CH 16 ex 2

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The ________ division of the autonomic nervous system is said to function during "rest and digest."
A) sympathetic
B) parasympathetic
C) thoracolumbar
D) visceral
E) somatomotor

B

The sympathetic division of the ANS is also known as which of the following?
A) somatic division
B) craniosacral division
C) resting division
D) thoracolumbar division
E) lumbosacral division

D

Preganglionic fibers leave the CNS and then synapse on
A) postganglionic fibers.
B) visceral reflex responses.
C) motor neurons.
D) ganglionic neurons.
E) afferent neurons.

D

The statement "there is always a peripheral synapse between the CNS and the effector organ" is
A) true only for the parasympathetic nervous system.
B) true only for the sympathetic nervous system.
C) true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
D) not true for either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems.
E) true only for the somatic nervous system.

C

Preganglionic neurons of the autonomic nervous system are located in
A) the brain.
B) the lateral gray horns of the spinal cord.
C) the posterior gray horns of the spinal cord.
D) both the brain and the lateral gray horns of the spinal cord.
E) the cerebrum.

D

Ganglionic neurons innervate such things as
A) smooth muscle.
B) cardiac muscle.
C) adipose tissue.
D) glands.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

The parasympathetic nervous system is especially active during which physiological state(s)?
A) exertion
B) trauma
C) digestion
D) stress
E) exercise

C

A visceral motor neuron whose cell body is within the CNS is called a(n)________ neuron.
A) upper motor
B) lower motor
C) preganglionic
D) postganglionic
E) somatomotor

C

Craniosacral division is another name for the
A) sympathetic division of the ANS.
B) parasympathetic division of the ANS.
C) somatic nervous system.
D) afferent nervous system.
E) central nervous system.

B

Sympathetic preganglionic neurons are ________ and have ________ axons.
A) short; myelinated
B) short; unmyelinated
C) long; myelinated
D) long; unmyelinated
E) intermediate; small

A

In the sympathetic nervous system, where are the preganglionic neurons located?
A) cervical and sacral segments of the spinal cord
B) sacral segments of the spinal cord
C) brain stem
D) thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord
E) cerebellum

D

Sympathetic preganglionic neurons are ________ and have ________ axons.
A) long; myelinated
B) long; unmyelinated
C) short; myelinated
D) short; unmyelinated
E) intermediate; white

C

Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are located in the
A) lateral gray horns of the cervical cord.
B) anterior gray horns of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord.
C) lateral gray horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord.
D) anterior gray horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord.
E) lateral gray horns of T1 to S2 of the spinal cord.

C

Clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons lying along either side of the spinal cord are called sympathetic ________ ganglia.
A) intramural
B) collateral
C) chain
D) prevertebral
E) suprarenal

C

Clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic region are called ________ ganglia.
A) intramural
B) collateral
C) chain
D) paravertebral
E) suprarenal

B

Injury to the neurons of a collateral ganglion would affect the function of the
A) heart.
B) pupils.
C) sweat glands.
D) digestive tract.
E) arrector pili muscles.

D

Damage to the ventral roots of the first five thoracic spinal nerves on the right side of the body would interfere with the ability to
A) dilate the right pupil.
B) constrict the right pupil.
C) dilate the left pupil.
D) constrict the left pupil.
E) smile and frown.

A

Postganglionic axons usually are
A) myelinated.
B) unmyelinated.
C) larger than preganglionic fibers.
D) located in the brain.
E) located in the spinal cord.

B

Stimulation of the neurons in the celiac ganglion would lead to
A) relaxation of the urinary sphincter.
B) increased heart rate.
C) hydrolysis of liver glycogen reserves.
D) activation of ventral sweat glands.
E) increased gastric motility.

C

Injury to the cervical sympathetic ganglia would affect the function of the
A) heart.
B) pupils.
C) salivary glands.
D) lungs.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

Collateral ganglia contain neurons that innervate tissues and organs in which cavity?
A) thoracic
B) pelvic
C) abdominal
D) craniosacral
E) abdominopelvic

E

Sympathetic nerves
A) provoke feelings of sympathy.
B) allow us to relax, rest, and recover.
C) are bundles of postganglionic fibers that innervate organs within the thoracic cavity.
D) control swallowing.
E) stimulate gastric secretion.

