lets composers control tone color, duration, dynamics, and pitch with unprecedented precision.
liberation of sound
may include environmental sounds such as thunder, or electronically generated hisses and blips. but compose3rs may also draw novel sounds from voices and nonelectronic instruments.
electronic music is often presented together with visual counterparts such as slide projections, films, light shows, gestures, and theatrical action
rhythm and form
composers often changed meters or used unconventional meters
a grand piano whose sound is altered by objects such as bolts, screws, rubber bands, pieces of felt, paper, and plastic inserted between the strings of some of the keys. made popular by john cage
wrote "west side story". was a composer, conductor, lecturer, pianist, developed liberation of sound.
music for stage and screen
also called musical theater
a type of theater that fuses script, acting, and spoken dialogue with music, singing, and dancing and with scenery, costumes, and spectacle
returned after 1945, may include central tones or chords as well as constant sonorities
often represents a conscious break with serialism, as well as an attempt to improve communication between composer and listener
characterized by steady pulse, clear tonality, and insistent repetion of short melodic patterns
composers choose pitches, tone colors, and random methods such as throwing coins
characteristics of musical styles since 1945
(1) increase in 12 tone system, (2) serialism, (3) chance music, (4) minimalist music, (5) musical quotation, (6) tonal music, (7) electronic music, (8) liberation of sound, (9) mixed media, (10) new concept of rhythm and form
born in Brooklyn, NY. wrote Appalachian Spring ballet
william grant still
an african american. wrote afro american symphony-was 1st composition by a black composer performed by a major american symphony
Hungarian, spent most of his free time in tiny villages recording peasant folk songs. wrote Concerto for Orchestra
American composer, wrote popular music, musical comedy, and jazz. he is known for incorperation of jazz in his music, especially his famous "Rhapsody in Blue"
20th Century Music
(1)non-western cultures, (2) women, african-american, american composers, (3) new technology, (4) human sexuality
characteristics of 20th Century Music
(1) tone color- percussion; piano- non-traditional sounds, (2) harmony- more dissonance, (3) alternatives to traditional tonal system; polytonality, bitonality, atonality, 12 tone system, (4) rhythm- more important; polyrhythm and ostianto, (5) melody- less important
1. 20th century music was from 1900-1945, 2. age of diversity: composers used different musical languages, 3. folk and popular music, 4. asia, latin, african music, 5. middle ages- reuse of church mode, 6. jazz, 7. suites, concerto grosso, 8. definite pitch, indefinite pitch
Tone poem or symphonic poem, wrote Don Juan.
20th century music has 2 or more contrasting, independent rhythms at the same time
a motive or phrase that is repeated persistently at the same pitch throughout a section
was less important; no longer based on traditional chords; maybe based on aq wide variety of scales or it may freely use all 12 chromatic tones and have no tonal center; often contains wide leaps that are hard to sing
more important; rhythmic vocabulary was expanded, with increased emphasis on irregularity and unpredictability; polyrhythm; ostinato
12 tone system
a new technique of pitch organization; gives equal prominence to each of 12 chromatic tones
a farther departure from tradition; absence of tonality or key. no key is more important than the other.
when only 2 different keys are used at once
a 20th century approach to pitch organization is the use of 2 or more keys at one time
alternatives to the traditional tonal system
1. polytonality 2. bitonality 3. atonality 4. 12 tone system
more dissonance. consonance and dissonance; consonant- chord was stable, functioned as a point of rest or arrival; dissonance- chord was unstoble, its tension demanded onward motion
percussion instruments prominent and numerous. a piano often adds a percussive edge to sound of orchestra; non-traditional sounds
Musical style which stresses tone color, atmosphere, and fluidity, typical of Debussy
5 tone scale, produced by 5 successive black keys on piano
french. known for his impressionism; used pentatonic scales; wrote "prelude to the afternoon of a faun"
marked by emotional restraint, balance and clarity. was a reaction to impressionism. sonata form, rondo
Russian, wrote "Rite of Spring". known for use of primitivism
deliberate evocation of primitive power through insight rhythms and percussive sounds
stressed intense, subjective emotion. largely centered in Germany
born in Vienna, developed atonality. used sprechstimme. used 12- tone system. wrote "Pierrot Lunaire", "Survivor from Warsaw"
born in Vienna. most of his works are minitures. half his works are for solo voice or chorus, the rest is for chamber orchestra or small chamber groups. wrote "5 pieces for Orchestra"