Microbiology Ch. 4 study guide

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Which of the following is not a characteristic of a prokaryote?
A. It's DNA is not encased in a membrane
B. It has a cell wall made of peptidoglycans or other distinct chemicals
C. It does not have membrane-bound organelles
D. Its DNA is wrapped around his tones
E. All of these are characteristics of prokaryotes

D. Its DNA is wrapped around his tones

The two functions of bacterial appendages are
A. Attachment and protection
B. Attachment and motility
C. Motility and slime production
D. Energy reactions and synthesis
E. Protection and motility

B. Attachment and motility

Bacterial cells could have any of the following appendages except
A. Flagella
B. Cilia
C. Fimbriae
D. Periplasmic flagella (axial filaments)
E. Sex pili

B. Cilia

Spirochetes have a twisting and flexing locomotion due to appendages called
A. Flagella
B. Cilia
C. Fimbriae
D. Periplasmic flagella (axial filaments)
E. Sex pili

D. Periplasmic flagella (axial filaments)

The basal body of a flagellum is anchored into the
A. Hook
B. Outer membrane
C. Cell wall
D. Peptidoglycan layer
E. Cell membrane

E. Cell membrane

The term that refers to the presence of flagella all over the cell surface is
A. Amphitrichous
B. Atrichous
C. Lophotrichous
D. Monotrichous
E. Peritrichous

E. Peritrichous

The term that refers to the presence of a tuft of flagella emerging from the same site is
A. Amphitrichous
B. Atrichous
C. Lophotrichous
D. Monotrichous
E. Peritrichous

C. Lophotrichous

The term that refers to flagella at both poles is
A. Amphitrichous
B. Atrichous
C. Lophotrichous
D. Monotrichous
E. Peritrichous

A. Amphitrichous

Chemo taxis refers to the ability to
A. Move in response to light
B. Move in response to a chemical
C. Not move in response to a chemical
D. Transport desired molecules into cell
E. None of the choices are correct

B. Move in response to a chemical

A nutrient binds to receptors near the basal body. This will result in
A. Clockwise rotation of flagella
B. Counter clockwise rotation of flagella
C. Inhibition of flagella rotation
D. Numerous tumbles
E. None of the choices are correct

B. Counter clockwise rotation of flagella

A bacterial cell exhibiting chemo taxis probably has
A. Fimbriae
B. A capsule
C. Thylakoids
D. Flagella
E. Met achromatic granules

B. A capsule

The prokaryotic flagellum has three parts in the order from cytoplasm to external environment
A. Filament, hook, basal body
B. Filament, basal body, hook
C. Basal body, hook, filament
D. Hook, basal body, filament
E. Basal body, filament, hook

B. Filament, basal body, hook

Movement of a cell toward a chemical stimulus is termed
A. Photo taxis
B. Taxis
C. Chemotaxis
D. Tumble
E. None of the choices are correct

C. Chemotaxis

The short, numerous appendages used by some bacterial cells for adhering to surfaces are called
A. Flagella
B. Cilia
C. Fimbriae
D. Periplasmic flagella (axial filaments)
E. Sex pili

C. Fimbriae

The transfer of genes during bacterial conjugation involves rigid, tubular appendages called
A. Flagella
B. Cilia
C. Fimbriae
D. Periplasmic flagella (axial filaments)
E. Sex pili

E. Sex pili

Which structure protects bacteria from being phagocytized?
A. Slime layer
B. Fimbriae
C. Cell membrane
D. Capsule
E. All of the choices are correct

D. Capsule

The outcome of the Gram stain is based on differences in the cell's
A. Ribosomes
B. Inclusions
C. Cell wall
D. Cell membrane
E. Flagella

C. Cell wall

Which order below reflects the correct procedure for Gram staining?
A. Alcohol/acetone-Crystal violet-Safranin-Iodine
B. Crystal violet-Alcohol/acetone-Iodine-Safranin
C. Crystal violet-Iodine-Alcohol/acetone-Safranin
D. Iodine-Safranin-Crystal violet-Alcohol/acetone
E. Alcohol/acetone-Safranin-Crystal violet-Iodine

C. Crystal violet-Iodine-Alcohol/acetone-Safranin

The cell _____ can be composed of three layers: the membrane, the cell wall and the outer membrane.
A. Glycocalyx
B. Envelope
C. Pathogenic package
D. Slime coat
E. None of the choices are correct

B. Envelope

During the Gram stain, gram _____ cells decolorize when the alcohol is applied.
A. Positive
B. Negative
C. Both positive and negative
D. Neither positive nor negative

B. Negative

If bacteria living in salty seawater were displaced to a freshwater environment, the cell structure that would prevent the cells from rupturing is the
A. Endospore
B. Cell wall
C. Cell membrane
D. Capsule
E. Slime layer

