← U.S. History Semester Test 2 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Bessemer Process This process made using steel for construction much more useful. Thomas Edison This inventor, utilizing electricity, made the first useable light bulb. He is noted for many other inventions as well. Alexander Graham Bell This inventor made the first working telephone. Transcontinental Railroad A golden spike marked the last of this major construction project connecting the west and east coasts. Pullman He not only built the first passenger cars for trains, he built a city around the industrial sites where they were made. Interstate Commerce Act This act passed by Congress, gave the federal government the power and authority to regulate railroad activities. Carnegie He was an entrepreneur that revolutionized business practices. As an oil magnate, he came to great wealth later selling his holdings to become one of the great philanthropists. Social Darwinism This philosophy utilized new biological foundations that suggested the "fittest will rise to the top." Applying this idea to business, many business men could now rationalize their ruthless behavior. Monopoly When all competition is ended in a particular industry because all concerns are bought out by a single company. Rockefeller He founded Standard Oil Co. when he bought out many competitors. Gompers He was one of the greatest union organizers of the IR. Collective Bargaining This form of conflict resolution between labor and business allowed labor to act as a single item rather than independent workers. Eugene V. Debs This union man looked at capitalism in a different light suggesting that it was not productive for workers and never would be. He promoted more socialistic ideals. Scabs This name identified workers that crossed strikers' picket lines and worked in their place. Mary Harris (Mother Jones) She was a labor activist that took up the plight of women in the work world in the late 1800s. Graft The illegal use of political influence for personal gain. Political Machine A group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city and offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for political or financial support. Kickbacks Taking illegal payments for services made. Tammany Hall New York's powerful political machine in 1863. Boss Tweed In 1871, this political boss and his organization pocketed 200 million dollars from New York City. Literacy Test This test was given to voters in the south prior to voting to ensure that the individual could read, a requirement for voting. Poll Tax This tax was enacted for using the voting booth. It prohibited many African Americans from voting. Plessy vs. Ferguson This court case stated that the Constitution opposed political and economic discrimination of all men, but said nothing about their social segregation. Pulitzer and Hearst These two newspaper men captured the reading publics' imaginations in the late 1800s by publishing the largest circulation newspapers in the U.S. Progressive Movement A reform movement of the late 1800s that stressed returning control of the government to the people, restoring economic opportunities, and correcting the injustices of American life. Prohibition The banning of alcoholic beverages in the 1920s. Muckrakers Journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of business in mass circulation magazines during the early 1920s. Scientific Management An attempt in industry to make jobs more efficient, simpler, and easier. LaFollette The governor of Wisconsin and leader of the progressive movement, he championed control of big business, better working conditions for workers, and treating business the same as people are treated. Referendum A vote on bills started by the people. Recall The ability to remove elected officials and legislation from public office. Theodore Roosevelt He was not supposed to become President. But as the Vice President under McKinley he became President when McKinley was elected. Square Deal This term was used to describe the progressive reforms in the Roosevelt administration. Upton SinclaIr, The Jungle A novel that brought attention to the terrible working conditions in meat packing plants. This author and novel brought Roosevelt to take investigative action. Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 marks the year of the creation of the US organization responsible for outlawing the sale of contaminated foods and truth in labeling on medicines. NAACP (National Organization for the Advancement of Colored People) An African American organization that in 1906, called for the full equality of black Americans. Federal Trade Commission A five member watch dog commission established in 1914, it investigated possible violations of regulatory statues and business monopolies. Federal Reserve System Wilson established the nation's banking system under this program, a program still important in today's economic scene. 19th Amendment In 1919, this amendment granted women the right to vote. Militarism The imperial powers followed a policy of building up armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy. Central Powers An alliance of countries that included: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the countries of the Ottoman Empire. Allies Those countries joined together that included: France, Great Britain, and Russia. Archduke Franz Ferdinand The heir to the Austrian throne murdered in Sarajevo which was the incident that touched off WWI. Trench Warfare This form of warfare came about in response to the modern weaponry and high number of casualties that occurred from frontal attacks. Because of it, a stalemate would exist for some 3 years. Lusitania This vessel was sunk in May of 1915 by German U-boats. 