Bio SAT: Ch. 4 Cell Structure

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The 3 main areas of eukaryotic cell

1. cell wall and/or membrane
2. cytoplasm
3. nucleus

Cytoplasm contains..

organelles

Cell wall and/or membrane forms...

the outer layer

The nucleus is bounded by...

nuclear membrane

Nucleus contains...

chromosomes

Which kingdoms have both cell walls and membranes?

both bacteria kingdoms
plantae
fungi

Which kingdom only has cell membrane (no cell wall)?

animalia

Plants' cell walls are made of ____ which is a poly_________

cellulose
polysaccharide

Bacteria's cell walls are made of ______ and _____. The name for this substance is _________.

Protein and sugar
Peptidoglycan

Fungi's cell walls are made of ______ which is a poly_________ that's similar to ________.

Chitin
Polysaccharide
cellulose

Cell membranes are made of...

lipids and proteins

Cell membranes contain phospholipids. What do these lipids form?

phospholipid bilayer

Why are phospholipid bilayers effective for cell membranes?

inside and outside of cell are aqueous/watery
fatty middle layer prevents ALL hydrophilic substances for passing through

Cell membranes are _________________ meaning that they only allow certain substances to pass through

selectively permeable

What is simple diffusion? What type of transport is it?

movement of hydrophobic substances down their concentration gradient (high --> low)

Why can simple diffusion only move ______ substances?

hydrophobic
substances are carried through lipid space, so they must be interactive with phospholipid tails

Simple diffusion uses energy. T or f?

F

What is used in facilitated diffusion? Name and describe the 2 types

proteins
1. channels: highly specific to specific substances
2. carriers: attach to substance, pulls it into cell

Substances that pass are not hyd_________

hydraphobic

Active transport needs ...

energy

What makes active transport different?

moves substances against conc. gradient (low --> high)
active transport- needs energy

What types of substances can be moved through active transport (hydrophobic or hydrophilic)?

both

Are proteins used in active transport?

yes

What are 2 types of bulk transport?

1. endocytosis
2. exocytosis

What is endocytosis?

outside particle surrounded and engulfed within vesicle (pocket)

What is exocytosis?

opposite of endocytosis
particle in cell is released to outside by fusing vesicle with the membrane

What is osmosis?

diffusion of water
down conc. gradient

What is a hypertonic solution?

highly concentrated with a solute
more particles outside cell than inside

What happens to cells in hypertonic solutions?

shrivel up

What is a hypotonic solution?

fewer particles outside cell than inside

What happens to cells in hypotonic solutions?

swell up/burst

What is an isotonic solution?

same concentration of substance outside and inside cell

What happens to cells in isotonic solutions?

nothing, not affected

prokaryotes have organelles. T or F?

False

Which eukaryotic organelle is not membrane bound? What is their function

ribosomes
sites of protein synthesis/makes proteins

Which eukaryotic organelles are double membrane bound?

nucleus and mitochondira

What is a vacuole?

stores waste and other materials

Where are ribosomes located?

on rough endoplasmic reticulum

What are smooth endoplasmic reticulums?

system of membrane and tubes that moves substances around cell

Which eukaryotic organelle sorts and packages proteins?

golgi apparatus

What do rough endoplasmic reticulums?

holds ribosomes

What is mitochondria?

makes ATP

Which eukaryotic organelle digests foreign substances and "dead" organelles?

lysosomes

Centrioles help form ____ during ______.

spindles during mitosis

Nucleus contains ...?

genetic material

Which organelle makes ribosomes?

Nucleolus

Cell membrane regulates...?

what goes in and out of cell

What is the disadvantage of using heat to speed up reactions?

heat may damage the cells and cause intended reactions

What do enzymes/catalysts do?

speed up reactions

What is the "lock and key" theory?

enzymes match up perfectly with substrates

Where are the active sites of an enzyme?

where substrate and enzyme bind

Enzymes are substrate _____.

specific

Enzymes did after catalyzing a reaction. T or F?

false
they are recycled

Enzymes are p______ and o______

proteins and organic

What denatures enzymes?

heat
acids/bases

What molecules help enzymes? What is an example of this?

coenzymes
vitamins

Why are vitamins essential?

without them many enzymes would not function properly and many chemical reactions would not occur

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