Cell Structures and Functions

Created by wolfer09 

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plasma membrane

thin flexible barrier that regulates what enters and exits the cell; composed of two layers of lipids

nuclear envelope

membrane surrounding the nucleus

nucleus

contains the DNA and controls all of the cell's acitivities

nucleolus

helps to assemble ribosomes

cytoplasm

material between the cell membrane and the nucleus

mitochondrion

breaks down food to make ATP

endoplasmic reticulum

internal transport system of the cell, modifies proteins, and synthesizes lipids

Golgi apparatus

stack of membranes that modify proteins and creates "packages" to send them to other locations

lysosome

filled with enzymes to breakdown dead cell parts and foreign objects; only found in animal cells

ribosome

synthesizes proteins

vacuole

stores water and nutrients for the cell; very large in plant cells

cell wall

provides structure and support around cell membrane of plants, fungi, and some bacteria

chloroplast

uses sunlight to make carbohydrates in plants, some bacteria and protists

centriole

organize the spindle fibers to separate chromosomes during animal cell mitosis

cytoskeleton

network of proteins in the cytoplasm that help cell maintain its shape

cilium

hairlike projections that help some cells move

flagellum

whiplike structure some cells use for propulsion

pseudopod

projection of cytoplasm that some protists use for movement and feeding

prokaryote

cell without a nucleus, it contains a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes; bacteria

eukaryote

cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles; animals, plants, protists, fungi

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