As a young man, Maslow experienced a fortuitous event that changed his life. This event happened when he
first kissed his cousin Bertha Goodman.
In his theory of motivation, Maslow assumed that
people are continually motivated by one need or another.
With regard to needs, which one of these statements would Maslow endorse?
the order of needs may be reversed in certain cases
According to Maslow
A) some behavior is not motivated
B) all behavior has a cause
*C) both of these (A & B)
Which of the following was NOT listed by Maslow as a characteristic of self-actualizing people?
(Maslow) Bauer and McAdams found that older participants, compared with college students, tended to report needs of
Maslow believed that all people have the potential for self-actualization but most people never achieve it
Rogers described the formative tendency as a tendency for
matter to evolve from simpler to more complex form
(Rogers) Healthy people evaluate their experiences as good or bad according to this criterion.
the actualizing tendency
Inner tension arises, Rogers said, when a conflict exists between the
self-actualization tendency and the organismic self.
(Rogers) Taylor's parents praise her whenever her behavior mets with their standards. However, they punish Taylor when her behavior fails to meed with their approval. From this information it appears that Taylor is experiencing
conditions of worth
(Rogers) Tyler has a negative view of himself. To increase his self-concept, his parents and teachers continually praise and compliment him. Rogers believed that such praise and compliments are most likely to
be distorted by tyler.
Which statement is consistent with Rogers' theory
Once achieved, self regard can exist independently of others' opinions and attitudes
Rogers believed that a person with a disorganized personality may at times behave consistently with organismic experience, and at other times consistently with
the shattered self-concept
Rogers hypothesized that empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence are
necessary and sufficient conditions for therapy
(Rogers)Clients are better able to listen to themselves when the therapist possesses
empathy for them
In the Chicago studies, Rogers and his associates found that
clients who received client centered therapy improved, but they did not reach an "average" level of psychological functioning
Which statement is most consistent with Rogers' concept of humanity
People have a natural tendency to move toward actualization
As a schoolboy, Rogers became interested in scientific farming, an interest that contributed to his later research abilities
After receiving his PhD, Rogers spent more than 10 years in clinical practice, mostly isolated from the academic community, and this isolation helped him develop an approach to therapy that was unique
In Rogerian theory, the actualizing tendency refers to the person's organismic or physiological experiences.
Rogers believed that healthy people adjust their organismic self in order to make it congruent with their ideal self.
(Rogers) After people have established unconditional positive self-regard, they no longer depend on others for unconditional positive regard
According to Rogers, people with low self-worth and who receive positive external evaluations will assimilate these evaluations into their self-concept and will thus grow toward psychological health
According to Rogers, a vulnerable person is unaware of the discrepancy between self and experience.
The three necessary conditions for therapeutic growth, Rogers believed, are counselor congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathetic listening.
Rogers believed that when client-centered therapy is successful, clients become their own therapists
Although Rollo May's writings were somewhat philosophical in tone, his views originated from his experience as a
(May) The personality theories of Sullivan, Malsow, Rogers, and others emphasize interpersonal relations deal mostly with
May defined anxiety as
an awareness that our existence of some value identified with it may be destroyed
(May) The guilt that aries from our inability to accurately perceive the world of others is associated with __.
May defined intentionality as
the structure that gives meaning to our experience and allows us to make decisions about the future.
May defined love as
"a delight in the presence of the other person and an affirmation of his value and development as much as one's own"
(May) people use myths to
(a) transcend the immediate situation
(b) expand self-awareness
(c) search or identity
**(d) all of these
In "The Cry for Myth", May suggested that one myth is powerful today because it contains elements of existential crises common to all of us. This is the story of _____.
Rollo May had an unpredictable mother and an older sister who experienced a psychotic breakdown
(May) Most existentialists suggest that people be studied from an objective frame of reference
Neurotic anxiety, May said, is disproportionate to the threat and involves intrapsychic conflict
(May) Ontological guilt associated with Mitwelt arises from our separation from the natural world.
(May) Eros is a psychological desire to seek creation through an enduring union with a loved one
May believed that Oedipus story lost it's power when psychoanalysts popularized it and thus trivialized it.