C

Preganglionic fibers that innervate the collateral ganglia form the
A) suprarenal medulla.
B) celiac ganglia.
C) sympathetic chain ganglia.
D) inferior mesenteric ganglia.
E) splanchnic nerves.

E

The celiac ganglia innervate which of the following?
A) liver
B) spleen
C) stomach
D) pancreas
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

The suprarenal medullae secrete
A) medullin.
B) epinephrine.
C) norepinephrine.
D) renin.
E) both epinephrine and norepinephrine.

E

During sympathetic activation, ________ occurs.
A) elevated heart rate
B) elevated blood pressure
C) sweating
D) elevated blood glucose
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

Specialized ganglionic sympathetic neurons that release hormones into the bloodstream are found within the
A) intramural ganglia.
B) collateral ganglia.
C) chain ganglia.
D) brain stem.
E) suprarenal medullae.

E

Postganglionic fibers that innervate targets in the body wall or thoracic cavity originate on neurons within
A) intramural ganglia.
B) collateral ganglia.
C) sympathetic chain ganglia.
D) suprarenal ganglia.
E) white rami.

C

Each of the following effects is associated with the action of postganglionic sympathetic fibers, except
A) increased sweat secretion.
B) reduced circulation to the skin.
C) decreased heart rate.
D) dilation of the pupils.
E) increased blood flow to skeletal muscles.

C

Splanchnic nerves
A) originate from first-order neurons located in the upper five thoracic segments of the spinal cord.
B) consist of axons that synapse in collateral ganglia.
C) control sympathetic function of structures in the thorax.
D) connect chain ganglia.
E) are formed of parasympathetic fibers.

B

The celiac ganglion innervates the
A) stomach.
B) liver.
C) pancreas.
D) spleen.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

Sympathetic innervation of the urinary bladder is by way of the
A) celiac ganglion.
B) superior mesenteric ganglion.
C) inferior mesenteric ganglion.
D) pudendal ganglion.
E) pelvic ganglion.

C

The celiac, superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric ganglia are collectively called ________ ganglia.
A) chain
B) collateral
C) intramural
D) paravertebral
E) terminal

B

As the result of an accident, the white rami of spinal nerves T1 and T2 on the left side of Brad's body are severed. What organ(s) would you expect might be affected by this injury?
A) left pupil
B) right pupil
C) heart
D) both pupils
E) left pupil and the heart

E

A person is confronted by a dangerous dog. His heart begins to race and beat strongly, his pupils dilate, and his hairs stand up. These signs are the result of
A) sympathetic activation.
B) increased levels of epinephrine in the blood.
C) increased activity of autonomic centers in the hypothalamus.
D) the "fight or flight" response.
E) All of the answers are correct.

D

Tom suffers from hypertension (high blood pressure). Which of the following might help deal with his problem? A drug that
A) blocks alpha-1 receptors in skeletal muscle.
B) blocks alpha-2 receptors in adipose tissue.
C) increases cAMP levels in cardiac muscle tissue.
D) blocks beta receptors in cardiac muscle tissue.
E) blocks alpha-1 receptors in skeletal muscle and blocks beta receptors in cardiac muscle tissue

E

37.
Drugs that have effects similar to those of sympathetic activation are called sympathomimetic drugs. Which of the following would you not
expect to observe in a person who has taken a sympathomimetic drug?
A) sweating
B) increased heart rate
C) dilation of respiratory passages
D) decreased blood pressure
E) increased blood sugar level

D

38.
Drugs known as beta-blockers may be useful for treating
A) constipation.
B) diarrhea.
C) excessive salivation.
D) excessive heart rate.
E) prostate disorders.

D

39.
Postganglionic sympathetic axons can release the neurotransmitter ________ at their effector junctions.
A) acetylcholine
B) nitric oxide
C) norepinephrine
D) ACh
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

40.
Stimulation of the beta receptors on heart muscle cells results in
A) the decrease in ATP production.
B) increased heart rate and force of contraction.
C) decreased force of contraction.
D) slower heart rate.
E) inhibition of the heart muscle.

B

41.
Stimulation of α1 adrenergic receptors by norepinephrine results in
A) an increase in the amount of intracellular cAMP.
B) a decrease in the amount of intracellular cAMP.
C) decreased membrane permeability to sodium ion.
D) release of calcium ions from intracellular stores.
E) increased membrane permeability to potassium ions.

