Physical science chapter 11

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a major use for use for water in the average home is for

toilets

freshwater is obtained from

streams, lakes and rivers

a molecule with a positive end and a negative end is called a

polar molecule

the material present in a solution in the largest amount is the

solvent

fluids that mix in any proportion without separating into phases are said to be

miscible

the relative amount of solute and solvent in a solution is defined as the

concentration

a solution with a state of equilibrium between the dissolving solute coming of solution is

saturated

the solubility of most ionic salts in water

increases with temperature

ionic substances that dissolve in water and conduct an electric current are called

electrolytes

the temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to the average atmospheric pressure at sea level

normal boiling point

the temperature at which a liquid undergoes a phase change too the solid state at a normal pressure is the

freezing point

all of the following are electrolytes

acids, salts and bases

some covalent compounds, such as HCl become electrolytes through the process of

ionization

properties of acids include

sour taste, reacts with active metals to generate hydrogen gas and changes litmus from blue to red

what is an acid when it is dissolved in water?

proton donor

properties of of bases include

changes red litmus to blue, slippery to touch and bitter taste

the pH scale is based on the concentration of what in solution

hydronium ions

the products produced in a neutralization reaction are

salt and water

which of the following is not a solution?

sand

atmospheric air is homogenous mixture of gases that is mostly nitrogen gas. The nitrogen is therefore the,

solvent

a homogenous mixture is made up of 95 percent alcohol and 5 percent water. In this case, the water is the

solute

the solution concentration terms of parts per million, percent by volume, and percent by weight are concerned with the amount of

solute in solution

if a salt solution has a salinity of 40 parts per thousand what is the equivalent percentage measure?

4 percent

a salt solution has solid salt on the bottom of the container, and salt is dissolving at the same rate that it is coming out of solution. You know the solution is

a saturated solution

as the temperature of water decreases, the solubility of carbon dioxide gas in the water

increases

at what temperature does water have the greatest density?

4 degrees celsius

an example of a hydrogen bond is a weak to moderate bond between

a hydrogen atom of one polar molecule and an oxygen atom of another polar molecule

a certain solid salt is insoluble in water, so the strongest force must be the

ion- ion force

ionization occurs upon solution of

some polar molecules

adding sodium chloride to water raises the boiling point of water because

sodium chloride ions occupy space at the water surface

the ice that forms in freezing seawater is

pure water

salt solutions freeze at a lower temperature than pure water because

ions get in the way of water molecules trying to form ice

solutions of acids, bases, and salts have what in common?

all have ions

when a solution of an acid and a bade are mixed together,

a salt and water are formed, they lose their acid and base properties and both are neutralized

a substances that ionizes completely into hydronium is known as a

strong acid

a scale of values that express the hydronium ion concentration of a solution is known as

the pH scale

substance A has a pH of 2 and substance B has a pH of 3. This means that

substance A is 10 times more acidic that substance B

water is a

polar covalent compound

the heat of fusion, specific heat, and heat of vaporization od water are high compared to similar substances such as hydrogen sulfide because

hydrogen bonds form between water molecules

salt is spread on icy roads because it

lowers the freezing point of water

hard water is a solution of

Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions

A solution has a pHof 9. This means that the solution is

basic

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