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The U.S. health care system is Based on the:

market justice principle

The government program designed to provide health care to people who are 65 years of age or older is called:

Medicare

Baring major system changes, health service expenditures are projected to continue to decrease. (True or False)

False (Health care costs are exploding and are out of control.)

The U.S. safety net is for the nation's most vulnerable populations. Whic of the following is not considered a vulnerable population?

Persons 45-60

A primary motivation in the development of managed care was to:

contain costs and expenditures of health care

The U.S. government plays a limited role in the health delivery system. The government's role in this arena is to:

to organize and be responsible for care delivery for Medicare and Medicaid programs

The U.S. health care delivery system is complex and massive. (True or False)

True

Which one of these choices is not a characteristic of managed care?

manages to take care of those only in financial need

The financing of a managed care organization is based on

capitation

Medicare is a government program for the

elderly

: Why is the US health care market considered to be "imperfect"?

prices are determined by health plans rather than the interaction of the forces of supply and demand

True or False: Managed care is the most dominant health care delivery system in the US today

True

What is the main role of the government in the US health delivery system?

To be the major financier of health care delivery through Medicare and Medicaid programs

In a socialized health insurance system, health care is financed through

government-mandated contributions by employers and employees

In a free market, ______ and ______ act independently.

buyers and providers

True or False: The national health care model for Germany, Israel and Japan is the national health system.

False

The social justice emphasizes

the well-being of the community over that of the individual

Medicaid is a government program for the

Poor

Which party does not act as a the key players in the US health services system?

Poor

What is the primary reason for employers to purchase insurance plans to provide health benefits to their employees?

Due to the fact that the U.S. does not have a universal health care system, employers purchase health insurance plans as a fringe benefit for their employees.

True or False: The tax-supported national health care program in a national health insurance system is financed by private providers rather than the government.

False

Over the last decade, the hallmark of the US health care industry has been

organizational integration to form integrated delivery systems or networks

America's safety net is for

the nation's vulnerable populations

True or False: Capitation is a payment mechanism in which all health care services are included under one set fee per covered individual.

True

The military medical care system is _______ to active military personnel of the

Free

Vulnerable populations does not include which of the following poor, uninsured, minority status, insured employees

insured employees

Growth in science and technology

creates demand for new services

The US health care system is based on the social justice principal (True or False)

False

The United States spend more than any other developed country on health care, and costs have

continued to rise

Health care managers are needed to

manage and coordinate various types of health care services

There are no racial and economic disparities in the health care system (true or false)

False

The World Health's Organization's definition of health is

state of physical and mental well-being that facilitates the achievement of individual goals

Illness is different from a disease in that illness

is the person's own perceptions and evaluation of how he or she feels

: One of the purposes of the Healthy People Initiative is to

integrate medical care with preventive services

True or False the system of health care delivery in the US is predominantly private

True

In a social justice system, the equitable distribution of health is

The society's responsibility

Demand-side rationing means the

rationing the quantity and type of health services

Policy interventions use _______ to affect the health of the population

social/public policy

True or False: Under the social justice system, inability to obtain medical services because of a lack of financial resources is considered unjust.

True

An acute condition is not

long
IT IS severe, short, treatable

Community health assessment is a method used for conducting

of broad assessments of populations at the local or state level

True or False: From an economic perspective, curative medicine seems to reproduce decreasing returns in health improvement while health care expenditures increase.

True

An epidemic occurs when

a large number of people get a specific disease

In the United States, the principles of market justice and social justice

complement each other

Which answer is not one of the four major determinants of health? (Environment, Religion, Heredity, Behavior)

Religion

True or False: Quality of life refers to the overall satisfaction with life during and following a person's encounter with the health delivery system

True

What type of health insurance is based on the market justice?

private, employer-based health insurance

Community-based strategies have the particular benefit of

as a whole person

Healthy behavior can be modified through

Edu programs and incentives

True or False: A chronic condition is more severe than an acute condition

False

What is the role of health risk appraisal?

To evaluate risk factors and their health consequences in individuals

The medical model emphasizes

Clinical and medical interventions

True or False: Heredity is a key determinant of health because genetic factors predispose individuals to certain diseases.

True

Morbidity is defined as

disease or disability

Which of the following has been the primary factor that has shielded the U.S. health care system from a major overhaul?

