ch 20 ex3

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Artery is to ________ as vein is to ________.
A) efferent; afferent
B) afferent; efferent
C) toward; away
D) afferent; away
E) efferent; away

A

The heart beats approximately ________ times each day.
A) 1,000
B) 10,000
C) 100,000
D) 1,000,000
E) 10,000,000

C

The heart pumps approximately ________ liters of blood each day.
A) 8,000
B) 15,000
C) 20,000
D) 50,000
E) 100,000

A

Excess fluid in the ________ causes cardiac tamponade.
A) pericardial cavity
B) visceral pericardium
C) apex of heart
D) left ventricle
E) both atria

A

Tetanic muscle contractions don't occur in a normal cardiac muscle because
A) cardiac muscle tissue contracts on its own.
B) neural stimulation is lacking.
C) the refractory period lasts until the muscle relaxes.
D) the refractory period ends before the muscle reaches peak tension.
E) potassium channels outnumber sodium channels.

C

The adult heart is roughly the size of
A) the liver.
B) a man's clenched fist.
C) the gallbladder.
D) the hand of a 10-year-old.
E) the brain.

B

7.
Which of the following descriptions matches the term near the left fifth intercostal space?
A) pericardial cavity
B) visceral pericardium
C) apex of heart
D) aorta
E) right atrium

C

8.
The term used to describe fluid collecting in the pericardial cavity that restricts the movement of the heart is known as
A) cardiac tamponade.
B) mitral valve prolapse.
C) pleural effusion.
D) cardiomyopathy.
E) pericarditis.

A

9.
The interventricular sulci and coronary sulcus
A) contain fat.
B) contain arteries.
C) contain veins.
D) are grooves on the surface of the heart.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

10.
The structure that permits blood flow from the right atrium to the left atrium in the fetal circulation is the
A) foramen ovale.
B) interatrial septum.
C) coronary sinus.
D) fossa ovalis.
E) ligamentum arteriosus.

A

11.
Blood leaves the right ventricle by passing through the
A) aortic valve.
B) pulmonary valve.
C) mitral valve.
D) tricuspid valve.
E) bicuspid valve.

B

12.
Intercalated discs serve to transfer ________ from cell to cell.
A) ionic currents
B) action potentials
C) the force of contraction
D) electrical signals
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

13.
Cardiac muscle cells and skeletal muscle cells differ in a few ways. Which of the following is not one of them?
A) Cardiac muscle cells are smaller in size.
B) Cardiac muscle cells have a single, centered nucleus.
C) Cardiac muscle cells branch.
D) Skeletal muscle cells lack intercalated discs.
E) Cardiac muscle cells lack transverse tubules.

E

14.
The atrioventricular valves permit blood flow
A) in one direction only.
B) in both directions.
C) in many directions.
D) in opposite directions on the right and left.
E) from a ventricle to an atrium.

A

15.
Blood returning to the heart from the systemic circuit first enters the
A) right atrium.
B) right ventricle.
C) left atrium.
D) left ventricle.
E) conus arteriosus.

A

16.
Blood returning to the heart from the pulmonary circuit first enters the
A) right atrium.
B) right ventricle.
C) left atrium.
D) left ventricle.
E) conus arteriosus.

C

17.
The earlike extension of the atrium is the
A) ventricle.
B) coronary sinus.
C) coronary sulcus.
D) auricle.
E) atricle.

D

18.
The coronary sulcus is a groove that
A) marks the border between the atria and ventricles.
B) marks the boundary line between the right and left ventricles.
C) marks the boundary line between the right and left atria.
D) separates the atrioventricular valves from the atria.
E) separates the coronary arteries from the coronary veins.

A

19.
In the middle of the thoracic cavity is a region occupied by the heart, great vessels, thymus, esophagus, and trachea called the
A) pleural space.
B) pericardial space.
C) mediastinum.
D) cardiac notch.
E) ventral cavity.

C

20.
The cusps (leaflets) of atrioventricular valves attach directly to
A) papillary muscles.
B) trabeculae carneae.
C) chordae tendineae.
D) interatrial septa.
E) coronary sulci.

