The sagittal plane divides the body
vertically into right and left
In Laban Movement Analysis the space in which a dancer's body is moving is called the
When a frappe` is performed, the accent is typically on the
extension of the working leg
In Laban's theory of effort (sometimes called movement dynamics), which of the following qualities is not a dimension of effort?
What is the meter in the waltz
For which of the following exercises would the music (waltz) be most appropriate
Balanc`es across the floor
Which of the following statements correctly describes syncopation?
rhythms that deviate from the normal succession of strong and weak beats
Which of the following two muscles are used for flexion in dance?
biceps brachii, biceps femoris
At what point in a ballet class is the combination most likely to be executed: 1)begin in fifth position with the right foot in front. Do three saut`es in fifth position, one changement, and then repeat on the left side.
2) do one soutenu tournes en dedans to the right, followed by a single pirouette en dehors.
3) repeat from step one on the opposite side.
in the center, after warmup
If one were to eliminate the jumping elements from the combination which steps would be eliminated
the changement and the sautes
The term "port des bras" refers to
movement of the arms
Which of the following dance steps is most advanced? plie, degage, entrechat, tendu
If a ballet step such as grand battement is performed en croix, this means
it is performed in all directions
It would be most appropriate for a teacher to ask students to perform an exercise incorporating a grand jete at which point in a ballet class
at the end of class during an exercise in which the dancers move across the floor
A dancer would be likely to use a technique called spotting
while executing a pirouette
Which of the following movements can be performed en dedans
A dancer is "en pointe" when she is
balancing on the tip of her toe.
Which of the following statements is not true of modern dance technique
it has a set of numbered positions for arms and feet
Modern dance rejects all but which of the following tenets of ballet?
Arms must almost always remain forward of the torso.
Which of the following statements best describes the dance technique introduced by Katherine Dunham?
It incorporated elements of African and Caribbean movement.
With which of the following styles of modern dance is Isadora Duncan associated?
Which of the following steps in tap dance would produce a total of four audible taps?
Tap dance is known for making heavy use of which of the following types of rhythm?
In jazz dance, bending backward from the knees while maintaining a straight torso is called a
observers would be unlikely to see contractions, releases, and isolations in which of the following dance forms?
The primary purpose of baile folklorico is to
promote social identity and a sense of community
Of the following types of social dance listed below, which does not involve partnering?
Flamenco dance is
a form of dance that originated in spain and is characterized by audible and often rapid footwork
A dance teacher would most likely suggest that a student practice Pilates exercises in order to
improve muscle strength
Which of the following choices correctly lists the order in which the vertebrae of the spine are arranged, from top to bottom
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx
While executing a fouette turn (fouette en tournant) the dancer's working leg is engaged in
flexion and extension
the hip joint is a
ball and socket joint
which of the following is typically not a goal of ideokinesis
which of the following statements is not true of proper alignment
it is only necessary in ballet
If a choreographer requires a ballet dancer to lift another dancer of roughly the same size, how might the dancer who is doing the lifting prepare?
by beginning a weight training program for the upper body.
in order to relieve muscle tension, a dancer might engage in all but which of the following practices
ballet dancers should be encouraged to turn out
as far as the hips will allow and the muscles can support
what is the primary muscle that is stretched by reaching forward from a seated position and bending the upper torso as close to the floor as possible, while the legs are extended to the sides at roughly a 150 degree angle (straddle stretch)?
in order to develop a dancer's endurance for a long performance, a teacher would recommend
when a dancer suffers a sprain, which of the following would not be an appropriate part of the treatment?
applying a hot compress such as a heating pad
tendonitis is typically caused by
overuse of a tendon
symptoms of a stress fracture typically include
tenderness, as well as pain in the affected area that is most intense at the beginning and immediately after a class
dancer's safety is at risk in all but which of the following situations?
there are no mirrors in the studio.
for which of the following types of dance is a shoe with a small, soft heel traditionally worn
encouraging dancers to arrive to class on time is most important because
it ensures that the dancer will participate in the warm-up
should only begin after the bones of the feet are fully formed
a student who has excessive difficulty balancing, despite following appropriate corrections
may have a vision impairment
with regard to nutrition, which of the following is advisable for recreational dance students
consuming approximately the same amount of calories as are burned.
