Cultural Anthropology final

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Animism

A belief in spirit beings coined by EB Tylor

3 major components of religion

1) beliefs about supernatural powers 2) teachings and traditions that tell us about those powers. 3) rituals intended to influence those powers to benefit the group

Ritual

An organized and stereotyped symbolic behavior intended to influence supernatural powers

Rites of passage

A public ceremony recognizing a person changing group status that often involves pain

Puberty initiation rites

A religious ceremony that symbolically transforms the individual from a child into an adult

Individualistic practices

Religious practices based on personal relationships between specific individuals and supernatural powers

Vision quest

An individual practice in which a person attempts to enlist the aid of supernatural powers by intentionally seeking a dream or vision

Shaman

A part time religious specialist respected only for their talents not their title they have a relationship with the supernatural through altered states of conciousness like trances to help members of society and harm enemies

Communal practice

Religious practices in which the members of a group cooperate in the performance of rituals intended to benefit all

Ancestral rituals

Rituals performed to worship or please ancestors or kin groups

Totemistic rituals

Rituals which members of a kinship group focus on their totem (natural object with which they are associated)

Priests

Respected for their title ( with no title they aren't respected) they r full time religious specialists who officiate rituals

Ecclesiastal practices

Organized religious practices in which a full time priesthood performs rituals to benefit the whole society

Intellectual function of religion

James Frazier said that it provides an explanation for unexplainable events

Psychological function of religion

Malinowski said that people get comfort and help the, cope with misfortunes and death

Societal function of religion

Durkheim religion promotes social order and solidarity

Sorcery

Using spells to cause harm by supernatural means, it's intentional and uses voodoo practices such as using personal objects (hair)

Witchcraft

Use of psychic power to cause harm to others by supernatural means

Mana

A Polynesian term that refers to an impersonal force (luck, being talented)

5 principles of Islam

One ness of god, prayers 5 times a day facing Mecca, fast for month of Ramadan sun up to sun down, share 2.5%of disposable income, pilgrimage to Mecca

Sociatal factors of Islam

Uniformity, conformity, modesty, eye for an eye (avenge yourself)

Universality of religion

Religion is found in some form in envy part of the world

Culture wars

Fight between the cosmpolitans (want change) and the traditionalists ( who don't want change) in every society

Ethnic group

A named social group based on shared ancestry, cultural tradition, and common history that distinguish them from other groups

Nationality

An ethnic group that claims a right to a discrete homeland and to political autonomy and self determination

Sharia law

Women get half the inheritance of a man, and criminal law allows limbs to available off

Globalization

Bad things: terrorism, information isn't safe, and outsourcing causes loss of jobs good things : cheap stuff, everything is available, helps developing nations

World trade organization

Organizes trade in 95%of the world

Global economy

World wide system of buying and selling goods and labor services

Multinational corporations

Owned by stockholders it produces goods on a global scale (mcdees)

Global academic community

Individuals who control, expand and disseminate academica ideas and knowledge globally they are against the global business community that only cares about money not people

Global media

Individuals involved in production of news and entertainment that r marketed to a global audience

Homeland

A geographical region which an ethnic group feels it has exclusive rights to

Civilization

Ethnic cohesion uniting many ethnic nationalities for a shared tradition usually religion

Artifical country

A country whose political boundaries and ethnic compositin established by outside political forces (colonial possession)

Indigenous minorities

Ethnic groups usually foragers, horticulturalists, or pastoralists who occupy their historical homelands they r subordinate to the governments

Global knowledge

Cultural knowledge that's widely disseminated by means of a written language

Local knowledge

Cultural knowledge passed down orally only know by members of local group

Deceleration on the rights of indigenous people

They have the right to self determination and autonomy of self government only Australia and Finland have tried to do this

The largest urban area in the world

Tokyo, migration into urban areas is commo to find jobs but then causes lack of jobs and migrate to farms

Totems

Objects that demonstrate creation usually relates kin group to an animal

Fistula

Complication caused by a small pelvis during delivery causes reproductive organs to tear so they can't control urination

Immigration in western European countries

3.5 million illegal immigrants causing lots of unemployment and the economy to collapse

Pluralistic society

Multiple ethnic groups in an area but many groups are discriminated againsts

Traditional society

One ethnic group (Egypt)

Genocide

Eliminating an entire ethnic group by killing or eliminating cultural necessities

The four ways diseases are caused

Evil eye, witchcraft, mixing hot and cold, and biomedical ideals

Medical anthropologists study these things

Beliefs and values related to wellness, treatment with traditional medicine, psychological and emotional issues, knowledge of plants, and cultural sensitivity

Media

The most effective means of globalization

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