|Long Range transport of dust aerosols over the arabian sea and indian region - a case study using satellite data and ground-base measurements|| K.V.S. Badarinath, Shailesh Kumar Kharol, D.G. Kaskaoutis, Anu Rani Sharma, V. Ramaswamy, H.D. Kambezidis |
Global and Planetary Change 72 (2010) 164-181
| Ichoku et al, 2004|
Ichoku, C., Kaufman, Y.J., remer, L.A., Levy, R., 2004. Global aeroosl remote sensing from MODIS. Adv. Space Res. 34, 820-827
|Although the steady population growth within south Asia has negatively affected air pollution due to increased anthropogenic emissions, mineral dust and smoke from dust storms and local biomass burning, respectively, also impact air quality.|
|Liu et al., 2008; Papadimas et al., 2008|
Liu, Z., Omar, A., Vaughan, M., Hair, J., Kittaka, C., Hu, Y., Powell, K., Trepte, C., Winker, d., Hostetler, C., Ferrare, R., Pierce, R., 2008. CALIPSO lidar observations of the optical properties of Saharan dust: a case study of long-range transport. J. Geophys. Res. Vol. 113, D07207. doi: 10.1029/2007jD008878, 2008.
|ground based measurments tend to be limited in space and time satellite modeling is a viable option for overcoming this limitation.|
| Papadimas et al., 2008|
Papadimas, C.D., Hatzianastassiou, N., Mihalopoulos, N., Querol X., Vardavas, I., 2008. Spatial ad temporal variability of aerosol properties over Mediterranean basin based on 6 years (2000-2006) MODIS data. J. Geophys. Res. 113, D11205 doi: 10.1029/2005JD 009189.
|satallite modeling is needed and a viable option as ground based measurments tend to be limited in space and time.|
|Kaufman et al., 2002; Tegen, 2003; Huang et al, 2006, Slingo et al, 2006 (Badarinath)||Large dust storms within the western Asia deserts emit significant quantities of mineral dust into the atmosphere. Dust comprises a significant proportion of tropospheric aerosol loading and is key to understanding climate aerosol-forcing.|
|Washington et al, 2003||Radiative forcing caused by dust particles, particulary, mineral dust, is not well understood. This is primarily due to non-sphericity and varying chemical compositions.|
| Mahowald et al, 2005|
Mahowald, N., Baker, A, Bergametti, G., Brooks, N., Duce R., Jickells, T., Kubilay, N., Prospero, J., Tegen, I., 2005. Atmospheric global dust cycle and iron iputs to the ocean. Global biogeochem. Cycles Vol.19 (No.4), GB4025. doi:10.1029/2004GB002402.
|Particle size, shape, and mineralogy, representative of local source regions) determines the impacts of mineral dust.|
|Moulin et al., 1998; Badarinath et al., 2007a; Kaskaoutis et al., 2008)||Remote sensing is an established method for detecting and mapping dust events due to the high spatial variability of dust plumes characteristics along its transport.|
|Washington et al., 2003; Alpert et al., 2004; Bullard et al., 2008, Baddock et al., 2009||Remote sensing has been used to identify dust-source locations with a varying degree of success.|
|Mahowald et al, 2007||The ability of satellite data to detect dust plumes are limited by the density of the plume, its radiative properties, local terrain, cloud presence, and algoriths used with the model. Therefore, dust monitoring is better acheived by the combined use of remote sensing and surface meteorological data, such as wind speed and visibility.|
|Goudie and Middleton, 2001; Engelstaedter et al., 2006)||Dust aerosols effect visibility, the radiative balance in the Earth-atmosphere system, and result in biological and ecological effects|
|NOAA Report, 86||Dust and sand storms are a persistent problem in Iraq and other areas in the middle east and are more prevalent in the spring and summer months due to the Shamal Winds.|
|Badarinath et al (2010)||Shamal winds are caused by a wave of high pressure that funnels through the persian gulf between Saudi Arabia and Iran, and are the most hazardous weather conditions in the region. It is characterized as a combination of two separate weather systesm: the sub-tropical jet stream pushing up sourth of the Arabian peninsula and a polar front jet stream pushing southward from the European continent causing the strong shamal wids. |
Theses regions are characterized by numerous river-fedendorheic basins. Due to dams and diversion of water for agriculture uses, the lakes have signifcantly decreased in size ad the dired up lake beds are now major sources of eolian dust in south asia.
|Baddock et al., 2009||Mineral and desert dust can be detected via satellite observations in the ultraviolet (0.315-0.4um) via absorption, visible (0.38-0.79) via scattering and thermal infrared via contrasting land/aerosol emissivity.|