Biology II: Vertebrate Zoology

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Aves

class of birds

Birds

have most efficient respiratory system.

6 classes of fish

Shark, acondoth, agnatha, placoderm, chondrictheyes, lamprey

150 MYA Jurasic of Mesozoic

When birds first evolved.

Adult amphibians

are carnivores/predators in the food chain.

3 orders of organisms in class Chondrichthyes

sharks, skates & rays, ratfish

Early Birds

had scales, teeth, claws, tails, reptile bone structure.

Archaeopteryx

oldest confirmed bird that we have found to date.

370 MYA (Devonian of the Paleozoic)

when amphibians first evolved.

250 MYA

when reptiles first evolved.

430 MYA in Silurian of Paleozoic

when all fish classes first evolved.

Cerebellum (of birds)

is greatly enlarged becaused of the increased need for coordination due to flight.

Saurichian Therapod Dinosaurs

what birds evolved from.

Class Amphibia

lays eggs in water, have gills, slimy

Reptiles

evolved from amphibians (Labryinthodont)

Class Reptiles

internal fertilization, eggs, lungs, scales. Reptiles would most likely survive in the desert.

2 members of Class Agnatha

lamprey and hagfish; parasitic fish and jawless

Lobe-finned fish

evolved from amphibians

Endothermic

Organisms with bodies that are warmed by heat generated by metabolism. This heat is usually used to maintain a relatively stable body temperature higher than that of the external environment.

New Zealand and Madagascar

Moa and Elephant Birds lived here.

Mammals

is the class of chordate with the largest cerebrum.

Monotreme

mammals that lay eggs. They also have mammary glands, imperfect temperature regulation and a cloaca.

Whales

evoloved from land dwelling carnivores.

Scales and insulation

what feathers evolve from and what they're used for.

Sonar/echolocation

how bats navigate and locate prey.

Therapsisds

reptile that mammals evolved from.

Characteristics of mammals

endothermic, produce milk, big brain, 4 chambered heart.

Heart rate of birds

some birds can have a heart rate of up to 1,000 beats per minute (BPM).

Marsupial species

kangaroos, koalas, tasmanian tiger, wombat, opossum, wallaby

225 MYA (Triassic of Mesozoic)

when mammals first evolved.

One ovary

how many functional ovaries birds have.

Bat

only TRUE flying mammal.

Convergent Evolution

process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments.

Mammals

have lower jaw composed from just one bone.

Cloaca

structure through which feces, urine and gametes pass.

4 types of mammal teeth

incisors, canines, pre-molars, molars

Captain James Cook

English navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands (1728-1779). He also claimed he heard rumors of giant flightless birds on the islands of New Zealand.

65 MYA

dinosaurs became extinct.

Manatees

Sirenia that lives in the coastal waterways of Florida and feed upon aquatic plants such as hyacinths.

Characteristics of birds

thin hollow bones, high metabolism, 4 chambered heart.

The jaw

2 of 3 bones in the middle ear of mammals was once part of the jaw of a reptile.

Gizzard

digestive organ in burds that crushes and kneads food.

3 subclasses of Class Mammal

Monotreme, Marsupials, Placentals

Herman Melville

American writer whose experiences at sea provided the factual basis of Moby-Dick (1851), considered among the greatest American novels

Marsupials

mammals who give birth to tiny, immature young and then develop in the pouch of their mommy.

Perrissadoctyl

animals that have odd number of toes on their feet such as zebras, rhinos and tapirs.

Australia/New Guinea

where we find most of the Marsupials.

Insectavora

shrews and moles

Night

part of the day when the first mammals were probably active.

Carnivora

bobcats, black bear, coyotes: these can be found in Ohio.

Change in climate; Humans (Native Americans)

2 major causes of the extinction of many ice age mammals in the Americas 10,000 years ago.

50,000 years ago

humans reached Australia

Thomas Jefferson

loved natural history so much he was accused of turning the White House into a museum.

Incisors

Elephant tusks are what anatomical part?

2 MYA

start of the Pleistocene

State of Ohio:

state mammal: white-tail deer; bird-cardinal; snake-black racer; insect-ladybug; tree-Buckeye; flower-carnation; fossil-trilobite; rock-flint.

544 MYA

beginning of Paleozoic

North America, Europe, Asia

3 current continents that were once part of Laurasia.

Rodentia

largest order of mammals. Examples are: rats, mice, squirrels, porcupines, ground hogs, guinea pigs, capybaras.

North America

where horses, camels and tapirs first evolved.

1,200 years ago

humans reached New Zealand

Proboscidea

Indian/Asian Elephants, mammoths, mastodons

Alimentary Canal Organs

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine.

Teddy Roosevelt

started the National Park System

15,000 years ago

humans reach North America

Formation of Central America

major factor in starting the Pleistocene (Ice Age) about 2 million years ago.

Mammals found in Grandview

deer, beavers, raccoons, opossums, fox, coyotes

5 MYA

hominids first evolved

250 MYA

end of Paleozoic

4.5 BYA

Solar System formation

Rats/house mice

are 2 non-native rodents in Ohio.

2,000 years ago

humans reached Madagascar

65 MYA

end of Mesozoic and the dinosaurs

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