the primary purpose of wearing tight-fitting clothing in dance class is to
allow teachers to clearly see the students' alignment and movements
a piece of choreography that lacks flow could be improved by the addition of
phrasing may be determined by all but which of the following
which of the following is an appropriate source for generating choreographic ideas
music, plays, and pre-existing dance movements
in determining the appropriate type of choreography to present to an audience the most important information to gather would be
the age range of the audience members and their previous experiences with theater and dance
in generating new choreography
improvisation can be a useful tool
which of the following statements best describes the benefits of live accompaniment for a dance class
live accompaniment makes the class go more smoothly because the music can be tailored to the exercises, and teachers can focus on students' performance rather than finding the appropriate music.
nonliteral choreography may have all but which of the following goals
telling a traditional story
a choreographer asks four dancers to perform different movements simultaneously. this is called a
in choreography the intent of a collage is most likely to
produce a sense of comedy or surrealisma
a canon is most likely to be performed
by the corps de ballet in swan lake
in order to remain out of the audience's view until completely entering the stage, a dancer should
stay as close as possible to the leg downstage of his or her entrance point
where is the apron of the stage located
at the front, closest to the audience
the inability of dancers to maintain their spacing during a group sequence most likely indicates a lack of
the most important reason that dancers should rehearse in costume before the performance is that
the costumes may restrict the dancer's movements in ways not anticipated when they were constructed
which of the following statements is not true of the role of facial expression in dance?
it should be minimized so as not to distract from the choreography
which of the following tasks is the duty of a stage manager?
coordinating lighting and sound cues
which of the following do Bharantanatyam and liturgical dance have in common?
they are both forms of sacred dance
which of the following statements correctly describes a commonality between traditional Eurpoean folk dance and hip-hop dance in the US?
both originated as forms of social dance
the accomplishments of dancers/choreographers like william henry master juba Lane, Savion Glover, Katherine Dunham and Alvin Ailey exemplify
the contribution of african-americans to dance
which of the following is an example of dance challenging traditional gender roles in society
a female dancer lifting a male dancer in a modern piece
which of the following societal changes has probably had the least impact on the variety of dance styles that are performed in the US today?
which of the following ballets used music not composed by Tchaikovsky
which of the following is not true of romantic ballets
they contain heavy use of pantomiming
early modern dance composition, such as that of martha graham, was characterized by which of the following forms?
a repertoire is
the complete list of dance compositions that a group or company is prepared to perform
which of the following men is known for pioneering tap dance as a young man living in the Five Points neighborhood of NY city
william henry master juba lane
ballet uses the french language because
many ballet steps were introduced and named in the french court of louis the XIV
the jazz dance choreography in the musical theater classics Chicago and Cabaret is the work of
in evaluating the choreography in a performance, which of the following types of information would be most useful?
knowing the intent of the choreographer
when evaluating dance performances, it is important to understand the historical context because
the cultural or social significance of the composition may not be clear to those unfamiliar with the historical context.
as opposed to a dance critic, an audience member is
less likely to criticize a dance performance based on its technical merits
why would original choreography be more important in a contemporary dance concert than in a performance of the Nutcracker
this fits with audience members' expectations
asking students to research a non-western culture and perform a dance from that culture is an example of an _____ approach to learning
which of the following describes a way in which language arts could be integrated into a dance class?
reading a poem and asking students to improvise a short dance inspired by it
which of the following examples highlights a way in which music and dance composition are similar
both may rely on improvisation
A dance teacher gives each student two minutes to individually compose and perform a combination of steps in front of the dance class. which of the following skills in the TEKS is this exercise most directly designed to teach?
improvising and demonstrating original movement
the best way for a teacher to teach a new sequence of steps to a class composed of visual and kinesthetic learners would be to
demonstrate the exercise and allow students to practice it along with the teacher
videotaping a class and then asking the students to watch their performance
may help students identify new areas to improve, or to understand the teacher's corrections better
which of the following activities would be least likely to improve metacognitive skills
giving an oral presentation about dance history
dance teachers need both pedagogical and content knowledge in order to succeed.
knowing how to properly assess student's progress
a research and writing assignment would be most appropriate for assessing which of the following skills in the TEKS
comparing and contrasting the use of form and expression in dance with their use in art, music, theater, and other subject areas
for a ballet class that lasts 90 minutes, which of the following choices represents the best way to structure the class?
