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ATP stands for

Adenosine Triphosphate

Our muscles can produce ATP by which of the following pathways

All of the above (ATP/CP, Glycolytic, Oxidative pathway)

BMR stands for

Basal metabolic rate

The primary fuel during endurance exercise is

Fatty acids

The ATP/CP pathway is sufficient for over four mintues of ATP Production (T/F)

False

Non-oxidative glycolysis is reliable

2 minutes of ATP production

Catabolism and anabolism are the two phases of metabolism (T/F)

True

Excretion is one function of the digestive system (T/F)

True

The nervous system is made up of the

A and B - Peripheral nervous system and Central nervous system

Hemoglobin is an oxygen transporting protein in blood cells (T/F)

True

The main purpose of hormones is to

All of the above - Alter the rate of synthesis of your cellular protein, Change the rate enzyme activity, Change the rate of transport of nutrients through the cell wall

About 98% of human body is composed of only 6 elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorous (T/F)

True

The main purpose of the respiratory system is

A, B, C - To supply oxygen to the body, To eliminate carbon dioxide in the body, to regulate the body's PH balance

Hormones are classified as

All of the above - Steroids, Amino Acid derivatives, Peptides

The circulatory system consists of

Heart, arteries, and veins

Tendons connect bone to bone (T/F)

False

Muscular hypertrophy is an

Increase in muscle fiber size

Tendons are

A and C - Extension of muscles fibers, connect bone to muscle

The average human adult skeleton has

206 Bones

Cardiovascular exercise results in

B and C: Mitochondrial adaptations, capillary capacity adaptations

Type II muscle fibers are aerobic (T/F)

False

Type I muscle fibers are aerobic (T/F)

True

The anatomical terms for front and back are

Anterior and Posterior

Kinesiology is

The science or study of movement, and the active and passive structures invovled

An isometric contraction is

A contraction in which a muscle experts a force but does not change its length

True synergy occurs when a muscle contracts to stop the secondary action of another muscle (T/F)

True

An example of an antagonist muscle is

Triceps during a biceps curl

An example of a prime mover is

The biceps muscle during a biceps curl

Adduction is movement of a body part away from the midline of the body (T/F)

False

An example of flexion is the

Concentric action of a bicep curl

In a concentric contraction the muscles shorten to produce movements (T/F)

True

A second-class lever is similar to a wheelbar-row (T/F)

True

Biomechanics is the study of

Movement

Newton's second law of motion deals with force and it's relationship to mass and acceleration

True

A third class lever is

One in which the force is applied between the axis and the resistance

A first-class lever is similar to a seesaw (T/F)

True

Musclular force is broken down into the components of

All of the above - Magnitude, Direction, Application of force, Line of force

Inertia can be categorized as

A and B - Resting inertia, moving inertia

The ability to perceive your position and movement of the body or limbs in space known as

Kinesthesis

Exaggerated anterior-posterior curvature of the spinal column is known as

Kyphosis

Kyphosis is an exaggerated anterior-posterior curvature of the spinal column (T/F)

True

Intradiscal pressure is 11times greater when seated versus lying down (T/F)

True

A forward and downward move from the normal anatomical position is known as lordosis (T/F)

True

Excessive lateral curvature of the spinal column is known as

Scoliosis

What should be of prime focus in all fitness activities

Posture

Swayback can be identified by a

Pelvis tilted forward

When the superior iliac crest of the pelvis moves forward and downward from the normal anatomical position, it is know as

Lordosis

The semimembranosus and semitendinosus attach on what side of the knee

Medial

What muscle is located directly beneath the gastrocnemius and has similar functions to the gastrocnemius

Soleus

The hamstrings muscles are a two-joint muscle that acts at the knee and hip (T/F)

True

The major movements that are possible at the knee joint are adduction and abduction (T/F)

False

Which of the hamstrings muscles account for the substantial amount of muscle mass in the group

Biceps femoris

The wrist joint consists of the ends of the radius and ulna bones of the forearm with the carpal bones on the hand (T/F)

