Anatomy 230 Questions for last exam #6, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, & Reproductive Systems

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The MAIN FUNCTION of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM is to supply 02 to the body & eliminate C02 from the body.
In order to accomplish this task, the respiratory system must work in conjunction with the cardiovascular system


What are 5 functions of the Respiratory system?
(think: VDGPP)

The 5 functions of the Respiratory system are (VDGPP):

1. VENTILATION = moving the air; air is warmed, humidified & filtered.(this is different than gas exchange)
2. DEFEND respiratory system from pathogens.
3. GAS EXCHANGE = 02 & C02 (going back & forth across the alveolar capillary interface)
4. ph REGULATION of blood = exhalation of C02
5. PERMIT vocal communication

Gas exchange is 02 & C02 going back & forth across the alveolar capillary interface?
(and gas exchange is different than ventilation)


pH regulation of blood is done through exhalation of CO2?


If you hold your breath, which way does you pH go: does your pH go up or down?

When you hold your breath, your pH goes DOWN!

What happens to your pH when you hyper ventilate (breathing in & out really fast)?

When you hyper ventilate, your pH goes UP!

Ventilation is just moving the air in & out?

(ventilation is different than gas exchange)

True! Ventilation is moving air by inhaling and exhaling.

In the upper respiratory tract:
Air entering the body is filtered, warmed and humidified by ________?


(Ventilation of air is breathing in and out which causes movement of air from the environment towards the alveoli)

What type of zone is this:
The Ventilation of air (movement of air from the environment towards the alveoli), humidifes and cleans air in this zone & it STARTS at the "environment" level and ENDS at the terminal bronchioles" is what type of ZONE? CONDUCTION zone or

Conduction Zone

Is there gas exchange going in the CONDUCTION ZONE?

NO! There is NO gas exchange going on in the conduction zone.

Where does the CONDUCTION ZONE end?

the conduction zone starts in the environment and

The respiratory zone is where the actual gas exchange is occurring at the Alveoli?

The respiratory zone is where the gas exchange is occurring at the alveoli!

The RESPIRATORY ZONE STARTS just AFTER the respiratory bronchioles and it occurs where the gas exchange happens at the "ALVEOLI" ?


Where does the respiratory zone start?

The respiratory zone starts after the RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLES.

(The bronchioles all have simple cubidal epithelial tissue)

Where does the CONDUCTION ZONE end/terminate?

TERMINAL BRONCHIOLE = end of conduction zone

(bronchioles have simple cuboidal)

"Respiration" refers to the overall exchange of gases between the atmosphere, blood & cells.

Respiration involves 3 processes
1. Pulmonary ventilation
2. External respiration
3. Internal respiration


If you inhale something (like food or candy) & it went down the wrong pipe, which LUNG would it probably go into?

If you inhale something, it will usually go into the RIGHT LUNG.

(the Right bronchus is a little bit more large and its a
straighter shot into the Right lung)

What is the function of the epiglottis?

During swallowing, the EPIGLOTTIS folds over the GLOTTIS, preventing food or liquids from entering the respiratory passageways!

Does the epiglottis keep the food from going down the wrong pipe when you are swallowing?


Does PSCC line the majority of the respiratory tract?

Yes! Respiratory tract lining = PSCC

Is PSCC one layer deep or more than one layer?

PSCC is just ONE LAYER; it just looks like more layers)

What is the connective tissue layer in the RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM?

LAMINA PROPRIA is the C.T. Layer in the Respiratory Epithelium.

Epithelium & Lamina Propria = MUCOUS MEMBRANE

What kind of epithelial tissue is in the TRACHEA?

Trachea = PSCC

PSCC (pseudostratified ciliated comulmnar epithelium) with many goblet cells; has cilia on it!
*It produces mucus to trap foreign particles.

What is the Cilia doing in the TRACHEA?

The trachea is inferior to the pharynx.
So, the CILIA in the TRACHEA "SWEEPS" debris UP to be swallowed at pharynx.
There is cilia there; so the mucus is on top of the cilia and then it sweeps it up & out to be either
expectorated or swallowed = MUCUS ESCULATOR.

What is the mucus escalator?

The MUCUS ESCULATOR is present in the Trachea where the cilia of the respiratory epithelium SWEEP UP toward the pharynx, cleaning the respiratory passageways.

(The trachea is inferior to the pharynx; so think an elevator moves things UP = mucus elevator!)

With SMOKERS, PSCC develops into STRATIFIED LAYERS due to exposure to carcinogens & causes the cells to divide and can lead to cancer.