B. Cell wall

Peptidoglycan is a unique macromolecule found in bacterial
A. Cell walls
B. Cell membranes
C. Capsules
D. Slime layers
E. Inclusions

A. Cell walls

A prokaryotic cell wall that has primarily peptidoglycan with small amounts of teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid is
A. Gram negative
B. Gram positive
C. Archaea
D. Spheroplast
E. Acid fast

B. Gram positive

A bacterial genus that has waxy mycolic acid in the cell walls is
A. Mycobacterium
B. Mycoplasma
C. Streptococcus
D. Corynebacterium
E. Salmonella

A. Mycobacterium

The difference in cell wall structure of Mycobacterium and Nocardia compared to the typical gram positive bacterial cell wall structure is
A. More peptidoglycan
B. Predominance of unique, waxy, lipids
C. Easily decolorized
D. Presence of lipopolysaccharide
E. All of the choices are correct

A. More peptidoglycan

The periplasmic space is
A. Larger in gram positive bacteria
B. Made up of lipopolysaccharides and phospholipids
C. An important reaction site for substances entering and leaving the cell
D. Where peptidoglycan is located
E. Absent in gram negative bacteria

C. An important reaction site for substances entering and leaving the cell

The _____ stain is used to stain and differentiate Mycobacterium and Nocardia from other bacteria.
A. Acid fast
B. Methylene blue
C. Gram
D. Negative
E. Basic

A. Acid fast

_____ is a macromolecule containing alternating N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid cross-linked by short peptide fragments.
A. My colic acid
B. Outer membrane protein
C. Peptidoglycan
D. Lysozyme
E. None of the choices are correct

C. Peptidoglycan

The enzyme _____, that is found in tears and saliva, can hydrolyze the bonds in the glycan chains of certain bacterial cell walls.
A. Penicillinase
B. Lysozyme
C. Peptidase
D. All of the choices are correct
E. None of the choices are correct

B. Lysozyme

Lysozyme is most effective against
A. Gram negative organisms
B. Gram positive organisms
C. Mycoplasmas
D. Cyanobacteria
E. Archea

B. Gram positive organisms

The fragile cell produced when gram positive bacteria are exposed to lysozyme or penicillin is a/an
A. Protoplast
B. Mycoplasma
C. Spheroplast
D. Glycocalyx
E. Glycan

A. Protoplast

All of the following structures contribute to the ability of pathogenic bacteria to cause disease except the
A. Inclusions
B. Fimbriae
C. Capsule
D. Slime layer
E. Outer membrane of gram negative cell walls

A. Inclusions

Which of the following does not pertain to endotoxins?
A. Are specific bacterial cell wall lipids
B. Can stimulate fever in the human body
C. Can cause septic shock in the human body
D. Involved in typhoid fever and some meningitis cases
E. Found in acid fast bacterial cell walls

E. Found in acid fast bacterial cell walls

Lipopolysaccharide is an important cell wall component of
A. Gram negative bacteria
B. Gram positive bacteria
C. Acid fast bacteria
D. Mycoplasmas
E. Protoplasts

A. Gram negative bacteria

Which of the following, pertaining to prokaryotic cell membranes is mismatched?
A. Contain photosynthetic pigments - cyanobacteria
B. Sterols present - mycoplasmas
C. Form a bilayer - phospholipids
D. Unique hydrocarbon present - cyano bacteria
E. Function - regulates transport of nutrients and wastes

D. Unique hydrocarbon present- cyano bacteria

The site/s for most ATP synthesis in prokaryotic cells is/are the
A. Ribosomes
B. Mitochondria
C. Cell wall
D. Inclusions
E. Cell membrane

E. Cell membrane

Gram negative organisms
A. Are more susceptible to antibiotics than gram positive organisms
B. Are less susceptible to antibiotics than gram positive organisms
C. Stain purple in the gram stain
D. Encompass all pathogens
E. None of the choices are correct

B. Are less susceptible to antibiotics than gram positive organisms

Which of the following is not a function of a prokaryote cell membrane?
A. Transport
B. Secretion
C. Cellular respiration
D. Macromolecule synthesis
E. Antigens and receptors

E. Antigens and receptors

Which of the following is not true of the outer membrane?
A. The upper most layer is made of lipopolysaccharides
B. The inner most layer is a phospholipid bilayer
C. The porin proteins create channels through the outer membrane
D. Gram positive bacteria have an outer membrane
E. The lipid portion of the lipopolysaccharide layer is an endotoxin

D. Gram positive bacteria have an outer membrane

All bacterial cells have
A. One or more chromosomes
B. One or more fimbriae
C. The ability to produce endospores
D. Capsules
E. Flagella

