized political system that has a monopoly on the legitimate use of force within it's territorial boundaries

Ego

Central person in the diagram

Patrilineal

Trace descent through the father's line

Matrilineal

Trace descent through the mother's line

Clan

Unilineal group that claims a common ancestor but cannot specify him/her

Bilateral

Trace through both parents equally

Ambilineal

Can trace through either side

Double Descent

Trace through both sides BUT for different purposes

Avunculocal

New family lives with husband's mother's brother; in matrilineal societies

Family

Social and economic unit, consisting minimally of one or more parents and their children

Matrifocal Family

Mother and her kids

Nuclear Family

Mother, father and kids

Marriage

Basic unit of the family; socially approved sexual and economic union

Sexual Division of Labor

Cooperation of jobs between couple to survive; minimizing sexual competition

Levirate

If husband dies, wife is expected to marry his brother

Sororate

If wife dies, husband is expected to marry her sister

Dowry

Dad paying to get rid of daughter

Bride Price

Husband owes stuff to bride's family

Sex

Refers to the "biological" difference between men and women; male and female

Gender

Refers to the "social" interpretation of sex differences; masculine and feminine

Gender Plasticity

Gender can change

Archetypes

Typical roles

Man the Hunter

Men did all of the hunting and fed the women and children

Gender Hierarchy

Members of one gender have more power than those of the other; Patriarchy and Matriarchy

Sexual Dimorphism

Each sex takes a different physical form within a species

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