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carbohydrate

biomolecule made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; used to make energy (ATP)
ex) starch, glucose, fructose

lipid

biomolecule that is fat; makes up the cell membrane with phospolipids, stores energy, and protects internal organs
ex) fats, oils, waxes

protein

biomolecule made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; made of amino acids; functions include growth, repair, and metabolic functions
ex) hemoglobin, enzymes

nucleic acids

biomolecule that stores genetic material, carry out daily functions, and make proteins in protein synthesis
ex)DNA, RNA

lysosome

organelle that carries out the digestive processes in a cell

rough ER

has ribosomes; makes proteins

smooth ER

detoxifies and makes lipids - has no attached ribosomes

golgi apparatus

sorts and distributes proteins

ribosomes

where proteins are made

binary fission

cell division the occurs in bacteria
result: 2 identical organisms (clones)

mitosis

cell division in somatic cells of multicelled organisms (nonsex cells) that occurs for growth and development
result: 2 cells with the same # of chromosomes as the parent cell

meiosis

cell division in gametes (sex cells); makes reproductive cells
result: 4 cells with half the # of chromosomes as the parent cell

plasma membrane

cell membrane composed of phospolipid molecules to serve as a boundary; semi-permeable

homeostasis

maintaining a balanced internal enviornment regarless of the external enviorment

passive transport

when substances pass across the membrane without requiring cellular energy
ex) osmosis

osmosis

the diffusion of water across a memebrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration

active transport

when cell enegry is required for substances to pass across the plasma membrane - ATP needed

cellular respiration

the process of transferring stored energy from glucose to energy for the cell (ATP)

cellular respiration formula

C6 H12 06 + 6O2 ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

photosynthesis

the process by which plants make their own food (glucose)

photosynthesis formula

6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight ---> C6 H12 O6 + 6O2

virus

infectious agent that replicates only within the cells of living hosts, mainly bacteria, plants, and animals: composed of an RNA or DNA core, a protein coat, and, in more complex types, a surrounding envelope.

bacteriophage

a virus that attacks bacterial cells

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid; found in the nucleus of cells and contains the hereditary information for making proteins; made up of nucleotides; double helix, double stranded

nucleotide

building blocks of DNA; made up of a sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogen base

DNA replication

must occur before a cell can divide
ex) GATTACACG ---> CTAATGTGC

RNA

ribonucleic acid; three types of RNA that are involved in making proteins; single stranded, sugar ribose, and RNA had Uracil instead of Thymine

mRNA

messanger RNA; a copy of the DNA code

tRNA

transfer RNA; carries the amino acids to the ribosomes to assemble proteins

rRNA

ribosomal RNA; makes up the ribosomes

codon

a sequence of 3 nucleotides of mRNA; codes for an amino acid

protein synthesis

the process by which the cell makes proteins using the DNA code - transcription and translation

transcription

the DNA code is copied to make mRNA; hydrogen bonds between the DNA seperate --> mRNA nucleotides join one side of the DNA strand to make a copy --> mRNA leaves nucleus o take the copied DNA to a ribosome

translation

tRNA brings amino acids to the ribosome to make a protein

genetics

the study of heredity

allele

alternate forms of genes; located on chromosome pairs

phenotype

physical appearance of an organism

genotype

actual gene makeup

homozygous

when both genes are the same

heterozygous

when the two genes are different

punnett square

chart used to predict the possible genotypes and phenotypes of an organism

incomplete dominance

two different genes, when paired, blend together and produce a 3rd phenotype
ex)red flower and white flower produce pink flowers

codominance

both alleles are expressed
ex)a black chicken crossed with a white chicken produces a checkered chicken

sex-linked trait

found on X chromosome, Y chromosome doesnt have a gene for the trait, males only have to inherit 1 recessive gene so they are more likely to have the condition
ex)hemophilia

multiple alleles

traits controlled by more than two alleles in a population
ex)each individual has 2 genes for blood type, bur 3 alleles exist in our population. The type A allele and type B allele are codominant. Type O is recessive. This gives us 4 blood types. (A, AB, B, O)

karyotype

a picture of an organism's chromosomes; shows if an individual has too many or too few chromosomes

nondisjunction

when chromosomes fail to seperate during meiosis and gametes receive extra or missing chromosomes

mutation

a change in the DNA of a cell; only passed to offspring if it occurs in a reproductive cell or gamete - can be beneficial
ex)mistakes in replication, mistakes in transcription, external agents(chemicals,etc.)

evolution

the theory that organisms change over time

homologous structures

structures that are similar and suggest evolution from a common ancestor

vestigal strutures

structures that have little or no function but were probably used by ancestral organisms

natural selection

a scientific theory that explains the process of evolution; states that organisms with favorable traits are more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass those traits on to their offspring

taxonomy

the science of naming and classifying organisms

kingdoms

archaebacteria, eubacteria, protista, fungi, plant, and animal

phyla

smaller groups of the 6 kingdoms: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

scientific name

species name of an organism that includes the genus name followed by the specific name (should be italicized or underlined)

prokaryotic

no nucleus, no membrane-bound organelles, smaller, less complex

eukaryotic

nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, larger, more complex

invertebrates

organisms with no backbone

vertebrate

organisms with a backbone

plant-like protists

algae; produces much of the Earth's oxygen and green algae is said to be the ancestors of plants

animal-like protists

protozoa; classified by how they move: flagella, no movement, and pseudopods

fungus-like protists

slime mold

mollusks

muscular foot for movement and a mantle
ex)snails,squid,etc.