Is the Nose the PRIMARY AIRWAY for respiration?

Yes, the NOSE (naval cavity) is the PRIMARY AIRWAY for respiration!

Air normally enters through external nares through nasal vestibule into nasal cavity.

What are the 5 functions of the NOSE (nasal cavity)?

5 functions of the NOSE (Naval Cavity) are:

1. Primary airway for respiration.
2. Moistens & warms air
3. Filters inhaled air (mucus)
4. Resonating chamber for speech
5. Houses olfactory receptors

The nasal cavity has a respiratory area with 3 nasal Conchae; what are the 3 names?

3 Nasal Conchae regions:

1. Superior Conchae
2. Middle Conchae
3. Inferior Conchae

***the grooves in between are called the meati

*narrow grooves and conchal surface (of the ethmoid bone)

What is the function of the nasal Conchae?

The Conchae causes turbulence in the inspired air.
Turbulent airflow is essential to the filtration, humidification & warming of air; this protects more delicate regions of the lower respiration system.

What is this cavity called?
There are superior, middle & inferior meati (conchae); they create narrow grooves & are the conchal surfaces of the Ethmoid Bone, what is this cavity called?


What opens into the nasal cavity & contains nose hairs?

External Nares

What DIVIDES the nasal cavity and the oral cavity?

The HARD PALATE DIVIDES the nasal & oral cavity!

Names the 3 parts of the PHARYNX?

3 parts of the Pharynx:


What is between the Nasal Cavity & Nasopharynx?


The internal nares are just an imaginary line that is between the nasal cavity & nasopharynx.

The PHARYNX is shared by the DIGESTIVE & RESPIRATORY systems?


Because the Pharynx is shared by both these systems; there is Stratified Squamous for protection
because food goes there!)

(The Oropharynx & Laryngopharynx are the parts of the PHARYNX that are shared)

There are 3 parts to the pharynx but....
**Which 2 parts of the Pharynx are for protection and share a passageway for food & air?

The 2 parts of the pharynx for protection & share a passageway for food & air are the:

Oropharynx & Laryngopharynx

(what kind of epithelial tissue are both lined with for protection? STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM for protection!)

Just know to locate area in case he puts tape on there:
where is the laryngopharynx located?

laryngopharynx includes:
the portion lying between the HYOID BONE and the ENTRANCE to the ESOPHAGUS

What are the 2 types of TONSILS in the OROPHARYNX?

The 2 types of tonsils in the Oropharynx are:

1. Palatine tonsils
2. Lingual tonsils

What is this called?

It is from the soft palate to the epiglottis and it has stratified squamous epithelium; this is called?


(Orotharynx is linded with Stratified Squamous epithelium)

Know area in case he puts tape on it:

What is this called?
It is from internal nares to Uvula, only an air passageway, closed off during swallowing, has pharyngeal tonsils & contains the opening to the Eustachian (auditory) tube is the _________?


(Nasopharynx is lined with PSCC epithelium)

Know area in case he puts tape on it:

What is this called?
This is located between the HYOID & entrance to the ESOPHAGUS, has a passageway for both food & air and continues with esophagus & larynx.


(Laryngopharynx is lined with Stratified Squamous epithelium)

Where is the opening to the EUSTACHIAN (auditory) TUBE?


(nasopharynx is lined with PSCC epithelium)

LARYNX: (aka: your "voice box" because it contains the vocal cords).
The Larynx is an air passageway made of many pieces of cartilage, name them.

Larynx has many pieces of cartilage :
(1) Epiglottis
(1)Thyroid cartilage
(1) Cricoid cartilage
(2) Arytenoid = (on posterior looks like an "A")
(2) Corniculate = (on posterior & it looks like candy
corn on model)

**Anywhere you see cartilage; there is PSCC underneath it. There is also some stratified squamous squamous there as well!

The LENGTH & THICKNESS of the VOCAL CORDS (aka: FOLDS) helps determine the sounds of one's voice?


*TRUE Vocal Cord = Vocal fold
*FALSE Vocal Cord = Vestibular fold

The Trachea starts below the larynx and ends at Carina (is betweenC6 to T5)?

Trachea is inferior to the larynx. The trachea starts at C6 and ends T5 at the Carina.

The cartilages reinforcing the trachea are
C-shaped rings rather than complete circular rings!

How does this shape facilitate swallowing while still protecting the TRACHEA?

The tracheal cartilages are C-shaped to allow room for the esophageal expansion when large portions of food or liquid are swallowed.

