## Physics Exam Vocab. Semester 2 - Korb

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##### Created by:

lane3010  on May 8, 2012

##### Classes:

Pace Class of 2015

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# Physics Exam Vocab. Semester 2 - Korb

 average speedThe distance traveled divided by the time taken, s = d/t; measured in units such as meters per second or miles per hour.
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#### Definitions

average speed The distance traveled divided by the time taken, s = d/t; measured in units such as meters per second or miles per hour.
vector A quantity with a magnitude and a direction. Examples are displacement, velocity, acceleration, momentum, and force.
inertia An object's resistance to a change in its velocity.
mass inertial mass, gravitational mass, critical mass, center of mass, measured in kilograms
Newton's second law of motion The net force on an object is equal to its mass times its acceleration" F(net) = ma. The net force and the acceleration are vectors that always point in the same direction.
static friction The frictional force between two surfaces at rest relative to each other. This force is equal and opposite to the net applied force if the fore is not large enough to make the object acceleration.
terminal speed The speed obtained in free fall when the upward force of air resistance is equal to the downward force of gravity.
weight The support force needed to maintain an object at rest relative to a reference system. For inertial system, the weight is the force of attraction of Earth for an object, W = mg.
centripetal force The force on an object directed toward the center of its circular path. For uniform circular motion, it has a magnitude mv^2/r.
machine a device that changes the force or increases the motion from work
simple machine a machine that does work with only one movement of the machine (lever, pulley, wheel, axle, incline plane, screw, wedge)
efficiency the ratio of output work to input work, measured in percent
mechanical advantage the ratio of the output force to input force
energy the ability to cause change
kinetic energy energy due to motion
potential energy energy that is stored due to the interactions between objects
mechanical energy the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy of the objects in a system
power the rate at which energy is converted
law of universal gravitation F = G,1,2/r^2, where F is the force between any two objects, G is a universal constant, m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects, and r is the distance between their centers.
wave a repeating disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space
medium matter through which a wave travels; can be a solid, liquid, gas, or a combination
transverse wave particles in the medium moves back and forth at right angles to the direction that the wave travels, move up and down
compression the more dense region of a longitudinal wave
wavelength the distance between one point on a wave and the nearest point just like it
frequency the number of wavelengths that pass a fixed point each second
amplitude a measure of the size of the disturbance from a wave
refraction the bending of a wave caused by a change in its speed as it travels from one medium to another
diffraction the bending of a wave around an object
node a location where the interfering waves always cancel, they always stay in the same place on a rope while the wave pattern vibrates between them
projectile motion A type of motion that occurs near Earth's surface when the only force acting on the object is that of gravity.
cochlea a spiral-shaped structure that is filled with liquid and contains tiny hair cells, located in the inner ear
loudness the human perception of sound volume and primarily depends on sound intensity
decibel abbreviated dB, a unit of sound intensity
acoustics the study of sound
ultrasound sound with a frequency above 20,000 Hz and cannot be heard by humans
translucent transmits light but also scatters it, you can't see clearly through it and objects appear blurry
filter a transparent material that selectively transmits light
pigment a colored material that is used to change the color of other substances, its color results from the different wavelengths of light that it reflects
coherent light light of only one wavelength that travels in one direction with a constant distance between the corresponding crests of the waves
holography complete 3D photo of an image, a laser being split into 2 beams (1. illuminate the image and reflect it onto film 2. directed at film), difficult to copy

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