30 minutes at the barre, 40 minutes in the center, and 20 minutes across the floor
the best way for a teacher to handle a class with beginning, intermediate, and advanced students would be to
demonstrate versions of each exercise that are appropriate for the various levels.
while a class is performing an exercise, the teacher notices that several students are having a similar problem with technique. the best way to address this problem would be to
use imagery, ask a correct student to demonstrate and physically manipulate their bodies into correct position.
how can BMI measure help a teacher determine whether a student is overweight or underweight?
it is helpful because it indicates whether a student's weight is proportional to his or her height.
1. begin in fifth position with the right foot in front. Do 2 assembles en dedans, followed by four changements. 2. do 2 glissades change to the right, followed by a pirouette en dehors. 3. repeat from step one on the opposite side.
to make the combination described in figure 3 more appropriate for technically advanced dancers, a teacher might
change the changements to entrechats
in order to improve student's kinesthetic awareness and originality, a teacher might assign
a contact improvisation exercise
a written test would be an ideal assessment tool for which of the following skills in the TEKS
identifying historical figures and their significance in dance history
for the following skill from the TEKS what would be the best assessment method? The student is expected to perform dance phrases or dances from several time periods with an understanding of historical and social contexts.
written test supplemented by a performance based assessment
rubrics are most effective for
assessing complex assignments
in order to evaluate student's ability to demonstrate appropriate audience behavior and etiquette in the classroom and at performances, as required in the TEKS the most effective assessment method would be to
explain appropriate audience behavior and then take students to a performance and evaluate their behavior there
this practice employs repetitive motions derived from fundamental gestures and natural movements to increase awareness of habitual movement patterns and release tension left over from old injuries and habits in order to expand range of motion in the joints
this focuses on recognizing habitual movement patterns and postures, as well as places of accumulated tension, and then altering patterns and postures to address associated problems. can help improve balance, muscular support and flexibility, coordination, and movement efficiency, resulting in increased energy and greater ease of movement.
based on laban movement analysis, this practice encourages a deepened awareness of the connections between mind, body, movement, and internal and external environments to enhance mobility and function
this employs mental visualization of carefull devised imagery with tactile input to enhance coordination of movement and adjust habitual posture and movement habits. if one can see efficient and aligned movement, one can achieve it
Butoh was developed by
kazua ohno and tatsumi hijikata
Loie Fuller, Isadora Duncan, Ruth St. Denis developed what kind of dance
Jose Limon, Alvin Ailey, Paul Taylor, Katharine Dunham, Merce Cunningham expanded
modern dance technique
the action of bending a joint or the action of decreasing the angle between two levers
the action of straightening a joint or the action of increasing the angle between tow levers
the action of over-straightening a joint past its natural angle, or the action of increasing the angle between two levers to more than 180 degrees
movement of a limb away from the midline of the body
movement of a limb toward the midline of the body
the action of turning a ball-and-socket joint; circular movement around a central axis
inward rotation; turning a limb inward, toward the front of the body
outward rotation; turning a limb outward, toward the back of the body
feet heels touching toes turned out arms: both arms held in front of the torso hands at waist level
feet separated shoulder width toes turned out arms: both extended open and held symmetrically out to the sides, hands between the shoulders and ribcage
feet heel of one foot against the instep of the other foot toes turned out arms: arm corresponding with front foot overhead arem corresponding with back foot open to the side as in second position
feet: separated shoulder width third position arms: arm corresponding with front foot in front of the torso as in first position, arm corresponding with back foot overhead as in fifth position
feet: heel of one foot against the big toe of the other foot, toes turned out arms. both arms extending overhead
four main movements in the pas de deux
promenade, turns, lifts, leaps, which includes entree, adagio, variations, coda
modern dance technique that involves a dramatic contraction and release, emphasizes weight moving into the floor and a spiral image for off-center or off-balance movement
modern dance technique style that explores fall and recovery
modern dance technique that transformed everyday movement in to the absurd or dramatic
modern dance technique that appears in the lateral T shape his dancers assume - a one-leg balance with the torso tilted off-center and the other leg extended to the side in a counterbalance
the original french form of classical ballet from Russia
the orginal french form of classical ballet from italy
late modern dance technique that created dances without any attached historical, cultural or philosophical meanings
late modern dance technique developed through an effortless free flow technique that released tension in the body through an emphasis on weight, placement, impulse, immediacy and movement dynamics
late modern dance technique that draws from everyday gestures and movements such as sitting, crawling, rolling, walking, and running.
