Chapter 15 Nutrition

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21 terms · By: Tyler Nakamura Mr. Komo Anatomy/Physiology Makua Lani Christian School

Nutrition

Foods that we eat

Metabolism

The use the body makes of digested and absorbed foods

Catabolism

The break down of foods

Anabolism

Restructure of a larger molecule

Liver (role in nutrition)

Serves to mechanically digest lipids. Metabolism of all 3 kinds of foods. Detoxifies poisonous substances. Stores vitamins A and D

Carbs that are broken down into glucose (3 reactions)

Glycolysis: glucose-pyruvic acid
Citric acid cycle: Pyruvic acid-CO2
Electron transfer: transports released energy

Glucose anabolism

Otherwise known as glycogenesis. This is used to store extra glucose

Insulin

Helps regulate glucose level in blood

Fat catabolism/metabolism

Performed if glucose amount is low

Protein catabolism/metabolism

Performed if it is the only source of energy (starvation or those with eating disorders)

Protein anabolism

Arranging amino acids into necessary groups

Essential and nonessential foods

Essential foods must be in the diet while non essential foods can be made by the body.

Vitamins

Needed in small amounts for normal metabolism

Fat soluble vitamins

A, D, E and K

Water soluble vitamins

C and B

Minerals

Inorganic elements or salts that serve the same function as vitamins

Basal metabolic rate

Rate at which food is catabolized at rest (but awake). Also known as BMR

Total metabolic rate

Total amount of energy used by the body every day. If you intake more calories than your TMR, you gain weight.

Body temperature (its role in nutrition)

60% of energy from food is used to keep homeostasis

The role of skin in nutrition

Skin helps with homeostasis by a negative feedback loop

4 ways that heat can be lost

Radiation: flow of heat away from blood
Conduction: transfer to external environment
Convection: transfer to air
Evaporation: absorption by water

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