Groups of cells functioning together.
Specialized for moving fluids within plants.
One basic type of vascular tissue; carries water and minerals from roots of the plant throughout the plant. Flows up the plant.
Vessel Elements (members)
Type of xylem. Wide in diameter, able to transmit water better than tracheids. Found in angiosperm.
Type of Xylem. Not as good at moving water as vessel elements. Found in Conifers (cone-bearing trees).
One basic type of vascular tissue; carries water and products of photosynthesis (glucose) throughout the plant. Flows down the plant.
Holes in the end wall of Phloem.
Sieve Tube Elements
Cells with holes in their end walls that are found in Phloem.
Cells that support the phloem because the cells who have holes in them are dead.
Flowering plants that contain ovaries. When these ovaries are fertilized by pollen, they become a fruit surrounding the seed.
One type of angiosperm; have 1 cotyledon, have parallel vains, flowers have pedals with multiples of 3, stems have their xylem and phloem for spread out, have bunchier (fibrous) roots.
One type of angiosperm; have 2 cotyledon, have branching vains, flowers have pedals with multiples of 5 or 7, have rings of xylem and phloem, roots are "linear" (taproot).
Outer covering of roots, leaves, and stems. Has one layer of epidermal cells covered by a waterproof, waxy coating called the cuticle. Includes specialized structures such as trichomes, root hairs, and guard cells.
Found in roots, stems, and leaves.
Type of ground tissue with large vacuole, thin cell wall. Purpose: Nutrient Storage. Site of photosynthesis in plants.
Type of ground tissue with fairly thick cell wall. Provide support for the plant. Contain good amount of cellulose in cell wall. Make up the "string" of celery stalks.
Type of ground tissue with extremely thick cell walls. Provide very strong protection for the plant. Have outer covering of seeds, nuts, inner part of apple core, etc. Schlereids form "stone cells" that give pears their gritty texture.
A special type of plant tissue. Regions of the plant where growth occurs.
Type of meristematic tissue found at end of roots.
Type of meristematic tissue that cause side growth or growth to the side.
Chemical substances that cause a reaction in the plant or to other plants.
Type of plant hormone: Stimulates cell elongation and are released by meristems. Can cause a stem or root to bend.
Type of plant hormone: Stimulate cell division, morphogenesis (bud formation), growth of lateral buds, and leaf expansion; resulting in growth
Type of plant hormone: Stimulate stem elongation by stimulating cell division and elongation. Stimulate flowering in response to long days. Stimulate enzyme production (a-amylase) in germinating starch for mobilization of seed reserves. Provides energy for growth. Can cause parthenocarpic (seedless) fruit development. Can delay senescence (aging) in leaves and citrus fruits. Longer life= larger size.
Type of plant hormone: Gas released by plants. Causes leaf abscission (falling off) and fruit ripening.
Plant growth in response to a stimulus. Primarily due to release of auxins.
Type of tropism in response to light.
Gravitropism or Geotropism
Type of tropism in response to gravity.
Type of tropism in response to touch.
Type of tropism in response to water.
Type of tropism in response to salt.
Rapid Responses or Nastic Movements
Ex: Venus Fly Trap. Some cells under high pressure (filled with water) hold the trap open. A fly touches the trigger hairs, causing an ATP powered movement of water out of the cells. This causes the trap to snap shut.
Plants in temperate zones respond in different ways to amount of daylight in a day. This process controls mant activities like flowering of plants, ripening of fruits, and abscission of leaves. The ability to respond to day length is linked to an inner, light-sensitive, circadian rhythm.