Beliefs and values

Educational reform for training physicians in the Postindustrial era was based on:

European Model

Private health insurance emerged as a result of

economic necessity

Which of the following was not a factor that led the rapid expansion of employer-based health insurance? (The Supreme Court ruled that employee benefits were a legitimate part of union-management negotiations, Employer-provided health coverage became nontaxable, The Congress mandated that employers offer health insurance, OR Employers offered health insurance to compensate for loss of raises in salaries during World War II

The Congress mandated that employers offer health insurance

Medical Malpractice

One of the most clinical present threats to practicing physicians

During the Preindustrial era, medical practice was extremely competitive. What caused this intense competition?

Anyone, untrained or trained, could be a physician

The American Medical Association (AMA) played a dominant role in:

Protecting the interests of physicians

What was one of the main reasons for the failure of national health insurance proposed by President Clinton in 1993?

Americans were unwilling to pay higher taxes for such a program

WHich of the following programs is means tested?

Medi-Care Part B

In 1964, health insurance for the aged and the poor became a top priority for President Johnson's administration. In 1965, Medicare was created as:

a two-part program for the elderly that provides health insurance-regardless of income

Which of the following illustrates corporatization in the American health care delivery system?

Managed Care Organizations

True or False: Because the factors that shape health care delivery are easily identifiable, it is often easy to trace a change to the factor responsible for bringing about the change.

False

Which of these factors has primarily shielded the U.S. health care system from a major overhaul?

Beliefs and Values

True or False: Medical practice in the U.S. emphasizes specialization while basic care is given only secondary importance.

True

Which factor has mainly prevented the expansion health insurance to all Americans?

Cost

Fundamental reforms in the financing and delivery of health care will require

A change in mind set of middle-class Americans

The first medical schools were opened by

physicians

Medical schools in the US were first opened

to supplement physicians' incomes

Why was medical practice characterized by intense competition in the preindustrial era?

Anyone could practice medicine

True or False: In Europe, hospitals had developed much earlier than they did in the United States.

True

True or False: The early health care institutions in the U.S. served mainly a charitable purpose.

True

What was the main purpose of a pesthouse?

Serve as isolation facilities

Organized medicine

Concerted activities of physicians through the American Medical Association

True or False: The AMA was the first organization to support salaried employment of physicians by hospitals.

False

Physicians began to play a dominant role in hospitals mainly because

they could decide where to hospitalize their patients

Health insurance in America was born

during the Great Depression

True or False: Private health insurance began in the form of hospital plans that did not include outpatient services.

True

Which of the following triggered employer-based health insurance as a benefit? (Union-management negotiations, The World War, Wage Freezes, Supreme Court Ruling)

Wage Freezes

What has primarily kept national health insurance from taking roots in America?

The American Public

True or False: Medicaid was created as a public insurance program to cover the elderly

False

Medicare was created as

a two part program for the elderly

True or False: The Medicaid program varies from state to state.

True

Means test

Eligibility is determined by income level

HMOs were initially created to

lower health care costs

What is the latest addition to the Medicare program?

Prescription drug benefit

The health care subdivision of the U.S. economy continues to grow because

immigration continues to rise leading to a growth in population & baby boomers hit retirement age and are receiving Medicare

Which answer does not describe a negative consequence of specialty maldistribution? (a. high volume of intensive, expensive medical services, b. specialist services have less impact in improving overall health status, c. there are access problems by the underserved, d. more predictable hours and higher prestige for specialists)

more predictable hours and higher prestige for speciaists

Studies have shown that Nurse Practitioner services

improve access to primary care & concentrate more time with patients than physicians

A health or hospital administrator does which of the following? (A. helps patients receive medical care but only if they have insurance, B. organize the operational, clinical, and financial outcomes of the entire health system, C. increase health care spending to help make a profit for their hospital, or D. attract specialists, which increases the maldistribution of physicians in rural areas)

organize the operational, clinical, and financial outcomes of the entire health system

A doctor of osteopathic medicine is different from an MD in that they have training in:

preventive and holistic medicine

True or False: Most MDs are specialists and most DOs are in primary care.

