How were European encounters in East Asia shaped by the worldviews of both Europeans and Asians?
Asians were continuously trying to trade and explore foreign lands, but they always wanted to only take some influence. However, European influence seeped into Asian countries more often than the Asians would have expected or wanted. However, when governments tried to put up rules and treaties, illegal trade and other events started to occur. Once the foreign contact was started, it would not be completely ceased.
Describe European contacts with Ming China.
The Chinese government wanted to trade goods between Europe and China, but did not want complete influence from the outsiders. The Chinese wanted the products, but not the people or influences. The government conducted controlled trade, but illegal trade was still occurring. The Portuguese and the Chinese traded at Macao, near Canton...eventually the Dutch, English and other Europeans started trading there as well.
Why did Ming China demand that Europeans pay for goods with gold or silver?
Silver was used to pay taxes to the government and for larger trading transactions (worth more than copper). China also needed silver for its monetary system, but it did not come from China. The Chinese had to buy Japanese silver that the Portuguese brought on their ships. Britain had to purchase their silver from European countries. In order to trade with Europeans and the rest of the West, the Chinese needed silver. Actually, the disruption of silver flowing from Japan and the Western hemisphere helped lead to the fall of the Ming because of the uneven balance of trade.
Understand the Manchu conquest and its impact on European trade.
Manchu had a very reactive military (entire empire was militarized) so when the Ming had internal problems, series of weak rulers, corrupt gov, ineffective administrations due to ineffective emperors, Manchus we able to conquest when the Ming was falling. The Manchus came from the North in Manchuria. European trade connections that the Ming had made were continued in the Manchu, China's economy prospered and expanded until the Opium War. However, China banned foreign trade in all places but in the port of Canton during the trading season of October-March. The Canton System helped the Chinese control foreign trade especially since they did not want much from the Europeans, but silk, tea, and porcelain was wanted from the Chinese.
How did the Qing respond to Britain's diplomatic mission?
Lord Macartney disliked the rule of trading at Canton and wanted a direct increase in trading between China and Britain. He even hoped to impress the Chinese by bringing ships filled with gifts including paintings, house supplies, globes, and clocks. The letter he brought was written in Chinese as well. However, none of this worked and Lord Macartney's mission was a failure. The Qing had no interest and saw no merit in opening diplomatic relations with Britain for trade.
Analyze the factors that led Korea to isolate itself from other nations.
Korea wanted to keep isolated because of the previous invasions they had be destroyed by. In the 1500s, Japanese invaded: The Koreans had to make "turtle ships" that could sail straight into the Japanese ships, Japan finally withdrew, but Korea was still left devastated; economy, politics, and culture/society. In the 1630s, the Manchus invaded, short but horrible: some Koreans were taken away and captives and many farming land was destroyed.
What was Korea's main reason for choosing isolation?
Too many devastating invasions. "Hermit Kingdom" was their new nickname because of the adopting of a policy of isolation. Korea had not been touched by Europeans and it stayed that way, along with other Asian countries until the 19th century.
Summarize Japan's attitudes toward foreign trade and how they changed over time.
Reaction of Japanese w/ America was different than Korea and China. Tokugawa Japan had great order and peace, which helped it when modernization and foreign influences were at a height in the near future. Japan welcomed relationships with Europe. However, the Japanese still saw them as barbarian and through that their culture, lack of hygiene and other parts of society were crude. Trade with the Portuguese started in 1543 which was the beginning of the Naban Period (Japanese ventured in the beginning, but this would change in the near future).
How was Japan's path to isolation different?
Japan called the European traders "southern barbarians" after a Portuguese ship landed on their shores. The Japanese even allowed Christian influence and conversation from the Western Catholic and Protestant missionaries till the 17th century. Rather than completely isolating themselves at first and only letting in small amounts of foreign influence, the Japanese seemed to accept the Europeans at first and then cut them off. This ending of influence was abrupt and sudden.
Why did the Tokugawas turn against the Europeans?
In 1639, The "Sakoku" Policy was introduced. This policy meant that Japan was a closed country. The Port of Nagasaki was the only place where any trade or contact with outside merchants (Europe and other Asian Countries) could interact. The Japanese could not travel either. Japanese were kept in and not allowed to practice Christianity, any prior foreigners were forced out of Japan. The government enforced this, Christians were massacred, but some influences were still taken from the outside including Western science (technology and medicine).
An area where foreigners could trade with China, called Macao during the Ming. Canton was under supervision by imperial officials. Canton was supposed the be the only area where foreigners could trade since it was supervised by government, but illegal trading ending up happening up and down the coast regardless. At one time, this was the only port of China that allowed trade with foreigners.
Italian Jesuit priest who was the first missionary allowed in China during the Ming. He learned Chinese language and adopted customs, which the Ming court thought was intelligent...He was not successful though at converting the Chinese to Christianity, especially the educated.
Came from the north in Manchuria and invaded China in 1644, which led to the collapse of the Ming Dynasty. They created the Qing dynasty and once again declared the Mandate of Heaven as well. They had an interesting government where each top government official consisted of one from the Manchu, and one from the Han. The Manchu ruled by having separate troops across China, but the government was still mainly controlled by the Han directly.
Ruled until 1911. Dynasty that Manchus created after taking over Bejing. The Qing had an integrated bureaucracy and included all hierarchy in different positions, they based it on merit. The only problem was that in order to learn information for the examination system...you still had to have some sort of funding through wealth. It was a state ruled by the "elite" commoners.
1736-1796. The "Universal Ruler" To each different ethnic group, he portrayed himself in their light. (Han: dedicated to Chinese art and a scholar. Tibetans: reincarnation of a buddhist ruler. Mongols: steppe prince) Started integration with Korea and small states of Southeast Asia. Qianlong brought about a time in Chinese history where China dominated all of East Asia in military, culture, and politics...grew in size as well. National Palace museums in Beijing and Taipei, where he sent collections of Chinese paintings and artifacts.
Sent by Britain to open up direct diplomatic relations within trade in China. His mission failed.