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Theories of Personality by Fiest Chapter 10-18 multiple choice and true&false only

As a young man, Maslow experienced a fortuitous event that changed his life. This event happened when he

first kissed his cousin Bertha Goodman.

Maslow regarded his mother as

none of these

During childhood and adolescence, Maslow was

shy and socially backward

In his theory of motivation, Maslow assumed that

people are continually motivated by one need or another.

Maslow's concept of hierarchy of needs assumes that

lower needs have prepotency over higher needs.

During his early professional career, Maslow was influenced mostly by

Harry Harlow

Maslow said that basic anxiety is experienced when people

fail to satisfy safety needs.

Feelings of self-worth, confidence, and competence were considered by Maslow to be

esteem needs

According to Maslow, neurotic needs are activated

whether or not they are satisfied.

With regard to needs, which one of these statements would Maslow endorse?

the order of needs may be reversed in certain cases

According to Maslow

A) some behavior is not motivated
B) all behavior has a cause
*C) both of these (A & B)

Maslow believed that people who fail to satisfy self-actualization needs

suffer from metapathology

According to Maslow, metamotivation

represents the motives of self-actualizing people.

Which of the following was NOT listed by Maslow as a characteristic of self-actualizing people?

people-centered

Maslow said that self-actualizing people

experienced a more efficient perception of reality

Maslow called B-love

love for the essence of another person

Maslow insisted that scientists should

be willing to resacralize science

(Maslow) Bauer and McAdams found that older participants, compared with college students, tended to report needs of

instrinsic goals

Maslow assumed that people in different cultures have basically different needs

False

Maslow believed that people are continually conscious of their motives

False

Needs on hierarchy can occasionally be reversed, according to Maslow

True

According to Maslow, all behavior is motivated

false

Maslow believed that all people have the potential for self-actualization but most people never achieve it

true

Maslow's theory rates low on it's ability to organize knowledge

false

At the height of his career, Rogers engaged in a series of debates with

B.F. Skinner

As a young boy, Rogers

was shy and frequently teased by his older brothers and sisters

Rogers described the formative tendency as a tendency for

matter to evolve from simpler to more complex form

Rogers believed that all behavior relates to one's

actualizing tendency

(Rogers) Healthy people evaluate their experiences as good or bad according to this criterion.

the actualizing tendency

In Rogerian theory, the actualization tendency

refers to the person's organismic experience

Inner tension arises, Rogers said, when a conflict exists between the

self-actualization tendency and the organismic self.

(Rogers) Taylor's parents praise her whenever her behavior mets with their standards. However, they punish Taylor when her behavior fails to meed with their approval. From this information it appears that Taylor is experiencing

conditions of worth

(Rogers) Tyler has a negative view of himself. To increase his self-concept, his parents and teachers continually praise and compliment him. Rogers believed that such praise and compliments are most likely to

be distorted by tyler.

According to Rogers, the two basic human needs are

maintenance and enhancement

Rogers believed that for psychologically healthy individuals

the self and experience are congruent

Which statement is consistent with Rogers' theory

Once achieved, self regard can exist independently of others' opinions and attitudes

(Rogers) An unawareness of a discrepancy between self experience leads to

vulnerability

According to Rogers, the two primary defensive strategies are

denial and distortion

Rogers believed that a person with a disorganized personality may at times behave consistently with organismic experience, and at other times consistently with

the shattered self-concept

Rogers hypothesized that empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence are

necessary and sufficient conditions for therapy

(Rogers) in the Chicago studies,

clients who received no therapy received no psychological growth

(Rogers)Clients are better able to listen to themselves when the therapist possesses

empathy for them

Rogers hypothesized that persons of tomorrow would

be open to experience

In the Chicago studies, Rogers and his associates found that

clients who received client centered therapy improved, but they did not reach an "average" level of psychological functioning