C

21.
Contractions of the papillary muscles
A) close the atrioventricular valves.
B) close the semilunar valves.
C) eject blood from the ventricles.
D) prevent the atrioventricular valves from reversing into the atria.
E) eject blood from the atria into the ventricles.

D

22.
The visceral pericardium is the same as the
A) mediastinum.
B) parietal pericardium.
C) epicardium.
D) myocardium.
E) endocardium.

C

23.
Most of the middle layer in the heart wall is composed of
A) cardiac muscle cells.
B) chondrocytes.
C) epitheliocytes.
D) fibrocytes.
E) smooth muscle cells.

A

24.
The right ventricle pumps blood to the
A) right and left lungs.
B) left ventricle.
C) left atrium.
D) aorta.
E) right atrium.

A

25.
The left ventricle pumps blood to the
A) lungs.
B) right ventricle.
C) right atrium.
D) aorta.
E) pulmonary circuit.

D

26.
The right atrium receives blood from the
A) coronary sinus.
B) superior vena cava.
C) inferior vena cava.
D) systemic circuit.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

27.
In order to perform a CABG, a cardiac surgeon must
A) open the pericardial sac.
B) open the myocardium to see the AV valves.
C) visualize the pulmonary valve.
D) visualize the carotid arteries.
E) All of the answers are correct.

A

28.
When a blood clot forms on a ruptured plaque in a coronary artery, the condition is referred to as a(n)
A) coronary spasm.
B) myocardial infarction.
C) coronary thrombosis.
D) angina pectoris.
E) pulmonary embolism.

C

29.
When the left ventricle contracts, the distance from the apex to the base
A) increases.
B) decreases.
C) remains unchanged.

B

30.
When the left ventricle contracts, the diameter of the ventricular chamber
A) increases.
B) decreases.
C) remains the same.

B

31.
Cardiac cells damaged by infarction will show which of the following?
A) switch to anaerobic metabolism
B) release of enzymes into the circulation
C) release of troponin T and I into the circulation
D) release of CK-MB into the circulation
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

32.
Blood flowing into the heart from the venae cavae flows next through the ________ valve.
A) mitral
B) bicuspid
C) tricuspid
D) pulmonary semilunar
E) aortic semilunar

C

33.
As blood leaves the right ventricle it passes through the ________ and then into the pulmonary trunk.
A) pulmonary veins
B) conus arteriosus
C) aorta
D) inferior vena cava
E) superior vena cava

B

34.
Coronary veins empty into the
A) left atrium.
B) left ventricle.
C) right atrium.
D) right ventricle.
E) conus arteriosus.

C

35.
There are ________ pulmonary veins.
A) 2
B) 4
C) 6
D) 8
E) 12

B

36.
Rupture of the papillary muscles in the left ventricle may result in
A) mitral regurgitation.
B) mitral valve prolapse.
C) bicuspid regurgitation.
D) bicuspid prolapse.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

37.
When the semilunar valves close, the AV valves then
A) close.
B) open.
C) make the third heart sound.
D) contract.
E) prolapse.

B

38.
The ________ deliver(s) blood to the myocardium.
A) coronary arteries
B) cardiac veins
C) superior vena cava
D) carotid arteries
E) coronary sinus

A

39.
The connective tissue fibers of the myocardium
A) add strength and prevent overexpansion of the heart.
B) help distribute the forces of contraction.
C) provide elasticity to help return the heart to its normal size.
D) provide physical support for cardiac muscle.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

40.
Blood is supplied to the left atrium by the
A) brachiocephalic artery.
B) right coronary artery.
C) left coronary artery.
D) phrenic arteries.
E) pulmonary arteries.

C

41.
The pulmonary semilunar valve prevents backward flow into the
A) aorta.
B) pulmonary trunk.
C) pulmonary veins.
D) right ventricle.
E) left atrium.

D

42.
The bicuspid or mitral valve is located
A) in the opening of the aorta.
B) in the opening of the pulmonary trunk.
C) where the venae cavae join the right atrium.
D) between the right atrium and right ventricle.
E) between the left atrium and left ventricle.

E

43.
The ________ valve prevents backward flow into the left atrium.
A) semicaval
B) semilunar
C) bicuspid
D) tricuspid
E) pulmonic

C

44.
The function of an atrium is to
A) collect blood.
B) pump blood to the lungs.
C) pump blood into the systemic circuit.
D) pump blood to the ventricle.
E) collect blood then pump it to the ventricle.