A. One or more chromosomes

The most immediate result of destruction of a cell's ribosomes would be
A. Material would not be able to cross the cell membrane
B. Protein synthesis would stop
C. Destruction of the cell's DNA
D. Formation of glycogen inclusions
E. Loss of capsule

B. Protein syntesis would stop

The bacterial chromosome
A. Is located in the cell membrane
B. Contains all the cell's plasmids
C. Is part of the nucleoid
D. Forms a single linear strand of DNA
E. All of the choices are correct

C. Is part of the nucleoid

Which of the following is mismatched?
A. Ribosomes - protein synthesis
B. Inclusions - excess cell nutrients and materials
C. Plasmids - genes essential for growth and metabolism
D. Nucleoid - hereditary material
E. Cytoplasm - dense, gelatinous solution

C. Plasmids- genes essential for growth and metabolism

Magnetosomes are
A. Infoldings of the cell membrane
B. Termed met achromatic granules
C. Responsible for the heat resistance of endospores
D. Composed of magnetic iron oxide particles
E. Found in all bacteria

D. Composed of magnetic iron oxide particles

Plasmids
A. Are found in all bacteria
B. Are essential for survival
C. Cannot be passed between organisms
D. Cannot be passed on to progeny
E. Are often the site of pathogenic genes

E. Are often the site of pathogenic genes

The chemical components of ribosomes are proteins and
A. MRNA
B. TRNA
C. RRNA
D. All of the choices are correct
E. None of the choices are correct

C. RRNA

The function of bacterial endospores is
A. Convert gaseous nitrogen to a usable form for plants
B. Reproduction and growth
C. Protection of genetic material during harsh conditions
D. Storage of excess cell materials
E. Sites for photosynthesis

C. Protection of genetic material during harsh conditions

Chemical analysis of a bacterial cell structure detects calcium dipicolinic acid. What is the identity of this structure?
A. Cell wall
B. Capsule
C. Slime layer
D. Nucleoid
E. Endospore

E. Endospore

Endospores are
A. Metabolically inactive
B. Resistant to heat and chemical destruction
C. Resistant to destruction by radiation
D. Living structures
E. All of the choices are correct

E. All of the choices are correct

Bacterial endospores are not produced by
A. Staphylococcus
B. Sporosarcina
C. Bacillus
D. Clostridium
E. All of the choices are correct

A. Staphylococcus

Which term is not used to describe bacterial cell shapes?
A. Coccus
B. Tetrad
C. Vibrio
D. Rod
E. Spirochete

B. Tetrad

Cells form a _____ arrangement when cells in a chain snap back upon each other forming a row of cells oriented side by side.
A. Tetrad
B. Strep
C. Staph
D. Sarcina
E. Palisade

E. Palisade

An irregular cluster of spherical cells would be called a/an
A. Palisades
B. Sarcina
C. Staphylococcus
D. Streptococcus
E. Spirilla

C. Staphylococcus

A chain of rod-shaped cells would be called a/an
A. Streptobacillus
B. Staphylobacillus
C. Streptococcus
D. Staphylococcus
E. Palisades

A. Streptobacillus

An important indicator of evolutionary relatedness is to determine
A. Size of the periplasmic space
B. Similarities of cell membrane proteins
C. Size of the bacterial chromosome
D. Nitrogen base sequence of rRNA
E. Size of the ribosomes

D. Nitrogen base sequence of rRNA

_____ Manual of Systematic Bacteriology is a manual of bacterial descriptions and classifications.
A. Pasteur's
B. Lister's
C. Bergey's
D. Leeuwenhoek's
E. Koch's

C. Bergey's

Which of the following is not a phenotypic trait of bacteria?
A. RRNA sequencing
B. Shape
C. Culture behavior
D. Biochemical reaction
E. All of these are phenotypic traits

A. RRNA sequencing

Serological analysis for bacterial identification typically involves using
A. Specific antibodies to the bacterial cell antigens
B. Methods to identify cell enzymes
C. Analysis of the appearance of colonies
D. A microscope to determine cell morphology
E. Determination of guanine + cytosine base concentration

A. Specific antibodies to the bacterial cell antigens

Which of the following is mismatched?
A. Gracilicutes - gram negative cell walls
B. Firmicutes - gram positive cell walls
C. Tenericutes - waxy acid fast cell walls
D. Mendosicutes - archaea cell walls
E. None of the choices are correct

C. Tenericutes- waxy acid fast cell walls

Which of the following is not a division of Kingdom Prokaryote according to Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology?
A. Gracilicutes
B. Scotobacteria
C. Firmicutes
D. Tenericutes
E. Mendosicutes

B. Scotobacteria

Which of the following is not a bacterial class involved in causing human and animal diseases?
A. Scotobacteria
B. Firmibacteria
C. Archaebacteria
D. Thallobacteria
E. Mollicutes

