Chapter 9 - The Evolving Internet

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Active Server Pages (ASP)

Common server-side programming languages

application server

a common type of Internet server that stores PC office applications, databases, or other applications and makes them available to client programs that request them

application service provider (ASP)

a company that manages and delivers application services on a contract basis

content-management system (CMS)

a software development system that enables adding or updating text, images, and other Web site content without coding in HTML or using a Web authoring program

cookie

small files deposited on a user's hard disk by Web sites, enabling sites to remember what they know about their visitors between sessions

cyberspace

a term used to describe the Internet and other online networks, especially the artificial realities and virtual communities that form on them. First coined by William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer.

data-driven Web site

a Web site that can display dynamic, changeable content withouth having constantly redesigned pages, due to an evolving database that separates the site's content from its design

digital divide

a term that describes the divide between the people who do an do not have access to the Internet.

domain name system (DNS)

a system that translates a computer's numerical IP address into an easier-to-remember string of names separated by dots

dynamic IP address

an IP address tha is assigned to a device when it connects to the Internet; when that device disconnects from the Internet, the IP address may be reused

email server

a specialized server that acts like a local post office for a particular Internet host

file server

in a LAN, a computer used as a storehouse for software and data that are shared by several users

file transfer protocol (FTP)

a communications protocol that enables users to download files from remote servers to their computers and to upload files they want to share from their computers to these archives

filtering software

software that, for the most part, keeps offensive and otherwise inappropriate Web content from being viewed by children, on-duty workers, and others

HTML (HyperText Markup Language)

an HTML document is a text file that includes codes that describe the format, layout, and logical structure of a hypermedia document. Most Web pages are created with HTML.

Internet service provider (ISP)

a business that provides its customers with connections to the Internet along with other services

internetworking

connecting different types of networks and computer systems

Java

a platform-neutral, object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems for use on multiplatform networks

Javascript

an interpreted scripting language, similar to but otherwise unrelated to Java, that enables Web page designers to add scripts to HTML code

net neutrality

the principle that Internet access should be free from restrictions related to the type of equipment being connected and the type of communication being performed with that equipment

open standards

standards not owned by any company

packet-switching

the standard technique used to send information over the Internet. A message is broken into packets that travel independently from network to network toward their common destination, where they are reunited

plug-ins

a software extension that adds new features

pull technology

technology in which browsers on client computers pull information from server machines. The browser needs to initiate a request before any information is delivered.

push technology

technology in which information is delivered automatically to a client computer. The user subscribes to a service, and the server delivers that information periodically and unobtrusively

RSS

an XML-based format for sharing data with aggregators, commonly used by bloggers

static IP address

an IP address assigned semipermanently to a particular device connected to the Internet

streaming audio

sound files that play without being completely downloaded to the local hard disk

streaming video

video clip files that play while being downloaded

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

protocols developed as an experiment in internetworking, now the language of the Internet, allowing cross-network communication for almost every type of computer and network

URL (uniform resource locator)

the address of a Web site

Web authoring software

Programs such as Adobe's Dreamweaver that work like desktop publishing page layout programs to allow users to create, edit, and manage Web pages and sites without having to write HTML code

Web portal

a Web site designed as a Web entry station, offering quick and easy access to a variety of services

Web server

a server that stores Web pages and sends them to client programs - Web browsers - that request them

World Wide Web (Web)

Part of the Internet, a collection of multimedia documents created by organizations and users worldwide. Documents are linked in a hypertext Web that allows users to explore them with simple mouse clicks

XML (eXtensible Markup Language)

a programming language for Web sites that includes all of HTML's features plus many additional programming extensions. XML enables Web developers to control and display data the way they control text and graphics

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