arthropods

have jointed appendages, an exoskeleton, and body segments
ex) insects-flies, ant, grasshopper

echinoderms

move by tiny tube feet, have spiny skin, and live in the ocean
ex) sea star, sea cucumber, etc.

melanin

pigment that gives the skin color and helps protect it from sun damage

appendicualr skeleton

the bones of the arms and legs and the structures associated with them

villi

finger-like projections that absorb nutrients that line the small intestine; the link between the digestive system and the circulatory system

neuron

nerve cell

cerebrum

part of the brain divided in two halves. controls your conscious activites, intelligence, memory, language, muscle movement, and senses
(nervous system)

cerebellum

part of the brain that controls balance, posture, and coordination
(nervous system)

brain stem

part of the brain; made up of the medulla oblongata(controls involuntary activites like breathing and heart rate), pons, and midbrain
(nervous system)

pancreas

secretes insulin which regulates blood sugar levels (endocrine system)

pituitary

gland that secretes growth hormone
(endocrine system)

thyroid

secretes thyroxin which regulates metabolism
(endocrine system)

adrenal glands

produce hormones to prepare body for "fight or flight"
(endocrine system)

testes and ovaries

reproductive hormones
(endocrine system)

red blood cells

contain hemoglobin molecules which carry oxygen (circulatory system)

white blood cells

fight disease
(circulatory system)

platelets

cell fragments that help blood clot (circulatory system)

plasma

liquid part of blood (circulatory system)

arteries

cary blood away from the heart (circulatory system)

veins

carry blood back to the heart (circulatory system)

capillaries

tiny vessels that allow for nutrients and gas exchange (circulatory system)

atria

upper chambers of the heart (circulatory system)

ventricles

lower chambers of the heart (circulatory system)

alveoli

tiny air sacs where gases are exchanged with the bloodstream (respiratory system)

trachea

windpipe (respiratory system)

bronchial tubes

passageway from the trachea to the lungs (respiratory system)

lungs

made up of tiny air sacs calle alveoli (respiratory system)

integumentary system

skin - dermins and epidermis; first line of defense and helps maintain homeostasis

skeletal system

supports the body and protects internal organs, makes red blood cells; bones - axial and appendicular skeleton

muscular system

lines organs and allows for movement of the bones; 3 types: cardiac (heart), smooth (digestive organs), and skeletal (moves bones)

digestive system

breaks down food for nutrients to be absorbed and transported to cells by circulatory system; contains mouth, esophagus, stomach, large and small intestines, and the liver

nervous system

carries messages from the brain throughout the body; made of neurons, central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and peripheral nervous system (carries messages from body to central nervous system)

endocrine system

produces hormones; consists of the pancreas, pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, testes and ovaries

circulatory system

delivers oxygen and nutrients to cells and picks up waste from cells; consists of heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries - blood

respiratory system

takes in oxygen to be transported to the cells by the circulatory system then releases CO2 that the circulatory system brings back; consists of mouth/nose, trachea, bronchiole tubes, and lungs; diaphragm contracts for inhalation

reproductive system

produce gametes and development of offspring; male and female reproductive systems; sperm and ovules

excretory system

filters waste from the blood; kidneys and bladder

lymphatic system

immune system; tonsils, spleen, thymus

nonvascular plants

no vessels, or vascular tissue, for transporting water and nutrients; cant grow very large
ex)mosses

vascular plants

have two main types of vascular tissue: xylem and phloem

xylem

vascular tissue that transports water

phloem

vascular tissie the transports food

abiotic factor

the nonliving parts of an organisms enviornment
ex)air currents, temperature, soil, etc.

biotic factor

the living organisms that inhabit an enviornment

autotroph

organism that makes their own food (producers)

heterotroph

organisms that feed on other organisms

herbivore

heterotroph that eats only plants

omnivore

heterotroph that eats both plants and animals

carnivore

heterotroph that eats other animals

decomposers

organisms that break down and absorb dead and decaying plants and animals

mutualism

symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit

commensalism

symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other is unharmed

parasitism

symbiotic relationship in which one member benefits and the other is harmed

predation

the feeding of one organism on another

carrying capacity

the maximum number of organisms of a species that an ecosystem can support

nitrogen cycle

needed by organisms to make proteins;
bacteria-->plants-->animals-->soil

phosphorous cycle

needed for cell membrane, ATP, DNA and RNA; plants--> animals-->soil

water cycle

all living things need water to survive; evaporation-->condensation-->precipitation

carbon-oxygen cycle

need carbon and oxygen for photosynthesis, cellular respiration, and life; living things take in carbon and oxygen;when the die, it is returned to the soil

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