Which statement is most consistent with Rogers' concept of humanity

People have a natural tendency to move toward actualization

Carl Rogers' parents were teachers, and they encouraged him to become a teacher

false

Rogers' theory of personality grew out of his experiences as a psychotherapist

True

Rogers' approach to psychotherapy is most accurately called non-directive

False

As a schoolboy, Rogers became interested in scientific farming, an interest that contributed to his later research abilities

true

After receiving his PhD, Rogers spent more than 10 years in clinical practice, mostly isolated from the academic community, and this isolation helped him develop an approach to therapy that was unique

Ture

According to Rogers, all living organisms possess the actualizing tendency

true

(Rogers) Once the self-concept is formed, change becomes difficult

true

(Rogers) Self-actualization is a subsystem of the actualizing tendency

true

In Rogerian theory, the actualizing tendency refers to the person's organismic or physiological experiences.

True

Rogers believed that healthy people adjust their organismic self in order to make it congruent with their ideal self.

false

(Rogers) Receiving praise or compliments can be threatening to a person's self-concept

True

(Rogers) Maintenance needs include the need to resist change

True

(Rogers) After people have established unconditional positive self-regard, they no longer depend on others for unconditional positive regard

True

According to Rogers, people with low self-worth and who receive positive external evaluations will assimilate these evaluations into their self-concept and will thus grow toward psychological health

False

According to Rogers, a vulnerable person is unaware of the discrepancy between self and experience.

True

Rogers was more interested in building a theory than in conducting psychotherapy

false

The three necessary conditions for therapeutic growth, Rogers believed, are counselor congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathetic listening.

True

Rogers believed that when client-centered therapy is successful, clients become their own therapists

true

Strong criticism of Rogers' theory is that it has not produced any research

False

Although Rollo May's writings were somewhat philosophical in tone, his views originated from his experience as a

psychotherapist

May said that healthy people

challenge their destiny

(May) Kierkegaard, like most existentialists, suggested a balance between

freedom and responsiblity

May believed that people acquire freedom of action, in part, by

expanding their self-awareness

May would accept the statement that

subject and object operate as a single entity

(May) The term Dasein expresses

the essential unity of person and environment

(May) the terms Umwelt, Mitwelt, and Eigenwelt refer to

a person's being-in-the-world

(May) The personality theories of Sullivan, Malsow, Rogers, and others emphasize interpersonal relations deal mostly with

Mitwelt

Our relationship to self and our ability to grasp who we are best describes

Eigenwelt

(May) various compulsive behaviors and addictions can be seen as manifestations of

nonbeing

May defined anxiety as

an awareness that our existence of some value identified with it may be destroyed

(May) The guilt that aries from our inability to accurately perceive the world of others is associated with __.

Mitwelt

May defined intentionality as

the structure that gives meaning to our experience and allows us to make decisions about the future.

May regarded care as the source of

love and will

May defined love as

"a delight in the presence of the other person and an affirmation of his value and development as much as one's own"

According to May, an authentic person must unite love with

will

(May) Philia is defined as

an intimate, nonsexual friendship

May believed that freedom grows from an understanding of one's

destiny

According to May, a denial of destiny leads to

psychopathology

May contended that contemporary people of western civilization have an urgent need for

myths

(May) people use myths to

(a) transcend the immediate situation
(b) expand self-awareness
(c) search or identity
**(d) all of these

In "The Cry for Myth", May suggested that one myth is powerful today because it contains elements of existential crises common to all of us. This is the story of _____.

Oedipus

Existentialism began with the work of A. H. Maslow

False

Rollo May had an unpredictable mother and an older sister who experienced a psychotic breakdown

True

(May) During his lifetime, Kierkegaard's ideas had little effect on philosophical thought.

True

(May) Existentialists advocate a spilt between subject and object

False

(May) Most existentialists suggest that people be studied from an objective frame of reference

false

(May) The acquisition of freedom should be matched by the acquisition of responsibility

True

Neurotic anxiety, May said, is disproportionate to the threat and involves intrapsychic conflict

True

(May) Ontological guilt associated with Mitwelt arises from our separation from the natural world.