E

45.
Compared to the right ventricle, the left ventricle has all the following characteristics, except that it
A) has a thicker wall.
B) is round in cross section.
C) pumps a greater volume.
D) works harder.
E) produces about four to six times more pressure when it contracts.

C

46.
Which of the following are involved in the pulmonary circuit?
A) superior vena cava, right atrium, left ventricle
B) right ventricle, pulmonary veins, aorta
C) right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, left atrium
D) inferior vena cava, right atrium, aorta
E) left ventricle, pulmonary veins, right atrium

C

47.
The right pulmonary veins carry ________ blood to the ________ .
A) deoxygenated; left atrium
B) oxygenated; right lung
C) deoxygenated; superior vena cava
D) deoxygenated; right atrium
E) oxygenated; left atrium

E

48.
The pulmonary arteries carry blood to the
A) heart.
B) lungs.
C) brain.
D) intestines.
E) liver.

B

49.
The pulmonary veins carry blood to the
A) heart.
B) lungs.
C) brain.
D) intestines.
E) liver.

A

50.
The foramen ovale in the fetal heart is located in the
A) right atrium.
B) left atrium.
C) right ventricle.
D) left ventricle.
E) interatrial septum.

E

51.
Blood is supplied to the myocardium by
A) the coronary sinus.
B) contact with blood in the pumping chambers.
C) the coronary arteries.
D) arteries that branch from the pulmonary arteries.
E) arteries that branch off the subclavian arteries.

C

52.
The first blood vessels to branch from the aorta are the ________ arteries.
A) pulmonary
B) coronary
C) circumflex
D) carotid
E) subclavian

B

53.
The marginal branch and posterior interventricular branch are branches of the
A) right coronary artery.
B) left coronary artery.
C) circumflex artery.
D) coronary sinus.
E) aorta.

A

54.
The circumflex branch and the anterior interventricular artery are branches of the
A) right coronary artery.
B) left coronary artery.
C) interventricular artery.
D) coronary sinus.
E) aorta.

B

55.
The great and middle cardiac veins drain blood into the
A) superior vena cava.
B) inferior vena cava.
C) coronary sinus.
D) coronary sulcus.
E) aorta.

C

56.
Abnormally slow depolarization of the ventricles would most change the shape of the ________ in an ECG tracing.
A) P wave
B) T wave
C) QRS complex
D) P-R interval
E) R-T interval

C

57.
As a result of the long refractory period in the cardiac action potential, cardiac muscle cannot exhibit
A) tonus.
B) treppe.
C) tetany.
D) recruitment.
E) fatigue.

C

58.
If the pacemaker cells in the SA node become more permeable to potassium ions, the
A) heart rate will increase.
B) heart rate will decrease.
C) cells will depolarize.
D) cells will hyperpolarize.
E) heart rate will decrease and cells will hyperpolarize.

E

59.
If the connection between the SA node and AV node becomes blocked,
A) the ventricles will beat faster.
B) the ventricles will beat more slowly.
C) the ventricular beat will remain unchanged.
D) cardiac output will increase.
E) the atria will contract more forcefully.

B

60.
The P wave of the electrocardiogram is a signal from
A) depolarization of the SA node.
B) depolarization of the AV node.
C) depolarization of the atria.
D) repolarization of the atria.
E) depolarization of the ventricles.

C

61.
If there is a complete block between the SA node and the AV node, how would the ECG be affected?
A) The P-R interval will be shorter.
B) The QRS duration will be longer.
C) There will be much bigger P waves.
D) The ventricles will stop beating.
E) The rate of P waves will be faster than the rate of QRS complexes.

E

62.
Depolarization of the ventricles is represented on an electrocardiogram by the
A) P wave.
B) T wave.
C) S wave.
D) QRS complex.
E) PR complex.

D

63.
The T wave on an ECG tracing represents
A) atrial depolarization.
B) atrial repolarization.
C) ventricular depolarization.
D) ventricular repolarization.
E) ventricular contraction.