The TRACHEA has C-RINGS of cartilage and the POSTERIOR WALL DISTORTS allowing food passage through esophagus?


The trachea's posterior walls can distort because it has SMOOTH MUSCLE connected to each end of the C-Rings of cartilage = called the TRACHEALIS MUSCLE

Is the Carina the important landmark that marks the END of the TRACHEA?

Yes! The END of the TRACHEA = CARINA

(Think: Carina wears a bikini; the end of the trachea looks like a bikini before it splits into Right & Left
Primary Bronchi)

TheTrachea is a tough but flexible "windpipe" and is attached to the Cricoid cartilage & the TRACHEA is anterior to the esophagus.


(the esophagus is located directly posterior to the TRACHEA!)

The Trachea has "C - shaped" rings of hyline cartilage protecting airway allowing for swallowing?


The C shaped cartilage does not go all the way around the trachea, so it is a C shape ring.

What would you name the smooth muscle on the TRACHEA?

TRACHEALIS MUSCLE = smooth muscle around the Trachea.

(It runs across the posterior wall of the Trachea connecting ends of tracheal cartilage).

How are trachea cartilages involved in respiration?

Tracheal cartilages prevent the overexpansion or collapse of the airways during respiration, thereby keeping the airway open and functional.

Can you distinguish the RIGHT primary Bronchus from the LEFT primary Bronchus?

The RIGHT PRIMARY BRONCHUS has a larger diameter, and it extends toward the lung at a steeper angle!

All the BRONCHI have cartilage around them:
*Right & Left Primary Bronchi
*Secondary Bronchi (Lobar)
*Tertiary Bronchi (Segmental)

Right & Left primary Bronchi, Secondary Bronchi (Lobar) & Tertiary Bronchi (Segmental) ALL HAVE CARTILAGE AROUND THEM!

***When you see the cartilage around them, they all have PSCC on the inside!

Is there cartilage on the Bronchioles?

There is NO cartilage on the Bronchioles!
Bronchioles have smooth muscle.

(bronchioles have simple cuboidal)
Bronchioles = smooth muscle

When you get to the BRONCHIOLES, they all have SMOOTH MUSCLE around them and are all under AUTONOMIC CONTROL?


******There is no cartilage on the Bronchioles!!!!

FYI:*When you are not in the BRONCHI anymore the cartilage starts to fade away. Then you get into the Bronchioles where there is no cartilage!

(bronchioles have simple cuboidal epithelial tissue)

What will happen to the BRONCHIOLES during Autonomic control ?

Autonomic Control & BRONCHIOLES

Sympathetic = (EPI) epinephrine = Bronchioles are going to DILATE AIRWAYS.

Parasympatheic = rest & digest = Bronchioles are

(bronchioles have simple cuboidal epithelial tissue)

What is bronchodilation?

Bronchodialtion is the enlargement of the airway!

Why are there almost NO cilia and NO mucus cells or mucus glands in the RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLE?

Filtration and humidification are complete by the time air reaches the RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLE; so the need for those structures are eliminated!

In the Respiratory System, where can you find SIMPLE SQUAMOUS?


1. Alveolar Duct
2. ALveolar Sac
3. Alveolus

In the Respiratory System, where can you find STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS?


1. External Nares
2. Oropharynx
3. Laryngopharynx
4. Larynx (has Stratified Squamous & PSCC)

In the Respiratory System, where can you find PSCC?

PSCC are in the following:

1. Nasal Cavity
2. Nasopharynx
3. Larynx (has PSCC & Stratified Squamous)
4. Trachea
5. Bronchi'

(also, in the respiratory system where ever there is cartilage, there is PSCC underneath/inside)

In the Respiratory System, where can you find SIMPLE CUBODIAL?


1. Terminal Bronchioles
2. Respiratory Bronchioles

What cells are at the Alveolar?

Alveolar = simple squamous epithelium

Name 3 types of cells found within alveoli?

3 types of cells found within Alveoli are:

1. Alveolar Type 1 cells = simple Squamous epithelial
2. Alveolar Type 2 cells = SURFACTANT cells
3. Alveolar Macrophages

What cell is this?

This cell of alveoli have simple squamous epithelium, are more numerous, makes "walls" of alveoli, provides "surface area" for gas exchange & "thin" (good for diffusion) is what type of cell?

Alveolar Type 1 cells = Alveolar simple Squamous epithelial

What cell is this?