D

42.
An inhaler used to treat airway constriction in asthma or allergy might contain a drug that
A) activates β1 adrenergic receptors.
B) activates β2 adrenergic receptors.
C) activates muscarinic cholinergic receptors.
D) blocks β2 adrenergic receptors.
E) activates β2 adrenergic receptors or activates muscarinic cholinergic receptors.

B

43.
Which of the following statements about adrenergic receptors is true?
A) They are G proteins.
B) When activated, cAMP levels are affected.
C) Epinephrine activates both alpha and beta types.
D) Norepinephrine activates both alpha and beta types.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

44.
Most sympathetic effector junctions release norepinephrine but a significant number release acetylcholine instead. Which of these is an example of an organ of the cholinergic type?
A) the heart
B) a blood vessel in the skin
C) a sweat gland
D) the liver
E) the salivary glands

C

45.
A certain drug decreases heart rate by blocking a receptor on cardiac pacemaker cells. This drug probably binds to ________ receptors.
A) nicotinic cholinergic
B) muscarinic cholinergic
C) alpha-1 adrenergic
D) alpha-2 adrenergic
E) beta-1 adrenergic

E

46.
Drugs that stimulate alpha receptors, causing constriction of peripheral vessels, are
A) sympathetic blocking agents.
B) sympathomimetic.
C) parasympathetic blocking agents.
D) parasympathomimetic.
E) autonomic blocking agents.

B

47.
Sympathomimetic drugs might be used to
A) decrease heart rate.
B) decrease blood pressure.
C) dilate airways.
D) increase gastric motility.
E) reduce blood sugar levels.

C

48.
Ganglionic neurons in the suprarenal gland
A) are located in the suprarenal cortex.
B) release acetylcholine into blood capillaries.
C) release epinephrine into blood capillaries.
D) have no known function.
E) are modified and can't release neurotransmitters.

C

49.
The statement "it initiates contraction of urinary bladder smooth muscle" is
A) true only for the parasympathetic nervous system.
B) true only for the sympathetic nervous system.
C) true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
D) not true for either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems.
E) true only for the somatic nervous system.

A

50.
Preganglionic fibers of parasympathetic neurons are present in all of the following cranial nerves, except N
A) III.
B) VII.
C) IX.
D) X.
E) XII.

E

51.
Almost 75 percent of all parasympathetic outflow travels along the
A) splanchnic nerves.
B) facial nerves.
C) vagus nerves.
D) glossopharyngeal nerves.
E) trigeminal nerve.

C

52.
Which of the following is not a parasympathetic ganglion?
A) ciliary ganglion.
B) pterygopalatine ganglion.
C) submandibular ganglion.
D) otic ganglion.
E) celiac ganglion.

E

53.
Parasympathetic functions include all of the following, except
A) decrease in the rate of cardiac contraction.
B) constriction of the pupils.
C) dilation of the airways.
D) stimulation of urination.
E) stimulation of defecation.

C

54.
Postganglionic fibers release neurotransmitter on peripheral effectors
A) at distinct synapses.
B) at pearl-like swellings called varicosities.
C) into capillaries within the target organ.
D) at the end plates.
E) at sympathetic chain ganglia.

B

55.
Which of the following statements concerning the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is false?
A) Preganglionic neurons are located in the brain stem and sacral region of the spinal cord.
B) Ganglionic neurons are located in ganglia within or near to effectors.
C) Preganglionic fibers are relatively short and postganglionic fibers are relatively long.
D) The actions of the parasympathetic division are more localized than those of the sympathetic division.
E) The ganglionic neurons always release acetylcholine.

C

56.
Which of these provides preganglionic parasympathetic innervation to structures in the neck and in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities?
A) vagus nerves
B) sciatic nerves
C) glossopharyngeal nerves
D) pelvic nerves
E) cervicothoracocabdominopelvic nerves

A

57.
Parasympathetic stimulation
A) increases heart rate.
B) increases gastric motility.
C) causes sweat glands to secrete.
D) causes blood vessels in the skin to dilate.
E) causes the pupils to dilate.

B

58.
Intramural ganglia in the digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs are innervated by the ________ nerves.
A) spinal
B) splanchnic
C) chain
D) pelvic
E) collateral

D

59.
The statement "its ganglia are usually near or within the end organ" is
A) true only for the parasympathetic nervous system.
B) true only for the sympathetic nervous system.
C) true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
D) not true for either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems.
E) true only for the somatic nervous system.

