Standard North American Family by Dorothy E. Smith
How does the contemporary structure of the family compare w/ structures of family throughout history?
Multigenerational families, husbands & wives spend more time on children, women getting more jobs
Significance of 1950s for notions of the family in the U.S.
Superficial sameness of the family was achieved through censorship & dishonesty in the government
What is the divorce rate?
How we measure how many marriages end in divorce each year
How should the divorce rate be measured?
How many marriages end in divorce in a lifetime
Technocratic model of child birth
Birth in the U.S. increasingly conducted under a set of beliefs, a "paradigm"
Bath a conceptual model of and a template for reality
Rite of passage
Based off society's rituals. Being replaced by the use of technology & science
Artificially made dwarf; fully formed, mini human body contained in the spermatozoon.
How does homunculus relate to the history of notions of birth?
All human species are found in the male body, and it's how science defines male or female
Childcare in France
Every child between 3 & 6 is guaranteed placement in daycare
U.S. child poverty rate
Percent of children living in low-income families
How does the U.S. poverty rate compare w/ other nation states
2nd highest rate
Infant mortality rate in U.S.
Unpaid work when getting home from a paid job
What influences mens' willingness to contribute to the second shift?
Whether the woman has a pressing job as well as her income and amount of hours worked
How much time are husbands and wives spending with their children?
Twice as much
How much extra work a year can be attributed to the second shift?
Wealth of knowledge & ideas, which legitimates status of power
How did Thomas Jefferson contribute to theories of race in the U.S?
Said white people were more intelligent
How did the concept of liberty contribute to the ideology of white supremacy?
Jefferson said "all men are created equal" but said it only applied to certain people
How did the concept of civilization fit within this ideology?
People who weren't white were uncivilized, but those that were uncivilized could be come civilized and become "white". This didn't apply to blacks.
Physical differences don't make race and it's not scientifically defined. Race is defined by each person, socially
Only caucasians are white, according to science
White is what the common white man says it is
Concept of whiteness in relation to New Deal policies and how does this challenge the openness aspect of economic order?
Blacks decreased values of neighborhoods, minority communities were created and integrated neighborhoods became unstable financially.
Institutionalized way of putting value to neighborhoods
In relation to housing opportunities for U.S. residents, redlining caused...
Mortgages to go to suburban America, instability in integrated neighborhoods, a drop in FHA ratings, and a <1% of profit to non-whites
African Americans viewing themselves individually, as a group, and through the eyes of the society they live in
An American & a Negro, two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings, two warring ideals in one dark body
Main types of human trafficking
Involuntary servitude, debt bondage, involuntary domestic servitude, factories, & hotels
State that doesn't currently have legislation regarding human trafficking
Those who benefit from existing social inequalities are usually oblivious to the privileges they enjoy that aren't available to others
How is unearned privilege unrecognized?
We're raised not to recognize unearned privilege, so we don't realize how privileged we are. We're taught to think that our lives are morally neutral, normative, average and ideal.
White male privilege
advantages that white people accrue from society as on the disadvantages people of color experience
What is eugenics?
The role of scientists and biologists in the history of U.S. society who looked at science to determine the hierarchy of society.
Requirements for males to donate sperm in the medical market
4 year college degree, responsible, reliable, tall, and have a good personality
Requirements for females to donate eggs
Have an education, be physically attractive, and have good social characteristics
How did uneven economic growth in primarily poor and black communities contribute to disparities in environmental quality in environmental quality?
Where most of the nation's toxic waste compounds are located.
Type of criminal offense that increased the most during the decade between 1985 and 1995
Common excuses for high crime rates
We are too soft, modern life, and youth
Known sources of crime
Poverty & inequality, prison, guns and drugs
Pyrrhic defeat theory
Those who have power to change the system benefit from the way it operates
The distorted image we see when we look into the mirror of our criminal justice system
Social reality of crime
The image the criminal justice system creates and presents society. This image isn't consistent with the truth.
Decisions of the legislators
Definitions of criminal law
Decisions of police officers and prosecutors
Arrests and charges
Decisions of judges and juries
Decisions of sentencing judges
length and severity of sentences
How Americans are really murdered
Medical malpractice, disease, pollution, and poverty
Reiman & Leighton's suggestions for reducing crime in the U.S.
Consider the entire population, treat harmful actions with help instead of punishment
How can we measure the existence of a class-based society in the U.S?
Income and wealth
Amount of resources one has
How income is distributed in the nation-state
Workers who work for the capitalist and have limited power
Own the means of production; the middle and upper class
Proletarianization of society
Sections of the middle class become absorbed into the working class. Serve as catalyst for gaining consciousness amongst proletariat.
When will class antagonism end?
Whenever the working class eventually rise above, someone lower will eventually rise against them. So, never.
Military, corporate and political leaders
Success of the civilization policy
Year the indian Removal Act was passed
Number of Native Americans forced into the west by 1840
Amount of Mexico's land the U.S. annexed in 1848
The bourgeoisie mode of production
Type of production that pushes itself to reinvent or annihilate itself by looking at new modes of production
How did North Carolina's self-description of fostering an 'attractive business environment' contribute to the state's economic growth?
A good business environment includes low business taxes, cheap land, cheap labor, and minimum business regulations. This lead to economic growth in urban areas where skilled laborers lived but in the black belt regions the unskilled laborers were separated and forced to work in "dirty industries"
How did the South being defined as a 'good business environment' contribute to economic growth?
A climate pleasant enough to attract workers from other regions, Weak labor unions and strong right-to-work laws, Cheap labor & cheap land, Attractive areas for new industries, Aggressive self-promotion and booster campaigns, Lenient environmental regulations
What is meant by aspects of unearned advantages that derive chiefly from social class, economic class, race, religion, sex, or ethnic identity are both distinct and interlocking?
All of these factors together determine the privileges one gets, but each is its own distinct factor.
What are the rituals society bases the rite of passage on?
separation- of individuals from their preceding social state
2. transition, and Integration