True

The allied health professional

constitutes approximately 60% of the U.S. health care work force and complements physicians and nurses in delivering health care

True or False: Most DOs are specialists and most MDs are generalists

False

The health care sector of the US economy continues to grow due to

Aging of the population & growth of the population

The physician's role is to

Evaluate a patients health condition and diagnose abnormalities

A doctor of osteopathy emphasizes

preventive and holistic medicine

Specialists must

Do additional years of advanced residency training in their speciality and seek certification in an sara of medical specialization only

True or False: The differences between primary and specialty care are by the time, focus, and scope of services provided to the patients

True

Why is there an imbalance and maldistribution of physicians?

Geographic maldistribution, speciality maldistribution, and aggregate physician oversupply

Which answer is not a negative consequence of specialty maldistribution? (high volume of intensive, expensive medical services, Specialist services have less impact in improving overall health status, Access Problems by the underserved, OR More predictable hours and higher prestige for specialists)

More predictable hours and higher prestige for specialists

True or False: Physicians are more likely to concentrate in rural and inner-city areas than metropolitan,suburban areas

False

Which answer does not belong to the four main categories of nurses? (Clinical, NP, Technicians, Certified Nurse Midwives)

Technicians

True or False: Advanced Practice Nurses have attained education and training beyond the RN level

True

What are the values of NPP services?

Improve access to primary care & Better communication and interviewing skills than physicians

Allied Health Professionals constitute

60% of US health care workforce

Physical therapists and occupational therapists are considered

technicians and assistants

A health service administrator job is to

organize, coordinate, and mange health care services delivery

True or False: Nonphysician Practitioners practice in many of the areas in which physicians practice and also have an MD or DO degree

False

Maldistribution refers to

a surplus of health providers in a given area & a shortage of health providers in a given area

Specialty care tends to be limited to

disease process, illness episodes, and organ system

To alleviate the maldistribution problem, which of the following has been done?

Financial support for family medicine programs & expansion of nurses' roles

True or False: Pharmacists do not need a state license to dispense medicines prescribed by physicians

False

Which type of doctor encounters the greatest proportion of ambulatory care visits?

General/family practice

Psychologists need _______ to practice

either a psyD or phD

True or False: Health Services administrators can only work if they have a Master of Business Administration

False

Which acts increased federal support of nursing education after WWII?

More than a RN

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was enacted to address which of the following?

Confidentiality of patients' health information

What is meant by the term technological imperative?

using technology despite its cost

In the U.S., competition among providers results in

duplication of services and equipment

Current legislation regarding new drugs in the U.S. requires that

the FDA review the safety and effectiveness of a new drug before it is marketed

Capitalism and lack of government intervention play a major role in the desire to have the state-of-the-art technology. What three qualities are necessary to determine effectiveness of technology regarding patient care?

does it work; is it valuable; is it safe

True or False: In addition to drugs and devices, the FDA also has the authority to review medical and surgical procedures for their safety and effectiveness.

False

True or False: It is accurate to say that high-technology medicine equates to high-quality care.

False

Quality of life is measured by

the patient's overall satisfaction with life

What is the primary benchmark for satety with regard to medical technology?

Benefits must outweigh any negative consequences

Which of the following has not taken central stage in U.S. health care delivery?

incorporation of cost-effectiveness into clinical practice

Medical technology leads to

increased costs of delivering medical care

True or False: Countries that have national health insurance programs end up limiting the use of medical technology.

True

True or False: In a general sense, medical technology can include scientific advances from any branch of science.

True

Which of the following is not included in the broad definition of medical technology?

Training

Privacy of patient information is regulated by the

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

Information technology cannot be used to

access personal information for purposes not related to medical care

True or False: The U.S. develops most new technology, but, on a per capita basis, other advanced nations employ more technology than the United States does.

False

Technological imperative

Use of high technology without regard to its cost

True or False: Specialists use more technology than primary care physicians but only because specialists treat more complex conditions.

False

Which of the following is true about the FDA's role in approving new drugs today?

The FDA recalls drugs only after harm has occurred.

The Orphan Drug Act

provides incentives to develop new drugs for rare conditions

True or False: Accleration of the drug approval process by the FDA has resulted in a higher number of drug recalls due to safety concerns.

True

Sale of new medical devices classified as Class III requires

premarket approval by the FDA

True or False: Medical and surgical procedures are not subject to FDA review and approval.

True

True or False: High-technology medicine results in high-quality care.

False

Quality of life is assessed in terms of

the patient's overall satisfaction with life

True or False: New technology often increases labor costs

True

True or False: Telemedicine is now widely available in rural America

False

Technology assessment

Evaluation

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