The proprium is Allport's term for
those behaviors and characteristics that people regard as central to their lives
When motives change to self-sustaining interests, Allport would say that they have become
Which of these did Allport NOT recognize as a criterion for an adequate theory of motivation
a single master motive that unifies all behavior
Allport assumed that people who attended church regularly may have
(a) an extrinsic religious orientation
(b) an intrinsic religious orientation
****(c) both of these
(May) Research has suggested that people who score high on the Extrinsic scale of the Religious Orientation Scale
are more prejudiced than those who score high on the Intrinsic scale
Allport believed that psychoanalysis and animal-based learning theories were basically reactive theories
(Allport) In the United States, driving on the right side of the road would be a peripheral aspect of personality
Allport's most famous study of a single individual was Marion Taylor which he published in 1953
(Allport) Functional autonomous behaviors do not need constant reinforcement in order to maintain themselves
Allport and Ross found a positive and direct correction between church attendance and prejudice
(Allport) People who endorse both intrinsic and extrinsic items on the Religious Orientation Scale are called indiscriminately proreligious
(Eysenck) The orthogonal rotation method tends to result in a greater number of traits than does the oblique rotation method
Eysenck would say that his relationship with his parents, as well as other childhood experiences, played a significant role in shaping his personality
Eysenck's theory is based main differences between extraversion and introversion are not behavioral but biological and genetic in nature
People who score high on Eysenck's P scale are likely to be warm, affectionate, conforming and sociable
McCrae and Costa are currently the only researchers seriously investigating the Big Five Factors
According to McCrae and Costa, the Five Factor Model and the Five Factor Theory are in terms that can be used interchangeable.
Although they have published much together, Robert McCrae and Costa live nearly 3,000 miles apart
McCrae and Costa believe that personality traits are nearly completely determined by early adolescence
(Eysenck) Mathematically, the technique of reducing a number of variables to a smaller number is called
According to Eysenck, introverts and extraverts are different in many respects. The most important difference is
level of cortical arousal
According to research reported by Eysenck, sick people who react to their illness with anger aggression are most likely to die from
The theories of McCrae and Costa and a of Eysenck rate
high on biological determinants of personality
According to Skinner, Internal mental states such as thinking, foresight, and reasoning
exist, but should not be used to explain behavior
After Skinner's younger brother died, his parents
treated Skinner as a child long after he married and had children of his own
Skinner believed the most crucial aspect of science is
an attitude that values empirical observation
(Skinner) Shaping complex behavior through operant conditioning usually includes this procedure
(Skinner) Any aversive condition that when removed from a situation increases the probability that a given behavior will occur is a
Skinner favored reward over punishment largely because
the effects of punishment are less predictable
(Skinner) Allyson rubs her knee to reduce pain. This behavior is most likely an example of
(Skinner) A bricklayer is paid a given amount of money for every brick laid. This procedure most closely approximates which schedule of reinforcement
(Skinner) Extinction of a response will occur earliest when learning occurs under this schedule of reinforcement.
Which of these concepts would Skinner see as an explanatory fiction
***(d)all of the above
According to Skinner the act of of blocking out unpleasant thoughts is an example of
In his philosophy of science, Skinner
believed in interpretation of behavior but not explanation of its causes
(Skinner) John Watson believed that the goal of psychology is prediction and control of behavior
Skinner contended that human behavior follows principles that are basically the same as those that apply to animal behavior
(Skinner) With operant conditioning, behavior is elicited; that is, it is drawn out of the organism
(Skinner) Watson and Rayner's experiment with Little Albert was an example of classical conditioning
Although emotions are real, Skinner argued that scientists should not attribute behavior to them
Skinner believed that psychotherapy offers that best hope for an improvement of the human species
(Skinner) Resent research has found that punishment tends to improve learning for people low in anxiety
Bandura believes that human functioning is a product of the mutual interaction of environment, person, and
Bandura first became interested in clinical psychology when he
worked on the Alaska highway after graduation from highschool
(Bandura) Chance encounters enter the triadic reciprocal causation paradigm at this point
According to Bandura, if behavior were completely controlled by the environment, it would be
less consistent and more varied
(Bandura) People's expectations that they are capable of performing a behavior that will produce desired outcomes in any particular situation is called
(Bandura) Which technique is LEAST likely to increase a person's self-efficacy
increased emotional arousal
(Bandura) Carlos has great confidence in himself as a hairdresser. However, the economy in his city has recently turned downward, and few people can afford a hairdresser. When Carlos applies for a job at Mr. Dan's Hair Salon, he will likely have high _______ and low ________.
self-efficacy; outcome expectation.
(Bandura) Low self-efficacy and an unresponsive environment are MOST likely to result in
apathy and feelings of helplessness
(Bandura) The personal efficacy of many people working together to bring about social change is called
(Bandura) Taylor, like most people, relies on auto mechanics, air conditioning repairmen, network news, and hundreds of other people who enhance her lifestyle. In doing so, Taylor is making use of
(Bandura) Which of the following would be an example of disengagement of internal control?