A

60.
The statement "its postganglionic axons always use acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter" is
A) true only for the parasympathetic nervous system.
B) true only for the sympathetic nervous system.
C) true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
D) not true for either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems.
E) true only for the somatic nervous system.

A

61.
Sweat glands contain ________ receptors.
A) nicotinic cholinergic
B) muscarinic cholinergic
C) alpha
D) beta
E) adregeneric

B

62.
Nicotinic receptors
A) respond to epinephrine.
B) respond to norepinephrine.
C) open chemically-gated sodium ion channels.
D) are found at neuroeffector junctions of the parasympathetic nervous system.
E) are found at neuroeffector junctions of the sympathetic nervous system.

C

63.
Muscarinic receptors
A) are normally activated by acetylcholine.
B) are found mostly in autonomic ganglia.
C) always produce an excitatory response.
D) control sodium channels in the affected membrane.
E) are blocked by norepinephrine.

A

64.
The statement "Preganglionic axon terminals release acetylcholine" is
A) true only for the parasympathetic nervous system.
B) true only for the sympathetic nervous system.
C) true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
D) not true for either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems.
E) true only for the somatic nervous system.

C

65.
A neuron with nicotinic receptors is exposed to acetylcholine. This will lead to
A) activation of chemically-gated ion channels.
B) excitation of the neuron.
C) entry of sodium ions into the neuron.
D) depolarization of the neuron.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

66.
Drugs that block nicotinic receptors would be
A) sympathomimetic.
B) parasympathomimetic.
C) parasympathetic blocking agents.
D) sympathetic blocking agents.
E) autonomic blocking agents.

E

67.
Parasympathetic blocking agents can be useful in treating
A) heart failure.
B) high blood pressure.
C) urinary incontinence.
D) hyperactivity.
E) All of the answers are correct.

C

68.
Mary accidentally ate poison mushrooms that contain muscarine. What symptoms would you expect to observe?
A) diarrhea
B) salivation
C) very low heart rate
D) sweating
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

69.
Dual innervation refers to an organ receiving
A) two nerves from the spinal cord.
B) both autonomic and somatomotor nerves.
C) both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation.
D) nerves from both the brain and the spinal cord.
E) both sensory and motor nerves.

C

70.
The statement "it controls the diameter of the pupil" is
A) true only for the parasympathetic nervous system.
B) true only for the sympathetic nervous system.
C) true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
D) not true for either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems.
E) true only for the somatic nervous system.

C

71.
Sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers that innervate the heart pass through the
A) celiac plexus.
B) hypogastric plexus.
C) cardiac plexus.
D) sphenopalatine ganglia.
E) otic ganglia.

C

72.
Control of the diameter of the respiratory passages depends upon
A) sympathetic stimulation only.
B) parasympathetic stimulation only.
C) somatomotor stimulation only.
D) both parasympathetic and sympathetic levels of stimulation.
E) sensory receptors sensitive to changes in lung ventilation.

D

73.
Autonomic tone is an important aspect of ANS function because it
A) allows ANS neurons to be silent under normal conditions.
B) allows ANS neurons to increase activity on demand but not decrease their activity.
C) allows ANS neurons to decrease their activity on demand but not increase their activity.
D) allows ANS neurons to increase or decrease their activity, providing a range of control options.
E) provides for a narrow range of control options that keeps target tissues constantly active.

D

74.
A decrease in the autonomic tone of the smooth muscle in a blood vessel would result in
A) no change in vessel diameter.
B) a decrease in vessel diameter.
C) oscillation in vessel diameter.
D) a decrease in blood flow through the vessel.
E) an increase in blood flow through the vessel.

E

75.
In general, autonomic tone of peripheral blood vessels increases when
A) sympathetic stimulation is increased.
B) sympathetic stimulation is decreased.
C) parasympathetic stimulation is increased.
D) parasympathetic stimulation is decreased.
E) somatomotor stimulation is increased.

