The 3 main areas of eukaryotic cell
1. cell wall and/or membrane
Cell wall and/or membrane forms...
the outer layer
The nucleus is bounded by...
Which kingdoms have both cell walls and membranes?
both bacteria kingdoms
Which kingdom only has cell membrane (no cell wall)?
Plants' cell walls are made of ____ which is a poly_________
Bacteria's cell walls are made of ______ and _____. The name for this substance is _________.
Protein and sugar
Fungi's cell walls are made of ______ which is a poly_________ that's similar to ________.
Cell membranes are made of...
lipids and proteins
Cell membranes contain phospholipids. What do these lipids form?
Why are phospholipid bilayers effective for cell membranes?
inside and outside of cell are aqueous/watery
fatty middle layer prevents ALL hydrophilic substances for passing through
Cell membranes are _________________ meaning that they only allow certain substances to pass through
What is simple diffusion? What type of transport is it?
movement of hydrophobic substances down their concentration gradient (high --> low)
Why can simple diffusion only move ______ substances?
substances are carried through lipid space, so they must be interactive with phospholipid tails
Simple diffusion uses energy. T or f?
What is used in facilitated diffusion? Name and describe the 2 types
1. channels: highly specific to specific substances
2. carriers: attach to substance, pulls it into cell
Substances that pass are not hyd_________
Active transport needs ...
What makes active transport different?
moves substances against conc. gradient (low --> high)
active transport- needs energy
What types of substances can be moved through active transport (hydrophobic or hydrophilic)?
Are proteins used in active transport?
What are 2 types of bulk transport?
What is endocytosis?
outside particle surrounded and engulfed within vesicle (pocket)
What is exocytosis?
opposite of endocytosis
particle in cell is released to outside by fusing vesicle with the membrane
What is osmosis?
diffusion of water
down conc. gradient
What is a hypertonic solution?
highly concentrated with a solute
more particles outside cell than inside
What happens to cells in hypertonic solutions?
What is a hypotonic solution?
fewer particles outside cell than inside
What happens to cells in hypotonic solutions?
What is an isotonic solution?
same concentration of substance outside and inside cell
What happens to cells in isotonic solutions?
nothing, not affected
prokaryotes have organelles. T or F?
Which eukaryotic organelle is not membrane bound? What is their function
sites of protein synthesis/makes proteins
Which eukaryotic organelles are double membrane bound?
nucleus and mitochondira
What is a vacuole?
stores waste and other materials
Where are ribosomes located?
on rough endoplasmic reticulum
What are smooth endoplasmic reticulums?
system of membrane and tubes that moves substances around cell
Which eukaryotic organelle sorts and packages proteins?
What do rough endoplasmic reticulums?
What is mitochondria?
Which eukaryotic organelle digests foreign substances and "dead" organelles?
Centrioles help form ____ during ______.
spindles during mitosis
Nucleus contains ...?
Which organelle makes ribosomes?
Cell membrane regulates...?
what goes in and out of cell
What is the disadvantage of using heat to speed up reactions?
heat may damage the cells and cause intended reactions
What do enzymes/catalysts do?
speed up reactions
What is the "lock and key" theory?
enzymes match up perfectly with substrates
Where are the active sites of an enzyme?
where substrate and enzyme bind
Enzymes are substrate _____.
Enzymes did after catalyzing a reaction. T or F?
they are recycled
Enzymes are p______ and o______
proteins and organic
What denatures enzymes?
What molecules help enzymes? What is an example of this?
Why are vitamins essential?
without them many enzymes would not function properly and many chemical reactions would not occur