True

The knee is stabilized on the anterior side by which muscle

Quadriceps

The shoulder girdle is made up of the clavicle and what other bone

Scapula

What is the basic grip used in weight training

All of the above - Supinated, pronated, neutral

A supinated grip would be palms down (T/F)

False

New trainees should ___ through the sticking point and ___ during the less strenuous portion of the lifts

Exhale, inhale

The angle of Q represents

Starting strength

What is/are the major factor that effects strength

All of the above - Structural, Physiological, Psychoneural, Environmental

A pronated grip would be palms down (T/F)

False

A neutral grip would be thumbs up (T/F)

True

the strength curve

A and C - Relates to any exercise, has seven factors

The training zone is at what percentage of your MHR

55 to 85

Maximal Oxygen Uptake is also known as

VO2 Max

A unit of measurement that refers to the relative energy demands of an activity in comparison to your energy demands in a resting state is known as a

MET

Aerobic means in the presence of oxygen (T/F)

True

A watt is a measure of power involving a known force, distance and time frame (T/F)

True

Maximal heart rate is estimated by subtracting your age from

220

Anaerobic means in the presence of oxygen (T/F)

False

Using several modes of training to develop a specific component of fitness is known as

Cross training

If your goal is to improve range of motion stretch to the point

Of mild or moderate discomfort

Myofibrils are constructed of overlapping strands of protein polymers called

Actin and Myosin

Joint range of motion can be measure with

All the above - Goniometer, sit and reach test, shoulder flexibility test, trunk extension test

The muscle spindle detects excessive stretch within the muscle (T/F)

True

Flexibility is the ability to flex, extend or circumduct the joints through their full intended range of motion (T/F)

Ture

The Golgi tendon organ (GTO), muscle spindle and Pacinian corpuscles make up the three primary

Inhibitory proprioceptors

There are two types of static stretching (T/F)

True

This type of stretching facilitates an increase in muscle length through a maximum isometric contraction of the antagonist

CA Stretching

Endomorphs are slim body types (T/F)

False

Ectomorphs are classified as

Slim or linear body types

All of the following are methods to assess body composition except

Muscle biopsy

Bioelectrical impedance is one method to determine body composition (T/F)

True

The somatotype system classifies the human body into how many categories

3

BMI is used to

Describe relative height to weight and as a predictor of future disease risk

Body composition testingis the determination of

The determination of fat compartments of the human body and the determination of lean compartments of the human body

When taking skinfold measurement readings only one attempt per site is necessary for an accurate reading (T/F)

False

Client rapport is a key characteristic in establishing a relationship with your clients (T/F)

True

The ISA drawing-in phase is a process that

All of the above - Ensures a high level of client motivation, distinguishes you as a professional, has five stages

Stage one of the ISSA drawing-in phase is

Establish yourself as a professional

Stage three of the ISSA drawing-in phase is

Guided discovery tour

Communication occurs through what domain

All of the above - Visual Auditory and Kinesthetic

Stage two of the ISSA drawing-in phase is

Data collection

As furture ISSA professionals we must seek first to understand our clients before we make recommendations (T/F)

True

Motive is defined as an impulse or physiological need acting as incitement to action (T/F)

True

How many ml of oxygen per kg of body weight per minutes does your body consume at rest

3.5

GXT is an acronym for

Graded exercise test

Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the inner walls of the blood vessels (T/F)

True

Muscular endurance can be assessed through

A and B - Push-up test, Sit-up test

The resting level of oxygne consuption is referred to as 1.0 MET (T/F)

True

Exercise intensity should be at what percentage of your VO2 max?

50 to 85 %

Which method off determining exercise intensity correlates directly to 60% - 80% of your VO2 max

...