This cell releases & produces "SURFACTANT" to reduce surface tension, prevents alveolar collapse during exhalation & begins at 7-8 months of fetal development is what type of cell?

Alveolar Type 2 cells = SURFACTANT cells = special cells that make & release surfactant

What is the main function of surfactant?

surfactant helps prevent the alveoli from collapsing

What is the function of the surfactant produced by the alveolar type 2 cells (surfactant cells)?

The SURFACTANT coats the inner surface of each alveolus and helps to reduce surface tension and avoid the collapse of the Alveoli.

What is the condition/syndrome called when you can't make surfactant?

Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)

very common when a fetus comes out to early; difficult to inflate lungs without surfactant!

Which cell has the PRIMARY function of DEFENSE & PROTECTION of alveolar surface, what is this cell called?


The site for FREE MOVEMENT of alveolar macrophages is at _______?

Internal Surfaces of Alveoli

(because lots of stuff is being inhaled; need defenses there)

The RIGHT BRONCHI is wider & shorter than the LEFT bronchi. Therefore, foreign objects are more likely to lodge in the Right BRONCHI.


The SECONDARY (Lobar) BRONCHI has three on the right and two on the left?


How many LOBES do you have on each side of the the LUNGS, ?

The LUNGS have 3 lobes on the RIGHT SIDE and
2 lobes on the LEFT SIDE.

What is the function of the SEPTA?

The SEPTA divides the lung into lobules

What are the LUNGS separated by?
Make sure you know the following landmarks to identify on the lungs!

Lungs are separated by FISSURES.

1. Superior fissure
2. Middle fissure
3. Inferior fissure
4. Horizontal Fissure/grove (Transverse)
5. Oblique fissure/grove
6. Apex = top point of lungs
7. Base (aka: diaphragmatic surface)= lower flat portion of lungs
8. Mediastinal Surface
9. Coastal surface

(*right lung has 3 lobes)
* (left lung has 2 lobes)

There are 150 million Alveoli PER LUNG?


The Alveoli' are surrounded by capillaries & elastic fibers.

The capillaries cover 90% of surface of Alveoli.
The elastic fibers recoil to push air out (to assist ventilation)

The Alveoli' have a HUGE internal surface area; if you were to fold it out, it would be the size of a tennis court area?


For normal breathing (pulmonary ventilation):

What are the 3 most important respiratory muscles?

1. Diaphragm (the main muscle of respiration!)
2. External intercostal muscles= (inhale/breathe in)
3. Internal intercostal muscles=(exhale/breathe out)

When you are sitting there, quietly breathing:

What is your normal MAIN MUSCLE of respiration?


What do the muscles in your external intercostals do?

External intercostal = you INHALE (breathe in)

What do the muscles in your INTERNAL intercostals do?

INTERNAL intercostal = you EXHALE (breathe out)

How does DEEP breathing DIFFER than COASTAL breathing?

the diaphragm contracts in deep breathing!

Inhalation = thoracic volume increases
Exhalation = thoracic volume decreases


For normal quite breathing at rest:
Inspiration = INCREASE volume of thoracic cavity
Expiration = DECREASE volume of thoracic cavity


What happens to the volume of the THORACIC CAVITY during INSPIRATION?

Inspiration = INCREASE VOLUME of thoracic cavity

What happens to the volume of the THORACIC CAVITY during EXPIRATION?

Expiration = DECREASE VOLUME of thoracic cavity

During normal quite breathing at rest.

Inspiration (breathing in normally) = INCREASE volume of thoracic cavity


To increase DEPTH & FREQUENCY of breaths, what 2 muscles are used?

2 Muscles used to increase depth & frequency of breaths are:

1. Sternocleidomastoid
2. Scalenes

Is there MUSCULAR ACTIVITY required during NORMAL EXPIRATION (exhaling/breathing out)?


When FORCEFULLY EXHALING (breathing out), what 5 muscles are used?

Forcefully exhaling uses 5 muscles:
(your compressing. ex: blowing out candles or when you are really struggling to breath you use all these muscles.)

1. INTERNAL intercostals (to exhale)
2. Rectus abdominis
3. Transverse abdominis
4. Internal obliques
5. External obliques

Why happens to the lungs and respiratory tract with chronic smokers?

Chronic smoking damages the lining of the air passageways.
* CILIA are seared off the surface of the cells by the heat.
*Smokers = the PSCC cells develop into stratified layer due to exposure to carcinogens and causes cells to divide and can lead to cancer.

