A quasi-judicial in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similar to the way courts resolve disputes.
The ability of bureaucrats to make choices concerning the best way to implement congressional or executive intentions.
The thousand of federal governments agencies and institutions that implement and administer federal laws and programs.
Civil Service System
The merit system by which many federal bureaucrats are selected.
Major administrative units with responsibility for a broad areas of government operations. departmental status usually indicated a permanent national interest in a particular governmental function, such as defense, commerce, or agriculture.
Rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law. All executive orders must be published in the federal register.
Federal Employees Political Activities Act of 1993
The 1993 liberalization of the hatch act. Federal employees are now allowed to run for office in nonpartisan elections and to contribute money to campaigns in partisan elections.
Businesses established by congress to perform functions that could be provided by private by private businesses.
The 1939 act to prohibit civil servants from taking activist roles in partisan campaigns. This act prohibited federal employees from making political contributions, working for a particular party, or campaigning for a particular candidate.
The loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areas.
The relatively stable relationships and patterns of interaction that occur among agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees.
Working groups created to facilitate coordination of policy making and implementation across a host of governmental agencies.
Independent Regulatory Commission
An agency by congress outside a major executive department.
Independent executive agencies
Governmental units that closely resemble a cabinet department but have a narrower areas of responsibility, and perform services rather than regulatory functions.
The process by which law or policy is put into operation.
A system of employment based on qualifications, test, scored, and ability, rather than party loyalty.
Reform measure that establishes the principle of federal employment on the basis of open, competitive exams and created the civil service commission.
Jobs, Grants, or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support.
A quasi-legislative that results in regulations that have the characteristics of a legislative act.
Rules that govern the operation of all government programs that have the force of law.
The firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party to replace them with loyalist of the newly elected party.