128 Americans were killed which ignited a rash response from the U.S. Zimmerman note This telegram was intercepted. It was a bargain with Mexico to offer U.S. soil as a reward for attacking the U.S. and interrupting their preparations for war with Germany. Selective Service Act In order to meet the demand for American soldiers, Congress passed this act. Convoy System A system whereby merchant ships would travel with a circling guard of destroyers and cruisers. Conscientious Objector A moral position taken by an individual in which he opposes war on religious grounds and refuses induction into the military. Rickenbacker He became one of America's top pilots and hero shooting down 26 enemy airplanes. Espionage and Sedition Acts This act was passed by Congress to control individuals and groups that obstructed the war effort in their speech, press, and actions. 14 Points This was Wilson's plan for peace in Europe. Meeting in Paris with other world leaders, Wilson outlined a number of actions that the world should take in order to ensure peace then and in the future. League of Nations As a part of Wilson's plan for peace in Europe, he proposed the formation of this organization to act as a forum for nations to discuss and settle their grievances without resorting to war. Reparations This term refers to the payment of 33 billion dollars Germany would need to pay as part of the treaty which ended WWI. Treaty of Versailles This is the name of the formal terms of peace in Europe. Nisei Japanese Americans that were born in this country and therefore were citizens and were shipped to internment camps. War Production Board This board created by Congress was established to ensure that needed resources were received by industries so the war could be won. Rationing The establishment of fixed amounts of goods able to be purchased by citizens that were needed by the military. Dwight D. Eisenhower Operation Torch was commanded by this general. He later became the commanding general of all forces in Europe. D-Day The day allied forces invaded the coast of Normandy as it began the final defeat of Hitler. George Patton He was an American General that led the invasion force of France and later Germany. Battle of the Bulge Germany's last counter offensive. This military drive broke through American lines. Lasting for a month, Germany retreated finally as the battle was carried to Berlin. MacArthur He was the Commanding General in the Pacific. He was likewise the leader of occupying forces that entered Japan. Kamikaze A suicide plane tactic used by the Japanese in the Battle for Leyte Bay. Manhattan Project This was the best kept secret of the war. Likewise, it was the most ambitious scientific enterprise of the war. This program established the atomic weapons that would end the war. Oppenheimer He was the leader of the scientists at Los Alamos that actually built the Atomic Bomb. Hiroshima The first city that was destroyed using a nuclear weapon. This military location in Japan ceased to exist on August 6, 1945. Nagasaki A second site, this city in Japan was also destroyed by an atomic bomb. Yalta Conference In February 1945, Roosevelt met with Churchill and Stalin at a city on the Black Sea. Here the leaders made important decisions about the future of peace in Europe. United Nations This was to be the new organization of countries that would serve as an international peacekeeping body. Nuremburg Trials After the fall of Germany, this event was conducted to expose and convict the leaders of Germany responsible for the war and the crimes committed against allied countries. GI Bill of Rights This bill passed by Congress provided education and training for veterans. Over half of the returning soldiers attended college and technical schools under this bill. Adolf Hitler He was the leader of the Nazi party and Germany itself during WWII. His name is associated with all evil. Mussolini He was the leader of Italy during WWII. He formed a Nazi party and preferred to be called "el duce." Tojo Although he was not the emperor of Japan, as military leader and the new Prime Minister, he designed the Japan war plan in the Pacific theater. Price Supports The maintaining of certain price levels for key products at or above market value utilizing government funds. Credit An arrangement to buy now and pay later. Speculation The engagement in risky business transactions, the buying and selling of stocks in the chance of quick or considerable profit. Buying on Margin Paying a small percentage of a stock's price as a down payment and borrowing the rest. Black Tuesday October 29, 1929, the day the stock market fell. The Great Depression The period from 1929-1941, in which the economy was in severe decline and millions of people were out of work.. Dow Jones Industrial Average A measure of stock market activity using the prices of 30 different stocks representing large firms. Dust Bowl A result of poor farming practices in the West; this area was named __________. Shantytowns Makeshift shacks where migrants and workers would live as they worked the agricultural fields of the West. Bread Lines Formed around the poor of the urban areas, these lines offered food relief for the poor. Direct Relief During the early part of the Depression there was not action taken by the government to help the poor. Herbert Hoover He became the President in 1928, a man from Iowa, that promised to keep government intervention out of the nation's current economic problems. Boulder Dam Hoover's eventual attempt to jump start the economy was directing federal funds to this large construction project. Rugged Individualism This was Hoover's response to how Americans should respond to the pressures and hardships of the Depression. Satellite nations Countries that were dominated by and dependent upon the Soviet Union. Containment An effort to block Soviet influence, and to support and ally weaker countries. Marshall plan This plan proposed that the U.S. should give aid to all European countries that needed it. Berlin Airlift British and American officials began dropping food and other supplies over West Berlin when the Soviet Union blocked off the city. NATO The defensive military alliance against Soviet aggression. Taiwan (Formosa) An island east of mainland China where Chiang Kai-Shek and the rest of the Chinese government fled after being defeated by the Communists. 