*nicotine, tar an carcinogens damages the respiratory membrane.
*they develop a hacking "smokers cough"

****What condition/disease is this?

Its a chronic progressive condition characterized by shortness of breath and resulting from the destruction of respiratory
exchange surfaces?


***(you loose surface area in the alveoli for gas exchange, so the 02 & C02 are not getting across)

In emphysema, alveoli are replaced by large air spaces and elastic fibrous connective tissue.

How do these changes affect the lungs??

As a result of EMPHYSEMA, the larger air spaces and lack of elasticity will reduce the efficiency of capillary exchange and pulmonary ventilation.

****Which condition is this?

It is an allergic inflammation and is hypersensitivity to irritants in the air or to stress and could be genetic?


This is a characteristic of what condition?

There is contraction of bronchiole smooth muscle and secretion of mucus in airways?


****What disease is this?

This is a inherited disease, the EXOCRINE GLAND function is disrupted and the respiratory system is affected by the OVERSECRETION OF VISCOUS MUCUS


****What is this condition?

Can't make surfactant; so the alveoli collapses & an inability to maintain adequate levels of gas exchange at the lungs?

Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)

The portion of the pharynx that receives BOTH air and food is the_______?


Which paired laryngeal cartilages are involved with OPENING & CLOSING of the GLOTTIS?

The paired laryngeal cartilages involved with the opening & closing of the glottis are:


What aspect of laryngeal function would be impaired if the ARYTENOID and CORNICULATE CARTILAGE were damaged?

sound production would be impaired!

Where are the vocal cords located?

Vocal cords are located in the LARYNX

*TRUE VOCAL CORDS = Vocal folds
*FALSE VOCAL CORDS = Vestibular folds

TRUE VOCAL CORDS = Vocal folds
FALSE VOCAL CORDS = Vestibular folds

...Theses Vocal cords are located in the LARYNX

What 2 things do the intrinsic laryngeal muscles do?

1. One group regulates tension in the TRUE VOCAL CORDS (aks: vocal folds).

2. The second group opens and closes the

The cartilage that serves as a base for the larynx is __________?

Cricoid cartilage

What is the TRACHEA reinforced with?

Trachea is reinforced with C-SHAPED CARTILAGES

The cartilage blocks in the walls of the secondary and tertiary bronchi to support the bronchi and assist in keeping the lumens open?


In the respiratory system, what do Sensory receptors regulate?

Sensory receptors regulate RESPIRATION

Name 2 sensory receptors that regulate respiration?

2 Sensory receptors that regulate respiration are:

1. Mechanoreceptor
2. Chemoreceptor

Sensory receptors regulate respiration:

Which receptors detect changes in"lung Volume" or "arterial blood pressure"?


Sensory receptors regulate respiration:

Which receptors are detecting C02, pH, 02 of BLOOD and CSF?


There are chemoreceptors in your body that are detecting C02, pH, 02 levels.

If C02 is low, will it make it breathe faster or slower?

If C02 is low = you breathe FASTER to get rid of the C02.

(the good place to check your blood for this = Carotid and Aorta Bodies)

There are chemoreceptors in your body that are detecting C02, pH, 02 levels.

If your pH is getting acidic, will it make you breathe faster or slower?

If your pH is getting acidic = you breathe FASTER.

(the good place to check your blood for this = Carotid and Aorta Bodies)

There are chemoreceptors in your body that are detecting C02, pH, 02 levels.

If your pH is getting too basic, will it make you breathe faster or slower?

If your pH is getting too basic = you breathe SLOWER

(the good place to check your blood for this = Carotid and Aorta Bodies)



Digestive System:
The main purpose of the Digestive system is to:

***To break down food into a "usable" (absorbable) form
***To supply our cells with the nutrients they need for energy, growth & repair

What are the 4 Functions of the Digestive System?

4 functions of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: (DAMS)

1. Digestion
2. Absorption
3. Motility
4. Secretion

What does DIGESTION do for the Digestive System?

DIGESTION = mechanically & chemically breakdown of food (material).

What does ABSORPTION do for the Digestive System?

ABSORPTION = moving food from the Lumen to the bloodstream to absorb!

(movement of material/food from the lumen into the blood stream).

What does MOTILITY do for the Digestive System?

MOTILITY = moving food through the digestive system.

(movement of food from the oral cavity to
the anus; by swallowing & peristalsis).

What does SECRETION do for the Digestive System?

SECRETION = Exocrine RELEASE OF ENZYMES into the lumen of the digestive tract for chemical digestion.

What are the 2 PARTS of the digestive system?

