brothers and sisters of the common life
a group in the Netherlands that developed outside the traditional church. They practiced modern devotion, which means men and women lived separate. They took no vows and could leave whenever they wanted. Teachings emphasized humility tolerance and duty.
Christian based thinkers and writers who were more spiritual in their outlook, less materialistic, and more focused on questions of morality and ethics.
created the dome whichis one of the most influential innovations in Renaissance architecture
the northern Renaissance religious way of thinking, which said that individuals could commune with God without the church
powerful ruling families who politically united large parts of northern Europe. Henry VII became the first Tudor monarch of England in 1485 after the war of the roses. The Valois monarchy of France established control over most of the countryside in the 1400s. The French king could tax his subjects without Parliamentary consent and appoint bishops. The habsburgs, the powerful ruling family of Spain, controlled low countries including Austria.
a royal court, established by Henry VII of England, for offending nobility. Conducted without jury