38th Parallel The line that separates Korea and acts as a boundary line. House Committee on Un-American Activities A congressional committee created to search out disloyal Americans and Communists. McCarthy The famous anti-Communist Senator from Wisconsin. Imperialism The policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories. Yellow Journalism To lure readers, Hearst and Pulitzer's magazines published exaggerated accounts of world events. U.S.S. Maine President McKinley had ordered this battleship to Cuba to protect American lives and property. On Feb. 15, 1898, an explosion sent the ship's ammunition up in flames with the ship. Rough Riders A voluntary cavalry under the command of Wood and Teddy Roosevelt that supposedly road up San Juan Hill in the Spanish American war. Open Door Notes The U.S. called for open access to China's coastal ports, the elimination of special privileges for any of the trading nations, and the maintenance of China's independence. Dollar Diplomacy The Taft administration followed the policy of using the U.S. government to guarantee loans made to foreign countries by American businesspeople. Winston Churchill The leader of Great Britain during WWII; famous for the iron curtain speech. Blitzkrieg Germany's military strategy during WWII or lightening war. Holocaust The systematic murder of 11 million people across Europe, more than half of whom were Jews. Lend-Lease Under this plan, the President would lend or lease arms and other supplies to any country whose defense was vital to the U.S. Baby Boom An unprecedented population explosion occurring as soldiers returned from WWII. Consumerism Buying material goods. John F. Kennedy The 35th President of the U.S. and was in office during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Flexible Response Kennedy's policy that involved preparing for a variety of military responses to international crises rather than just focusing on nuclear defense. Fidel Castro Communist leader of Cuba. Berlin Wall A concrete wall built between East Germany and West Germany during the Cold War. Lyndon Johnson The U.S. President that grew up in Texas and won his election in 1964. Great Society What LBJ named his grand vision for America. It eliminated poverty and racial injustice, and created a higher standard of living and equal opportunity. Warren Court The Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren that dealt many important rulings. Thurgood Marshall The attorney on the side of Brown in the Brown vs. Board of Education case. An important figure in getting rid of segregation. Rosa Parks A seamstress and an NAACP officer who refused to give up her bus seat. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr The famous pastor who lead many marches and lead the Montgomery Improvement Association. Southern Christian Leadership Conference It was made up of more than 100 ministers and civil rights leaders and its purpose was "to carry on nonviolent crusades against the evils of second-class citizenship." Robert McNamara Secretary of Defense who aided LBJ when he sent soldiers to Vietnam. Agent Orange A leaf-killing toxic chemical used during the Vietnam War that devastated the jungles of Vietnam. Vietnamization Nixon's plan to end America's involvement in Vietnam that called for gradual withdrawal of troops. Pentagon Papers The 7,000-page document that, when leaked to the public, revealed the U.S. government had not been honest about its intentions in the Vietnam War. Silent Majority Moderate, mainstream Americans who quietly supported the President's strategy. Richard Nixon The conservative President who was elected in 1968. New Federalism Nixon's plan to distribute a portion of federal power to state and local governments. Watergate A political scandal that centered on the cover-up of a burglary at the Democratic National Headquarters. Gerald Ford Took office after the resignation of Richard Nixon, he declared, "Our long national nightmare is over." Jimmy Carter A former governor of Georgia and a peanut farmer, the democratic candidate won the election of 1976. Camp David Accord The first easing of tension in the Middle East occurred as Egypt and Israel met with President Carter and signed this document. Ronald Reagan This President brought back conservative politics and thinking to the American political arena. First elected in 1980, he represented the moral majority. Reaganomics An economic term that advocated large tax breaks to increase private investment, which in turn were intended to increase the nation's supply of goods and services. Star Wars A defense department - "strategic defense initiative"; this idea outlines putting military satellites in space. Gorbachev A Soviet leader initiated a series of peace talks with the U.S. during the last days of the Soviet Union. Glasnot A Russian term that encouraged openness in discussing social problems, free speech. Perestroika A Russian term that referred to the reconstructing of the Soviet economic and political elements in Soviet society. Bill Clinton The first member of the baby boom generation to become President; he represented youth and Democratic principles. Cesar Chavez He was a latino that unionized migrant farm workers to end exploitation in America's Southwest. Haight-Asbury The hippie capital of California; these two streets represented the center of the counter culture movement. Betty Friedan This woman published the "Feminine Mystique" in which she portrayed women's dissatisfaction with their role in American society. Feminism The belief that women should have economic, political, and social equality. Henry Kissinger Nixon's top advisor during the Vietnam War. My Lai Massacre This atrocity in Vietnam left a village of innocent civilians dead. Kent State Disaster A college incident that left students dead as they marched in protest to the Vietnam War. Robert F. Kennedy He was assassinated during the Presidential campaign of 1968. He represented a Democratic ideal of ending the war and peace in our lifetime. Students for a Democratic Society A far left student organization that protested the war and the government that supported it. Tonkin Gulf Resolution This statement by Congress, although not a declaration of war, gave President Johnson full authority to wage war in Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh He was the leader of the North Vietnamese that led a Communist revolt in Vietnam.