Chapter 19 chem vocab

23 terms by cfcgirl 

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Bronsted-Lowry

An acid is a hydrogen-ion donor and a base is a hydrogen- ion acceptor

Hydronium ion

The ion that forms when a water molecule gains a hydrogen ion

Buffer capacity

The amount of acid or base that can be added to a buffer solution before a significant change in pH occurs

Buffer

A solution of a weak acid and one of its salts or a solution of a weak base and one of its salts

Salt hydrolysis

The cations or anbions of a dissociated salt remove hydrogen ions from, or donate hydrogen ions to, water

End point

The point at which trhe indicator chanes color

Equivalence poin

The point at which neutralization occurs

Standard solution

The solution of known concentration

Neutralization reactions

The complete reaction of a strong acid and a strong base produces a neutral solution

Acid dissociation constant

The ratio of the concentration of the dissociated form of an acid to the concentration of the undissociated form

Weak acid

Ionizes only slightly in aqueous solution

Strong acid

An acid that is completely ionized in aqueous solution

pH

The negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration

Basic solution

A solution in which [H+] is less that [OH-]

Acidic solution

A solution in which [H+] is greater than [OH-]

Ion product constant for water

The product of the concentrations of the hydrogen ions and hydroxide in water (Kw)
Kw=[H+] x [OH-]= 1.0 x 10*-14

Neutral solution

Any aqueous solution in which [H+] and [Oh-] are equal

Self ionization

The reaction in which water molecules produce ions

Lewis acids and bases

An acid accepts a pair of electrons and a base donates a pair of electrons during a reaction

Amphoteric

A substance that can act as either an acid or a base

Conjugate acid-base pair

Two ions or molecules related by the loss or gain of one hydrogen ion

Conjugate base

The ion or molecule that remaines after an acid loses a hydrogen ion

A conjugate acid

The ion or molecule formed when a base gaines a hydrogen ion

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