The ISSA recommends that the intensity level of exercise be 85% to 95% of VO2 max (T/F)

False

The specificity principle states that we must move from general training to specific and highly specialized training as it relates to our intended goals (T/F)

True

HIT is an acronym for

high Intensity Training

This principle states that ouir bodies will physiologically adapt according to whether we are training aerobically or anaerobically

The SAID principle

The principles to help you plan our training cycle, arrange your exercises in each workout, and perform each exercise are known as the

Weider principles

This principle states that in order for gains to continue the intensity of the stress imposed must be progressively increased

The overload principle

FITT of the FITT principle stands for fully intergrated training techique (T/F)

False

The principle of individual difference states that the rate and magnitude of adaptations to training will be limited by our differeing genetics (T/F)

True

This principle states that we all undergo stress in three stages: Shock, compensation, and exhaustion. Therefore, we must train in cycles to account for these various stages

The GAS principle

Which principle states that motor units are recruited in order according to their recruitment thresholds and firing rates?

None of the above

periodization refers to how a training program is broken down into discreet time periods called macrocycles, mesocycles and microcycles (T/F)

True

GAS is an acronym for

General Adaptation Syndrome

The connective tissue damage hypothesis is one of three leading hypothesis of DOMS (T/F)

True

PEMS is an acronym for

Post Exercise Muscle Soreness

The spasm hypothesis is one of three leading hypotheses of DOMS (T/F)

True

The two most common physiological markers of overtraining are

All of the above - Sympathetic nervous system overtraining, Parasympathetic nervous system overtraining

What are the three predictable stages of stress that were identified by Hans Selye in his GAS principle

Shock, compensation, and exhaustion

Metaphorically speaking, a penny is to a microcycle as a quarter is to a

Mesocycle

How Much rest time is required between sets (three sets of 8 to 10 at 75% of the 1RM) to maximize serum testosterone levels and growth hormone levels

No more than 1 Min

Powerlifting:

A and B - Diminishes hormonal adaptations of muscle fibers and Does not allow sufficient motor unit activation

High repetition resistance training:

A and C - Does not innervate high threshold motor units and Limits the potential for Type IIB muscle fiber hyper

Maximum power will occur somewhere between 55% to 85% of 1RM (T/F)

True

Training at 85% of 1RM is best for strength (T/F)

True

Training at 75% of 1RM is the most conducive for muscular hypertrophy (T/F)

True

If your client can successfully complete two or more repetitions in the last set in two consecutive workouts for any given exercise, the load should be ____ depending on your clients current physical abilities

Increased by two to ten percent

the potential for muscle fiber hypertrophy is limited at what percentage of 1RM

75% to 85%

The big guy syndrome is one of the five major myth sources (T/F)

True

The activity of what fat promoting enzyme is very high in the thighs and hips of women resulting in a higher percentage of fat deposition in these areas

Lipoprotein Lipase

What percentage of all dieters who lose weight can expect to regain all of the weight they lost within one to three years of "completing" the diet

75% to 90%

In general, approximately how many calories are burned during recovery for every 100 calories you expended during your exercise bout

15

What is the branch of physiochemical science concerned with heat and energy and their conversions one into the other involving mechanical work

Thermodynamics

Muscle will turn into fat when you stop exercising (T/F)

False

Aerobic exercise is the only exercise you need to effectively control your weight (T/F)

False

Essential amino acids:

A and B - Are vital for protein sysnthesis and Include Lysine, isoluceine, valine

Casein and whey are both derived from what

Milk

Protein is an organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen (T/F)

True

Amino acids are the building blocks of protein (T/F)

True

Restriction in protein intake will result in:

A and C - Protein degradation and Muscle breakdown

Carbohydrates are composed of:

All of the above - Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen

Fiber is only contained in plants

...

A non-essential amino acid:

B and D - Is an amino acid that the body can produce without supplementation, and includes glycine, alanine, serine

Fat-soluble vitamins include A, D, E and

Vitamin K

Fats are classified as free fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids and

Cholesterol

How many ounces of water should you drink for every pound of weight loss during exercise

16 ounces

The 1-2-3 nutritional ration is

All of the above - A general nutritional guideline/1part fat, 2 parts protein, and 3 parts carbohydrate/Valid for most exercisers looking to lose weight

A calorie is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius (T/F)

True

BMR is the number of calories you would burn over 24 hours while lying down but not sleeping (T/F)

True

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