D

64.
Analysis of the electrocardiogram can reveal all of the following, except the
A) heart rate.
B) stroke volume.
C) condition of the conducting system.
D) effects of drugs and poisons.
E) duration of the ventricular action potential.

B

65.
During the T wave of the electrocardiogram, the ventricles are
A) depolarizing.
B) repolarizing.
C) contracting.
D) relaxing.
E) both repolarizing and relaxing.

E

66.
Pacemaker cells in the SA node
A) have a well-defined resting potential.
B) can spontaneously depolarize.
C) also contract with the rest of the cells in the heart wall.
D) are special neurons that convey signals from the brain to the heart.
E) All of the answers are correct.

B

67.
Pacemaker cells isolated from the SA node generate action potentials at ________ beats per minute.
A) 20-40
B) 40-60
C) 80-100
D) 100-140
E) 140-180

C

68.
________ is to slow heart rate as ________ is to fast heart rate.
A) Tachycardia; bradycardia
B) Bradycardia; cardiomyopathy
C) Bradycardia; tachycardia
D) Cardiac tamponade; bradycardia
E) Angina; infarction

C

69.
Depolarization of the atria corresponds to the EKG's
A) P wave.
B) QRS complex.
C) QT interval.
D) T wave.
E) S-T segment.

A

70.
The first heart sound is heard when the
A) AV valves open.
B) AV valves close.
C) semilunar valves close.
D) atria contract.
E) blood enters the aorta.

B

71.
The first heart sound ("lub")
A) is associated with atrial systole.
B) is associated with closing of the mitral valve.
C) is associated with opening of the mitral valve.
D) is associated with closing of the aortic valve.
E) is associated with opening of the aortic valve.

B

72.
Considering the left ventricle, why does isovolumetric ventricular contraction occur during ventricular systole?
A) The ventricle needs to pressurize the blood to close the aortic valve.
B) Ventricular pressure is greater than atrial pressure so the ventricle cannot eject blood.
C) The bicuspid valve needs time to shut before the ventricle can eject blood.
D) Aortic pressure is higher than ventricular pressure and the ventricle must pressurize the blood to open the aortic valve.
E) The ventricle is still filling with blood and therefore cannot eject blood during this time.

D

73.
The phase in the cardiac cycle when the mitral valve is closed and the aortic valve is open is the
A) atrial systole.
B) early diastolic filling phase.
C) late diastolic filling phase.
D) systolic ejection phase.
E) dicrotic phase.

D

74.
A heart murmur might be caused by
A) aortic valve insufficiency.
B) mitral valve insufficiency.
C) pulmonic valve insufficiency.
D) swirling of blood in the ventricle.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

75.
The systolic part (both atrial and ventricular) of a cardiac cycle lasts on average
A) 3 seconds.
B) 370 msec.
C) 5 seconds.
D) 100 msec.
E) 800 msec.

B

76.
At a heart rate of 60 beats/minute, a cardiac cycle lasts
A) 60 seconds.
B) 60 milliseconds.
C) 1 second.
D) 370 milliseconds.
E) 630 milliseconds.

C

77.
During ventricular systole, the
A) atria are contracting.
B) blood is entering the ventricles.
C) AV valves are closed.
D) pressure in the ventricles remains constant.
E) pressure in the aorta remains constant.

C

78.
With each ventricular systole,
A) blood pressure remains steady.
B) the ventricles fill with blood.
C) blood pressure decreases.
D) cardiac output decreases.
E) blood pressure increases.

E

79.
An increase in the rate of action potentials from baroreceptors will trigger a reflex to
A) increase in heart rate.
B) decrease in heart rate.
C) decrease in blood pressure.
D) both decrease heart rate and decrease pressure.
E) both increase heart rate and increase pressure.

D

80.
The volume of blood ejected from each ventricle during a contraction is called the
A) end-diastolic volume.
B) end-systolic volume.
C) stroke volume.
D) cardiac output.
E) cardiac reserve.

C

81.
Each of the following factors will increase cardiac output, except
A) increased venous return.
B) increased parasympathetic stimulation.
C) increased sympathetic stimulation.
D) increased heart rate.
E) increased force of contraction.