C. Archaebacteria

Which of the following is mismatched?
A. Chlamydias - lack ability to independently complete growth and metabolism
B. Green sulfur bacteria - photosynthetic anaerobes that use sulfur in metabolism
C. Cyanobacteria - filamentous, gliding, extremophilic, photosynthetic bacteria
D. Rickettsias - gram negative, pathogen, blood-sucking arthropod host
E. None of the choices are correct

C. Cyanobacteria - filamentous, gliding, extremophilic, photosynthetic bacteria

The presence of thylakoids, phycocyanin, gas inclusions and cysts would be associated with
A. Green sulfur bacteria
B. Cyanobacteria
C. Purple sulfur bacteria
D. Archaea
E. Spirochetes

B. Cyanobacteria

Which of the following is mismatched?
A. Methanogens - convert CO2 and H2 gases into methane
B. Extreme halophiles - adapted to salty habitats
C. Psychrophiles - adapted to very low temperatures
D. Hyperthermophiles - adapted to high temperatures
E. Thermo plasmas - adapted to frozen environments

E. Thermo plasmas- adapted to frozen environments

Two major structures that allow bacteria to adhere to surfaces are ___ and ___.
A. Pili, ribosomes
B. Fimbrae, capsules
C. Lipopolysaccharides, techoic acids
D. Actin filaments, phospholipid membrane(s)

B. Fimbrae, capsules

A client has a serious case of the flu. A random sample of sputum was taken from the patient coughing up blood. The lab tech said they had isolated a bacterium that did not have any peptidoglycan. You hypothesize that the identity of this microbe could possibly be:
A. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
B. Borrelia burghdorferi
C. Streptococcus pneumoniae
D. Mycoplasma pnuemoniae

D. Mycoplasma pnuemoniae

Halobacterium salinarium lives in and requires salt. This is an example of an archaeabacterium described as a(n) __.
A. Osmophile
B. Halophile
C. Thermophile
D. Psychrophile

B. Halophile

Spirochetes are able to move due to:
A. A periplasmic flagellum
B. A membrane bound flagellum
C. Cilia serving as walking feet
D. Pseudopods

A. A periplasmic flagellum

Syphillis is caused by a spirochete called:
A. Proteus vulgaris
B. Chlamydia trachomatis
C. Treponema pallidum
D. Staphylococcus aureus

C. Treponema pallidum

Which of the following species of bacteria is not closely related to the others?
A. Staphylococcus aureus
B. Staphylococcus epidermidis
C. Staphylococcus saprophyticus
D. Escherichia coli

D. Escherichia coli

Which of the following species belong to the genus Streptococcus?
A. pyogenes
B. pneumoniae
C. faecalis
D. all of these

D. all of these

Archaea do not have the typical peptidoglycan structure found in bacterial cell walls.
True or False.

True

The first cells on earth were probably archaea.
True or False.

True

Prokaryotes include bacteria and viruses.
True or False.

False

Flagella move in a whip-like motion.
True or False.

False

True pili used for conjugation are only found on gram negative bacteria.
True or False.

True

The slime layer gives bacteria a greater pathogenicity as compared to the capsule.
True or False.

False

If during the gram stain procedure, the bacterial cells were viewed immediately after crystal violet was applied, gram positive cells would be purple but gram negative cells would be colorless.
True or False.

False

Iodine is the decolorizer in the Gram stain.
True or False.

False

The cell envelope of gram positive bacteria has two layers: a thick cell wall and the cell membrane.
True or False.

True

Gram negative bacteria do not have peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
True or False.

False

Hot carbol fuchsin is the primary dye in the acid fast stain.
True or False.

True

The region between the bacterial cell membrane and the cell wall is called the outer membrane.
True or False.

False

Bacteria in the genus Mycoplasma and bacteria called L-forms lack cell walls.
True or False.

True

The prokaryotic cell membrane is a site for many enzymes and metabolic reactions.
True or False

True

If you observe rod shaped, pink cells on a slide that had just been gram stained, you can assume that their cell walls contain endotoxin.
True or False.

True

The prokaryote cell membrane is made of the same materials as the eukaryote cell membrane.
True or False.

True

Both gram positive and gram negative cells have outer membranes.
True or False.

True.

Alcohol-based compounds can weaken the outer membrane.
True or False.

True

The cell envelope or its parts can interact with human tissue and cause disease.
True or False

True

Some bacteria have a cytoskeleton of sterols to help maintain their shape.
True or False.

True

Endospores of certain bacterial species can enter tissues in the human body, germinate and cause an infectious disease.
True or False.

True

Boiling water (100°C) can normally destroy endospores.
True or False.

False

The term diplococcus refers to an irregular cluster of spherical bacterial cells.
True or False.

False

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