False

For May, intentionality is always conscious

False

For Rollo May, care is the source of love and will

True

Rollo May believed that love and will should be separate

False

May considered sex to be the salvation of eros

False

May believed that our ultimate destiny is death

True

May suggested that healthy relationships blend all four forms of love

True

(May) Eros is a psychological desire to seek creation through an enduring union with a loved one

True

(May) Agape is an altruistic love that does not depend on the behavior of the loved person.

True

According to May, anxiety and guilt are the malaise of our time.

False

The goal of May's therapy is to set people free

True

May believed that Oedipus story lost it's power when psychoanalysts popularized it and thus trivialized it.

False

May believed that humans are capable of doing both tremendous good and immense evil

True

May's existential psychology has generated extensive research

False

Allport's personality theory is marked chiefly by its emphasis on

uniqueness of the individual

This term best describes Allport's approach to the study of personality

eclectic

In his study of personality, Allport emphasized

the normal healthy person

According to Allport, people are motivated by

a variety of drives

Allport insisted that the basic units of personality are

personal dispositions

According to Allport, the psychologically mature person would

have a unifying philosophy of life

Allport recognized these two kinds of traits

common and individual

(Allport) Personal dispositions

make various stimuli functionally equal

(Allport) Cardinal dispositions

cannot be hidden

(Allport) Secondary dispositions

are not central to the person yet occur with some regularity

This term is LEAST descriptive of Allport's approach to personality

types

(Allport) Stylistic traits

guide action

The proprium is Allport's term for

those behaviors and characteristics that people regard as central to their lives

According to Allport, people are motivated mostly by

both the need to adjust and the need to grow.

When motives change to self-sustaining interests, Allport would say that they have become

functionally autonomous

Which of these did Allport NOT recognize as a criterion for an adequate theory of motivation

a single master motive that unifies all behavior

Propriate functional autonomy is Allport's

master system of motivation

Allport assumed that people who attended church regularly may have

(a) an extrinsic religious orientation
(b) an intrinsic religious orientation
****(c) both of these

(May) Research has suggested that people who score high on the Extrinsic scale of the Religious Orientation Scale

are more prejudiced than those who score high on the Intrinsic scale

Allport's theory of personality is basically

optimistic

Allport's principal concern was with the uniqueness of the individual

True

As a young man, Allport had a memorable meeting with Carl Jung

False

Allport questioned the reliability and validity of self-reports such as diaries and letters

False

Allport believed that psychoanalysis and animal-based learning theories were basically reactive theories

True

Allport made no apologies for his eclecticism

True

Allport's personality theory was unique in its emphasis on conscious motivation

True

Allport regarded himself as a trait psychologist

false

(Allport) Common traits are shared by several people

True

(Allport) Common traits are also called personal dispositions

false

(Allport) Each person has about four or five cardinal dispositions

false

(Allport) Motivation dispositions initiate action

True

(Allport) In the United States, driving on the right side of the road would be a peripheral aspect of personality

True

Allport's most famous study of a single individual was Marion Taylor which he published in 1953

False

Allport's most distinctive and controversial concept is that of functional autonomy

True

Allport's theory of motivation emphasizes the drive-reduction hypothesis.

False

Allport's theory of personality is based mostly on his clinical experiences as a therapist

false

(Allport) Functional autonomous behaviors do not need constant reinforcement in order to maintain themselves

True

Allport and Ross found a positive and direct correction between church attendance and prejudice

False

(Allport) People who endorse both intrinsic and extrinsic items on the Religious Orientation Scale are called indiscriminately proreligious

True

Allport's concept of personality is basically optimistic and hopeful.

True

Most psychologists regard Eysenck as a follower of Cattell

False

As a schoolboy in Germany, Eysenck expressed a passion for psychology

False

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