tap dancers that are part of the jazz musical tradition such as bill bojangles robinson, sammy davis jr., gregory hines and savion glover
tap dancers that focus on design and dance aspect of tapping such as fred astaire, gene kelly and ann miller
broadway or show tap
modern jazz style that is a therapeutic method, emphasizes fluidity, unbroken motion, balance, and smooth transitions.
Eugene Facciuto, Luigi
modern jazz style that is an exploratory style. mixes in ballet
modern jazz style that emphasizes agility in all areas
the founder of the modern classical method of ballet
placing an accent on a normally weak beat
refers to simple, multiple, and different rhythm patterns played at the same time.
reach space or personal space.
stretching of the foot along the floor, away from the standing leg
slow sustained movements that often incorporate developpes and balances such as penches
these include pique, chaine, and similar turns that move the dancer across the floor
turns from corner
these include pirouette and fouette turns, in which the dancer remains in one place on the floor
turns at center
small, quick jumps in place such as changements, temps leves, and assembles
large jumps or leaps which move the dancer across the floor, such as grandes jetes or tours jetes
slow port-de-bras and bow at the end of class to acknowledge gratitude to the teacher
bending and straightening the knees
to extend or stretch, pointing the toes
to disengage, brushing foot thru tendu to slightly leave the ground
circle of the leg, tracing a half circle upon the ground using the toes
rond de jambe
to develop or grow, drawing the working foot up the standing leg and then extending it outward
to strike, striking the floor with the foot in a brushing movement
she brought the precursors of ballet to France in the 1500s
Catherine de Medici
he established the first ballet school in France in the 1600s
King Louis XIV of France
they codified many standard ballet rules still used today
Pierre Beauchamps & Jean-George Noverre
these teachers established and disseminated the distinctive ballet styles of Russia, Italy, Denmark and Cuba
Agrippina Vaganova, Enrico Cecchetti, August Bournonville, Alicia Alonzo
he was the creator of legendary ballets for the Russian Imperial Theatre including the Nutcracker and Swan Lake
he was the founder of Ballets Russes
He was a star dancer with and controversial choerographer for Ballets Russes
he was the choreographer for Ballets Russes
He is the father of ballet in American and the founder of the NY city Ballet
These were Russian dancers who popularized ballet in America
Anna Pavlova, Rudolf Nereyev, Mikhail Baryshnikov
basic movements or short sequences are manipulated to create new but related movements
motif and development
movements are repeated
part of a movement is performed
a movement is made part of another movement
more is added to the original movement
the size of the movement is increased or decreased
the movement is speeded up or slowed down
the rhythmic pattern of the movements is varied
the original movement is the question and the new movement is the answer
the movement is performed backwards
multiple performers perform the movement in the same way at the same time
multiple performers perform a movement in succession
the movement is performed using a different body part
striking the floor with an immediate release; can be done with the heel or the ball of the foot
placing the ball of the foot on the floor with a weight change
placing the ball of the foot on the floor without a weight change
placing the entire foot on the floor with a weight change
placing the entire foot on the floor without a weight change
striking the floor with the tip of the foot, with or without a weight change
lightly striking the floor in an outward sweeping motion (brush with ball, scuff with heel)
forward brush followed by a backward brush
forward brush followed by a step
forward brush followed by a touch
two steps in sequence, one on each foot; the first step gets less weight than the second
leaving the ground and landing on the same foot
leaving the ground and landing on the other foot
a lean body with enhanced flexibility due to a lack of muscular strength
sturdy body with strong dense musculature - lack of flexibility
rounded body type.