A conscientious doctor performs an illegal operation but justifies her actions to herself by saying the surgery was necessary to save a life
The study by Bandura, Ross, and Ross involving young children and a Bobo doll found that
(a) children exposed to an aggressive cartoon character were more agressive than children not subjected to an aggressive model.
(B) children exposed to an agressive live model were more aggressive than children not subjected to an aggressive live model
***(c) both of these
Which statement is most consistent with Bandura's concept of humanity
Humans have the capacity to become many things, within the limits set by biology
Bandura's social cognitive theory assumes that people have capability to exercise some control over their lives
Basic to Bandura's social cognitive theory is the assumption that consistency of behavior is the outstanding characteristic of humans
Bandura's triadic reciprocal causation notion assumes that behavior is the product of two variables-heredity and environment
(Bandura) Most of our chance encounters have a significant and permanent impact on our personality
In Bandura's triadic reciprocal causation hypothesis, all three factors typically make equal or nearly equal contributions to action
(Bandura) Chance encounters and fortuitous events enter the triadic reciprocal causation model at the point of behavior
(Bandura) People's belief that they can or cannot execute those behaviors necessary to produce desired outcomes is Bandura's definition of disengagement
(Bandura) Is it possible to have high efficacy and yet have low confidence that one's actions will produce the desired results
(Bandura) The type of efficacy that involves indirect control over the social conditions that affect a person's life is called self-efficacy
Bandura believes that although reinforcement facilitates learning, it is not necessary condition to learning.
An event or condition that moves a person toward a goal would express Rotter's concept of
the empirical law of effect
(Rotter) Behavioral potential can be predicted when reinforcement value is held constant and
Rotter's basic prediction forumula states that behavior potential is a function of a person's expectancy that behavior will be followed by reinforcement in a particular situation, and by
The basic prediction formula is most useful for making specific predictions. To make more generalized predictions, Rotter introduced the concept of
(Rotter) The specific concept of expectancy is analogous to this term in the general prediction formula
freedom of movement
(Rotter) The Extent to which a person prefers one set of reinforcements to another is called _____.
(Rotter) In the general prediction formula, need potential is a function of freedom of movement and
(Rotter) The Internal Trust Scale measures
generalized expectancy and the belief in relying on people.
Michel's consistency paradox states that
Most people regard behavior as relatively consistent, where as empirical evidence suggest that it is quite variable.
Mischel and Shoda's system that accounts for variability across situations as well as stability of behavior within the person is called a
cognitive-affective personality system
Mischel and Shoda use the term behavioral signature of personality to refer to
a person's pattern of variability of behavior
Mischel and Moor found that children who were encouraged to image real rewards while viewing pictures of rewards
could not wait as long for the rewards as the children who were exposed to pictures of rewards
Rotter's concept of humanity assumes that people
are motivated by their view of events more than by events
Michel's cognitive-active personality system conceptualizes humans as
being goal-directed and active, not passively reactive
Rotter's theory is future oriented; that is, it allows for a person's expectations of future events
According to Rotter, people's psychological situation is more important than their physical environment
(Rotter) A person who scores high on Interpersonal Trust Scale is likely to believe that most people can be counted on to do what they say they will do
Rotter believes that maladaptive behavior inevitably arises from the combination of high need value and low freedom of movement
Mischel and Shoda argue that inconsistencies in a person's behavior are due solely to the situation
Kelly's college education may have influenced his later writings, which are sprinkled with
Kelly's assumption that present interpretations are subject to revision and change is called
(Kelly) Personal constructs are best defined as
transparent templates or patterns that help people make sense out of the world.
Kelly's fundamental postulate assumes that
people guide their actions by the ways they predict the future
The notion that people differ from one another in their construction of events best describes Kelly's corollary
Which of Kelly's corollaries explicitly assumes an ordinal relationship among constructs
(Kelly) The assumption that personal constructs are limited to a finite number of events reflects this corollary
Which of Kelly's corollaries assumes that people can hold seemingly incompatible beliefs ?
Kelly defined a role as
a pattern of behavior resulting from our understanding of the constructs of others
In order to facilitate clients' discovery of hidden aspects of themselves, Kelly used
Like Alder, Kelly thought that our interpretation of events is more important than the events themselves
(Kelly) The personal construction systems of people with psychological disorders are much narrower than the construction systems of psychologically healthy individuals
Kelly believed that people belong to the same cultural group mostly because they construe their experience in the same manner
(Kelly) The purpose of fixed-role therapy is to help clients change their outlook on life by having them act out a predetermined role
(Kelly) Harper and Schoeman (2003) found that people who rely heavily on gender stereotypes tend to have few basic prejudices
Although Kelly's personality theory was quite unique, his practice of psychotherapy remained strongly psychoanalytic