Body WEIGHT that exceeds an average value for stature and age
Body FAT that exceeds age and/or gender-appropriate average values
Energy intake > Energy expenditure
30 and over
85th to lower than 95th percentile
95th percentile or higher (compared to kids same age and sex)
Obese-surplus of what adipokines?
Leptin, TNF-A, Resistin
Obese-decreased amount of what adipokines?
Obesity increases your relative risk for what 3 diseases (among others)
Causes of overfatness
Which puts you more at risk for death: a high BMI or smoking?
Causes of overfatness?
4 types of adipokines?
3. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha
4. Retinol binding protein 4
What is leptin?
A hormone produced by fat cells that signals the hypothalamus, stopping the drive to eat
What happens if you do not have enough leptin?
You keep eating and eating; can ultimately lead to obesity
High plasma leptin concentration is associated with what 4 conditions?
1. Upper body obesity
2. Glucose intolerance
What decreases the ability of skeletal muscle to remove glucose from the blood in response to insulin?
Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-A)
What is adiponectin?
An adipocyte hormone; decreased in individuals with obesity and type II diabetes
What does adiponectin do?
It stimulates glucose utilization and fatty acid oxidation in the muscles; thus it has the "anti-diabetic effect"
Metabolic Syndrome-must have 3 of the following 5 clinical/metabolic abnormalities:
1. Abdominal obesity
3. Low HDL cholesterol
4. Elevated blood pressure
5. Hyperglycemia (insulin resistance)
2 components of body composition?
1. Fat mass
2. Fat-free mass
2 types of fat mass?
1. Essential fat
2. Storage fat
What does essential fat consist of?
Bone marrow, CNS, viscera (internal organs), cell membranes
What does storage fat consist of?
triglycerides stored in adipose tissue
What does fat-free mass consist of?
bone, muscle, connective tissue, organ tissue, skin, water
When are glycogen stores are full about how long can they supply us with energy for?
Where is additional glycogen stored as fat?
True/False: In protein cells stored as fat, they can be converted back to glycogen by the liver.
True/False: Fat cells only increase in size until they reach their biological limit.
(Once they have exceeded their biological limit, they divide. )
True/False: Fat cells disappear when you lose weight.
(The more weight you gain, the more fat cells you have. If you begin to lose weight, fat cells will shrink, but they will NEVER disappear. They're yours for life.)
What is the best simple marker for visceral fat?
What is the healthier way to carry weight: Apple vs. Pear?
Pear (Fat stored in gluteal and femoral regions)
What type of fat do calipers/skinfold measurements measure?
What is Bioelectrical Impedence?
Small alternating current between 2 electrodes flows faster through hydrated fat-free tissue than through fat or bone tissue because of lower electrical resistance of the fat-free tissue
(Only problem=level of hydration affects results/accuracy)
Types of imaging used to get an idea of body fat?
ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)
What type of sports have a higher lean to fat ratio?
Aerobic sports (Esp. distance running, swimming, etc.)
What are the 3 components of Total Energy Expenditure (TEE)?
1. Resting energy expenditure (REE)
2. Thermic effect of food (TEF)
3. Thermic effect of activity (TEA)
Which is the largest component of TEE and why?
The largest component is REE (60-70%)
because most of the time during the day we are relatively resting (unless you have a very active job).
What are the 3 determinants of REE?
1. Fat mass
2. Fat-free mass
3. Body's energy balance
What is thermic effect of food (TEF)?
the amount of energy the body uses to process food;
i.e. during digestion, the body DOES burn calories
What is thermic effect of activity (TFA)?
The amount of energy needed for muscular work
3 Goals of Obesity Management:
1. Weight loss
2. Weight maintenance
3. Reduction of risk factors
What is a realistic weight loss goal in a period of 3-6 months?
What speed of weight loss is the best for maintenance?
SLOWER weight loss is better for maintenance
What is the most successful treatment for obesity?
(However, there is also a higher risk of dying on the table)
What is the Energy Balance Equation?
Weight change=Total energy intake - Total energy expenditure
What is the best method to unbalance the Energy Balance Equation?
Decrease caloric intake and increase daily energy requirements (a.k.a. Diet & Exercise)
Available treatments for Obesity?
Dietary therapy, behavior therapy, drug treatment, surgery, physical activity
When is drug therapy recommended? (2 conditions)
1. BMI of 30 or more/no obesity-related conditions
2. BMI 27-29.9/two or more obesity-related conditions
When is obesity surgery recommended? (2 conditions)
1. BMI greater than or equal to 40
2. BMI of 35-39.9/serious medical conditions
What helps to keep metabolic rate elevated once an individual starts to lose weight?
What is the Setpoint Theory?
We have a well-regulated internal control mechanism within the hypothalamus that maintains a preset level of body weight and/or body fat within a tight range (tough to move away from this range; RMR often decreases; difficult to go below this)
What activity could potentially lower the setpoint?
(thus, this theory supports the value of exercise rather than just dieting alone)
Why do you lose more weight (8x as much) on a high carb diet?
You don't deplete your glycogen stores as quickly; can go longer @ a higher intensity when you exercise
Higher CHOs & Moderate-Intensity=higher decrease in Fat Mass
Physical Activity Recommendations
60-90 minutes daily
Minimum of 3 days/week
At least 300 kcal/session (about 30 min moderate-vigorous intensity exercise/session) (the more vigorous, the shorter the duration needed)
Participants told to work out at a certain RPE, which piece of workout equipment allowed for the highest O2 consumption and why?
the treadmill won!
Because of PERCEPTION-the individual would perceive it as easier because it mimics what we do every day; thus, they would go at a higher intensity
(other machines--they'd perceive as harder; ex. arm & legs machine--arms get tired sooner--would perceive as harder)
How much exercise is needed daily to prevent weight gain in post-menopausal women?
In what stage of weight loss is resistance training especially beneficial?
It is important for both weight loss & maintenance
(Helps to maintain FFM)
In order to prevent weight gain . . .
Physical activity: 150-250 min/week (1200-2000 kcal/week) will prevent weight gain greater than 3%
In order to generate weight loss . . .
P.A. <150 min/week promotes minimal weight loss
PA >150 min/week results on modest weight loss of 2-3 kg
PA >225-420 min/week results in loss of 5-7.5 kg
What defines light intensity (in terms of METS)?
What defines moderate intensity (in terms of METS)?
What defines vigorous intensity (in terms of METS)?
PA will increase weight loss if diet is (blank #1) but NOT if it is (blank #2)