widespread hand posture where the fingers are extended strongly outward from the palm
this is the dynamic hitting of a positions
this is a kind of snap. the head is tossed or turned from a frontward orientation to the side.
this involves placing the limbs into positions so that the resulting combination of angles is unusual.
the pelvis is pressed forcefully forward
visualized as running vertically cross the chest, shoulder to should, on an upright standing body. the door plane
frontal plane, lateral or vertical
runs vertically from the front to the back of an upright standing body the wheel plane
intersects an upright standing body horizontally the table plane
transverse horizontal plane
succession of tones set to a particular rhythm that serves as the voice in music
this is a repeating pattern of stressed and unstressed beats in a piece of music
this is a repeated grouping of accented beats
this is the speed at which music is played.
defined specifically as the volume at which musical notes are played.
this denishawn dancer and broadway choreographer invented theater dance
this broadway and hollywood performer and choreographer introduced african and caribbean dance styles
this broadway and hollywood choreographer did the film version of west side story
this legendary tap dance partner of charles hone coles also worked as a choreographer for artists with the motown record label
this hollywood jazz and tap dancer popularized the practice of wearing pantyhose in place of stockings
this award winning choreographer and musical director of cabaret, sweet charity, and all that jazz created the fosse technique
he was a broadway and hollywood tap and jazz dancer, as well as a movie star
he was a crippled dancer who created a therapeutic method that led to the development of standard jazz technique
this celebrated teacher founded the jazz dance world congress
celebrated teacher of jazz technique
she was an award-winning choreographer of both broadway and hollywood jazz and modern dance
they were the progenitors of modern dance
loie fuller and isadora duncan
she was the co-founder of denishawn, the first modern dance school
ruth st. denis
he was the co-founder of denishawn and the founder of jacob's pillow dance festival
these denishawn students produced the first modern dance performance and established the humphrey technique
doris humphrey and charles weidman
this denishawn student, legendary dancer, and choreographer developed the graham technique
he established the horton technique and was a longtime partner of bell lewitzky
he was a celebrated choreographer and the first male dance for the graham company
he was a legendary avant garde choreographer
they researched and injected african and caribbean styles into modern dance
katherine dunham, pearl primus, helen tamiris
they were notable later-generation choreographers
paul taylor, alvin ailey, jose limon, alwin nikolais
he was the first african american dancer to play to white audiences
he was a turn of the century vaudeville hoofer who danced on broadway and in hollywood's shirley temple films
bill bojangles robinson
these brothers were famous in vaudeville, on the jazz circuit and in hollywood for their daring acrobatic style
harold and fayard nicholas
this duo became famous in the 1940s along with cab calloway they were part of the big band circuit, and they performed in hollywood
cholly atkins and charles honi coles
she was a hollywood dancer who appeared in 42nd street and other films
these hollywood partners were famous for appearing in films that featured their supernaturally smooth ballroom and tap styles
fred astaire and ginger rogers
he was a broadway, hollywood and las vegas dancer, singer and actor
sammy davis jr
he was a broadway/hollywood hoofer and actor who ushered in the tap revival of the 1980s
he is a new generation broadway/hollywood tap and hip hop dancer and choreographer
teks criteria for hs dance education include
perception, creative expression or performance, knowledge of historical or cultural heritage, and response/evaluation
combination: sustained time/indirect space/lightweight
combination: sudden time/direct space/strong weight
combination: sustained time/direct space/light weight
combination: sudden time/indirect space/strong weight
combination: sudden time/direct space/light weight
combination: sustained time/indirect space/strong weight
combination: sudden time/indirect space/light weight
combination: sustained time/direct space/strong weight
refers to the length of time a movement takes, from initiation to completion
the intentional quality of the path taken by a body part or a body through space during a movement. direct or indirect
is the degree of the force of body weight introduced into a movement
the degree of ease or continuousness of a movement from initiation to completion
float, punch, glide slash, dab, wring, flick and press
the effort actions of the laban movement anaylsis
all performers begin at the same time but at different starting points within the same phrase
dancers begin at different points in a phrase, fall into step as the phrase progresses, and end in unison