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Innovation

An improvement of an existing technological product, system, or method of doing something.

Invention

A new product, system, or process that has never existed before, created by study and experimentation.

Design Brief

A written plan that identifies a problem to be solved, its criteria, and its constraints. The design brief is used to encourage thinking of all aspects of a problem before attempting a solution.

Design Process

A systematic problem-solving strategy, with criteria and constraints, used to develop many possible solutions to solve a problem or satisfy human needs and wants and to winnow (narrow) down the possible solutions to one final choice.

Construction Line

Thin lines that serve as guides while sketching or drawing.

Hidden Line

A line type that represents an edge that is not directly visible, because it is behind or beneath another surface.

Isometric Sketch

A form of pictorial sketch in which all three drawing axes form equal angles of 120 degrees with the plane of projection.

Multiview Drawings

Views of an object projected onto two or more orthographic planes.

Object Line

A heavy solid line used on a drawing to represent the outline of an object.

Oblique Sketch

A type of sketch involving a combination of a flat, orthographic front with depth lines receding at a selected angle, usually 45 degrees.

Orthographic Projection

A method of representing three-dimensional objects on a plane having only length and breadth. Also referred to as Right Angle Projection.

Perspective Sketch

A form of pictorial sketch in which vanishing points are used to provide the depth and distortion that is seen with the human eye. Perspective drawings can be drawn using one, two, and three vanishing points.

Shading

The representation of light and shade on a drawing or map.

Technical Working Drawing

A drawing that is used to show the material, size, and shape of a product for manufacturing purposes.

Tone

The general effect of color or of light and shade in a picture.

ANSI

American National Standards Institute: A private, non-profit organization that coordinates the development and use of voluntary consensus standards in the United States.

Dimension Lines

Lines that are thin lines capped with arrowheads, which may be broken along their length to provide space for the dimension numerals.

Extension Lines

Thin lines used to establish the extent of a dimension. Extension lines begin with a short space from the object and extend to about .125 inches past the last dimension line. Extension lines may cross object lines, center lines, hidden lines, and other extension lines, but may not cross dimension lines.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

A non-governmental global organization whose principal activity is the development of technical standards through consensus.

Mean

The average or central value of a set of quantities.

Median

Referring to the middle term or mean of the middle two terms of a series of values arranged in order of magnitude.

Mode

The value that occurs most frequently in a given data set.

Numeric Constraint

A number value, or algebraic equation that is used to control the size or location of a geometric figure.

Annotate

To add explanatory notes to.

Assembly Drawing

A drawing that shows the various parts of an item when assembled.

Geometric Constraint

Constant, non-numerical relationships between the parts of a geometric figure. Examples include parallelism, perpendicularity, and concentricity.

Mock-up

Also referred to as an Appearance Model. A model or replica of a machine or structure for instructional or experimental purposes.

Model

A visual, mathematical, or three-dimensional representation in detail of an object or design, often smaller than the original. A model is often used to test ideas, make changes to a design, and to learn more about what would happen to a similar, real object.

Prototype

A full-scale working model used to test a design concept by making actual observations and necessary adjustments.

Scale Model

An enlarged or reduced representation of an object that is usually intended for study purposes.

Counterbore

A cylindrical recess around a hole, usually to receive a bolt head or nut.

Countersink

A conical-shaped recess around a hole, often used to receive a tapered screw.

Revolution

Creating a 3D solid or surface by revolving a 2D shape about an axis.

Surface Area

1. The sum of all the areas of all the faces or surfaces that enclose a solid. 2. The sum of all the areas of all surfaces of a solid.

Tap

To cut internal threads.

Volume

The amount of space occupied by a substance or object or enclosed within a container.

Working Drawings

Drawings that convey all of the information needed to manufacture and assemble a design.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

1. A professional engineering organization that is known for setting codes and standards for mechanical devices in the United States. ASME drawing standards are found in the Y-14M publications. 2. The acronym for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Tolerance

The total permissible variation in a size or location dimension.

Auxiliary View

An orthographic view of an object using a direction of sight other than one of the six basic views (front, top, right-side, rear, bottom, left-side); used to show a surface that is not parallel to any of the principal view planes.

Blind Hole

A hole that does not go completely through the workpiece.

Break Line

A line used to interrupt a drawing if an object will not fit on a drawing sheet.

Cutting Plane Line

A line drawn on a view where a cut was made in order to define the location of the imaginary section plane.

Degree of Freedom

The variables by which an object can move. In assemblies, an object floating free in space with no constraints to another object can be moved along three axes of translation and around three axes of rotation. Such a body is said to have six degrees of freedom.

Detail Drawing

A dimensioned, working drawing of a single part. Also referred to as part drawing.

Exploded Assembly

An assembly drawing in which parts are moved out of position along an axis so that each individual part is visible.

Parts List

A list of materials or parts specified for a project. Also referred to as a bill of materials or BOM.

Phantom Line

A line used to show the alternate positions of an object or matching part without interfering with the main drawing.

Section Lines

Lines that are used to represent the material through which a cut is made in order to show an interior sectional view.

Sectional View

A drawing that shows the interior of an object as it would appear if cut in half or quartered.

Spotface

A shallow recess like a counterbore, used to provide a good bearing surface for a fastener.

Decision Matrix

A tool for systematically ranking alternatives according to a set of criteria.

Fluid Power

Energy transmitted and controlled by means of a pressurized fluid, either liquid or gas. The term fluid power applies to both hydraulics and pneumatics.

Hydraulics

A type of fluid power that uses pressurized liquid, for example, oil or water.

Pneumatics

A type of fluid power that uses compressed air or other neutral gases.

Aesthetic

1. Concerned with beauty or the appreciation of beauty. 2. Of pleasing appearance.

Mechanism

An assembly of moving parts completing a complete functional motion.

Reverse Engineering

The process of taking something apart and analyzing its workings in detail, usually with the intention to understand function, prepare documentation, electronic data, or construct a new or improved device or program, without actually copying from the original.

Ergonomics

The study of workplace equipment design or how to arrange and design devices, machines, or workspace so that people and things interact safely and most efficiently.

OSHA

Occupation Safety and Health Administration: A government organization whose mission is to assure the safety and health of America's workers by setting and enforcing standards; providing training, outreach, and education; establishing partnerships; and encouraging continual improvement in workplace safety and health.

Product lifecycle

Stages a product goes through from concept and use to eventual withdrawal from the market place.

Gantt Chart

A time and activity bar chart that is used for planning, managing, and controlling major programs that have a distinct beginning and end.

Norms

Principles of right action, binding upon the members of a group and serving to guide, control, or regulate proper and acceptable behavior.

Synergy

When the unit or team becomes stronger than the sum of the individual members.

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