B

82.
"An increase in end-diastolic volume increases the stroke volume" is a way of stating
A) Robin's law of the heart.
B) Finch's law of the heart.
C) Starling's law of the heart.
D) Sparrow's law of the heart.
E) Hawking's law of the heart.

C

83.
Which of the following would increase heart rate?
A) increased sympathetic stimulation of SA node
B) decreased parasympathetic stimulation of nodal fibers
C) increased levels of epinephrine
D) faster depolarization of the pacemaker potential
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

84.
The heart is innervated by ________ nerves.
A) parasympathetic
B) sympathetic
C) both parasympathetic and sympathetic
D) neither parasympathetic nor sympathetic
E) somatomotor

C

85.
Stroke volume depends on
A) end diastolic volume.
B) the contractility of the ventricle.
C) the pressure required to pump blood into the aorta.
D) venous return of blood to the heart.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

86.
Cardiac output can be increased by all of the following except
one. Choose the exception.
A) decreasing ejection fraction
B) decreasing end systolic volume
C) increasing stroke volume
D) increasing ejection fraction
E) increasing heart rate

A

87.
Drugs known as calcium channel blockers such as nifedipine can be used to
A) decrease the force of cardiac contraction.
B) decrease blood pressure.
C) dilate the coronary arteries.
D) produce a negative inotropic effect.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

88.
Heart rate is controlled by neurons of the cardiovascular center located in the
A) pons.
B) thalamus.
C) medulla oblongata.
D) hypothalamus.
E) higher centers.

C

89.
The cardioacceleratory center activates sympathetic neurons and the cardioinhibitory center controls parasympathetic neurons.
A) The first part of the statement is true but the second part is false.
B) The first part of the statement is false but the second part is true.
C) Both parts of the statement are true.
D) Both parts of the statement are false.
E) Both parts of the statement are true and relate to brainstem control of heart rate.

E

90.
Which of these is true about the atrial reflex?
A) also called Bainbridge reflex
B) triggered by atrial mechanoreceptors
C) triggered by increasing venous return
D) depends on sympathetic innervation
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

91.
Which of these would cause stroke volume to increase?
A) when venous return is decreased
B) when ventricular contraction is reduced
C) when diastolic blood pressure is decreased
D) decrease in heart rate
E) All of the answers are correct.

C

92.
Cardiac output is increased by
A) sympathetic stimulation.
B) increased end systolic volume.
C) decreased end diastolic volume.
D) decreased venous return.
E) inhibiting the atrial reflex.

A

93.
Activation of which kind of receptor causes heart rate to increase?
A) alpha-one receptor
B) beta-one receptor
C) muscarinic receptor
D) beta-two receptor
E) preganglionic

B

94.
Drugs that block the beta-one adrenergic receptors will
A) increase heart rate.
B) decrease heart rate.
C) increase contractility.
D) increase cardiac output.
E) decrease the end-systolic volume.

B

95.
If the force of ventricular contraction increases, what will happen to the end-systolic volume?
A) increase
B) fluctuate rapidly
C) remain the same
D) decrease
E) reduced to zero

D

96.
End-systolic volume is defined as the:
A) amount of blood a ventricle ejects per cycle
B) amount of blood which backflows into a ventricle
C) amount of blood remaining in an atrium after atrial systole
D) amount of blood remaining in a ventricle after contraction
E) stroke volume multiplied by the heart rate

D

97.
A patient has an end-diastolic volume of 125 ml. A heart attack has weakened her left ventricle so it can pump a stroke volume of only 40 ml. Calculate her end-systolic volume.
A) 85 ml
B) 3.1 ml
C) 5000 ml
D) 165 ml
E) not enough data given to calculate the end-systolic volume

A

98.
Calculate cardiac output if the heart rate is 125 beats/minute, the end-diastolic volume is 130 ml, and the end-systolic volume is 40 ml.
A) 21,250 ml / min
B) 16,250 ml / min
C) 11,250 ml / min
D) 195 ml / min
E) 200 ml / min

C

99.
Calculate the cardiac output of a patient with a heart rate of 100 beats/minute and a stroke volume of 75 ml.
A) 0.75 ml / min
B) 750 ml / min
C) 7500 ml / min
D) 175 ml / min
E) 25 ml / min

C

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