1. Gastrointestional Tract (GI) = (aka: alimentary canal) = the GI are the BIG PARTS: oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, sm & lg intestine & rectum.

2. Accessory organs; pancrease, liver & gallbladder

In the digestive system, does the GI tract have a continuous tube that is about 30 feet in length?


It is a continuous passageway (tube) which contains the food from the time it enters the body, until it leaves; organs include (THESE ARE THE BIG PARTS):
***mouth (oral cavity), esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum

GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT (GI Tract) = aka: Alimentary canal

What part of the digestive system is this?
It participates in the digestive processes and the organs include:
** liver, gall bladder, pancreas?

(these are also included:teeth, tongue, salivary glands)


Do the ACCESSORY ORGANS in the digestive system communicate with GI tract via DUCTS?


What are the 4 layers (tunica's) of the GI TRACT?

all 4 layers (tunica's) of the GI tract; are found in the esophagus, small & large intestines and the stomach:
Think: TUNICA/layers (MSMS)

1. MUCOSA = (inside layer/closest to the lumen)
4. SEROSA (aka visceral peritoneum) = (the
outside layer ---furthest away from the lumen)

Do you have SMOOTH muscle or SKELETAL muscle around the small & large Intestines?


In your stomach, which Tunica layer is SMOOTH muscle?

The tunica MUSCULARIS EXTERNA of the stomach = In the STOMACH, this layer of smooth muscle has 3 LAYERS to it!

What is the name of the C.T. SEROUS MEMBRANE that lines (directly touches) the walls and organs of the abdominalpelvic cavity?

Tunica SEROUSA (aka Visceral Peritoneum) = it is slick, shiny and secretes fluids; it keeps things from sticking to each other.
*it is the outside layer that is furthest away from the lumen.

(there is NOT SEROUSA in the esophagus,
rectum = instead in those 2 areas, the outside layer is called Tunica ADVENTITA !)

In the LUMEN of the GI tract, what are the big FOLDS called that increase the surface area?

In lumen the big FOLDS = PLICA

(the VILLi is pretty big located on the PLICA also increase surface area!)

Plica & Villa are in the SMALL INTESTINE

What kind of epithelial tissue is on the villi of the Plica?

Villi = SIMPLE COLUMBAR epithelial tissue

(ex: in the Small intestine)

in the stomach, What is the name of the strip of SMOOTH MUSCLE that is in the MUCOSA LAYER?

MUSCULARIS MUCOSA is the strip of smooth muscle in the mucosa layer of the STOMACH.

FYI: (on microscope slide in lab, this is the first thing you will look for the muscularis mucosa this is your dividing
line for the mucosa & submucosa layers).

On microscope:
What is that? (ex: small intestine)
What is the pointer on? (ex: VILLI)
What epithelium is that? (ex: simple columbar)
What layer are we in of the 4 layers? (ex: tunica mucosa)
(this is where the food goes)


What is the C.T. serious membrane called that is NOT in the esophagus or rectum?

Tunica SEROUSA (aka: Visceral Peritoneum)= C.T. serious Membrane

the espohagus & rectum have tunica ADVENTITA

The TUNICA SEROSA (aka: Visceral Peritoneum) is everywhere EXCEPT in these 2 area ________& __________?

Esophagus & Rectum

There are NO Tunica Serosa in the ESOPHAGUS AND RECTUM; instead they have Tunica ADVENTITIA!

The Esophagus & Rectum have Tunica Adventitia (and does NOT have Tunica SEROSA!).


What type of muscle is this called?

This type of muscle has the ability to stretch, has gap junctions and is arranged in sheets?


Smooth muscle has sarcomeres ?

False! NO sarcomeres & NO striations in smooth muscle!

Smooth muscle has ACTIN & MYOSIN?


What are the 2 forms of CONTRACTIONS in Smooth Muscle?

2 forms of contractions with SMOOTH MUSCLE are:

1. Peristalsis (moving things along) = involuntary
2. Segmentation (its like riding a bike)

What is this called?
What is the net movement of food (material) moving towards the rectum?


What is this called?
There is NO net movement of food (material), but there is mixing and churning going on?


The ENTERIC NEVROUS SYSTEM is like your GUT BRAIN. It's the nerves network that control digestive reflexes?


The abdominal cavity is lined with parietal peritoneum & many of the organs within are covered with visceral peritoneum.


There are Mesentary FOLDS of visceral/parietal peritoneum that suspend organs (or attach some organs to others; its holding this stuff in place)?


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