A

76.
Which of the following is an example of a visceral reflex?
A) defecation reflex
B) vomiting reflex
C) pupillary reflex
D) ejaculation in response to tactile stimuli
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

77.
Which of the following visceral reflexes is not coordinated by the medulla oblongata?
A) swallowing reflex
B) vasomotor reflex
C) coughing reflex
D) cardioacceleratory reflex
E) pupillary reflex

E

78.
Which of the following would be an example of higher-level control of autonomic function?
A) gagging on food that does not appeal to you
B) a violent coughing attack in response to an irritant
C) increased heart rate when you see a person you fear
D) dilation of the pupils when you enter a dark room
E) increased salivation when you smell food that appeals to you

C

79.
Which of the following is essential for memory consolidation?
A) occipital lobe
B) basal nuclei
C) hippocampus
D) insula
E) prefrontal lobe

C

80.
Mechanisms involved in memory formation and storage involve all of the following, except
A) increased release of neurotransmitters.
B) anterograde amnesia.
C) formation of additional synaptic connections.
D) the formation of memory engrams.
E) facilitation at synapses.

B

81.
Long-term memories that are with you for a lifetime are called
A) tertiary memories.
B) reflexive memories.
C) consolidated memories.
D) multilobar memories.
E) secondary memories.

A

82.
Conversion of a short-term memory to a long-term memory is called
A) memory conversion.
B) anterograde amnesia.
C) memory programming.
D) memory consolidation.
E) memory engraving.

D

83.
The conscious state is maintained by the
A) prefrontal lobes.
B) general interpretive area.
C) limbic system.
D) reticular activating system.
E) nucleus gracilis.

D

84.
Based on stimulation studies, the "headquarters" of the reticular activating system appears to be based in the
A) medulla.
B) pons.
C) midbrain.
D) diencephalon.
E) cerebrum.

C

85.
A state of unconsciousness in which an individual can be aroused by normal stimuli is
A) somnolence.
B) sleep.
C) stupor.
D) coma.
E) a chronic vegetative state.

B

86.
A state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be aroused even by strong stimuli is
A) somnolence.
B) sleep.
C) stupor.
D) coma.
E) a chronic vegetative state.

D

87.
The brain waves produced by normal adults while resting with their eyes closed are ________ waves.
A) alpha
B) beta
C) theta
D) delta
E) gamma

A

88.
In deep sleep,
A) the EEG pattern is characterized as "slow wave."
B) cerebral activity is paradoxically high.
C) rapid eye movements speed up.
D) rapid eye movements are maintained at normal levels.
E) cerebral activity is paradoxically high and rapid eye movements speed up.

A

89.
After arousal by a sensory stimulus, consciousness can be maintained by positive feedback, because of activity in the
A) cerebral cortex.
B) basal nuclei.
C) sensory pathways.
D) motor pathways.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

90.
The regulation of awake-asleep cycles appears to involve an interplay between brain stem nuclei that use different neurotransmitters. The one that favors alertness is ________ and the other promoting deep sleep is ________.
A) acetylcholine; serotonin
B) serotonin; norepinephrine
C) norepinephrine; serotonin
D) dopamine; GABA
E) glutamate; serotonin

C

91.
Hallucinogenic drugs, such as LSD, function by
A) stimulating receptors for norepinephrine.
B) blocking acetylcholine receptors.
C) increasing the production of GABA.
D) stimulating serotonin receptors.
E) mimicking the action of dopamine.

D

92.
The inherited brain disorder Huntington's disease is caused by the destruction of basal nuclei that use different neurotransmitters. One neurotransmitter is ________ and the other is ________.
A) acetylcholine; serotonin
B) serotonin; norepinephrine
C) norepinephrine; serotonin
D) acetylcholine; GABA
E) glutamate; serotonin

D

93.
What mental illness is often improved by drugs that block serotonin re-uptake?
A) agitation
B) hallucinations
C) depression
D) Parkinson's
E) Huntington's

C

94.
An age-related decline in mental function characterized by difficulties with spatial orientation, memory, language, and personality is called
A) delirium agitans.
B) senile dementia.
C) persistent vegetative state.
D) somnolence of the aged.
E) progressive cerebral dysfunction.

B

95.
Changes in the central nervous system that accompany aging include
A) reduction in brain size and weight.
B) decrease in the number of neurons.
C) decreased blood flow to the brain.
D) changes in synaptic organization in the brain.
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

96.
Alzheimer disease is characterized by all of the following, except that it
A) is the most common cause of senile dementia.
B) is characterized by a progressive loss of memory.
C) has a clear genetic basis.
D) is associated with the formation of plaques and neurofibrillary tangles.
E) may be associated with damage to the nucleus basalis.

C

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